Sustainable energy

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Global Community Assessment Centre ( GCAC )
GCAC is about the restoration of the planet, our home and our Global Community.
for discussion and joint action
on issues of local and global concerns.
GCAC offers services to the Global Community.

This section was originally part of a complete report on the measurement of world sustainable development.
1.     Introduction
2.     GCAC Objectives
3.     Theory, measurement, valuation and management of Sustainable Development and the Scale of Values and measurement of the Gross Environmental Sustainable Development Index (GESDI)
3.5.14    Energy Auditing of the Home
A.   Conducting an Energy Audit
B.   Energy efficiency and energy conservation in the home
B.1    Lighting
B.2    Cooking
B.3   Electric Range
B.4   The freezer
B.5   The refrigerator
B.6   The clothes washing machine
B.8   The dishwasher
B.9   The furnace
B.10   The hot water tank
B.11    Heating the home
B.12   The air conditioning
B.13  Garburator
B.14    Other energy conservation practices
Section 3.5.14   Assessment Scoring

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3.5.14   Energy Auditing and Management of the Home

Energy efficiency of a home is dependent and will be limited by the interaction of four elements: people, equipment, available resources and home environment. Energy efficiency is dependent on the performance of the weakest elements of this interaction.

You save money by using less electricity and you save the environment too as 90% of the electricity generated in Alberta, Canada, comes from coal. Using less electricity has the effect of producing fewer emissions and less mining and, therefore, decreasing the need to build more power plants which in turn has the effect of keeping the future cost of electricity down. Building less power plants (or using less electricity) rates as a positive aspects on our assessment of environmental impacts.

An Energy Auditing of your home will help you recognize where and how energy is being used in your home and identify saving opportunities; establish an effective energy management program and control energy consumption; start energy conservation measures and save on your energy costs.

One approach in applying a sound behavior towards energy is to consider the interaction of four elements: people, equipment, available resources, and the home environment. This means energy efficiency of a home is dependent and will be limited by the performance of its weakest element. The excess capacity of any of the elements beyond that of the weakest element is wasted capacity. The most cost-effective way to improve performance is to identify and improve the weakest element. Most often when energy efficiency drops the weak element is people. Either energy conservation has not been made a priority or members of the household are not aware, concerned and motivated about energy conservation.

For energy efficiency to be successful there must be support of all household members, realistic goals, designated responsibility, account of all household meters, auditing energy use, establishing priorities, developing the program and evaluation and monitoring.

An energy audit provides information about how to identify energy use, reorganize sources of energy loss, reduce energy consumption and save both energy and dollars. To control our energy consumption means to conserve our energy resources and can also contribute to substantial dollars savings in the home.

A.    Conducting an Energy Audit requires information on:

*    electric power costs; consumption  readings for the past 12 months (as obtained from your utility bills);
*    natural gas costs; amount purchased monthly;
*    home design and design features; location of windows and doors, and type of materials and design; levels of insulation; temperature settings during occupied and unoccupied hours;
*    lighting information; total wattage and hours of use; type of lights;
*    heating and cooling processes; appliances used; other equipment used; and
*    ventilation.

Collecting data and conducting a walkthrough audit is followed by a cost-benefit analysis to determine whether changes are worthwhile. Substantial dollar savings can be made from small changes in the home. Energy wasting practices and inefficiencies can be eliminated with little capital investment. Analyzing your electrical usage can help you control both energy use and peak demand and therefore will help you save energy dollars.

Your energy meter registers consumption. Consumption is the amount of electrical energy used during each billing period and is measured in kilowatt hour (kW.h). In addition to paying for the amount of electrical energy consumed the homeowner also pays a charge based on the maximum or 'peak' load, which you are paying so as to allow the electric utility to maintain the capacity to supply the maximum power you may need based on your highest requirement.

An energy audit is a systematic energy analysis of the house which identifies where energy is being used and how it can be used more efficiently. Energy auditors visit the site and collect all relevant technical data through observations and interviews. It is intended to provide general suggestions on ways to save energy in the house. Energy efficiency measures are suggested to the homeowner.

An Energy Audit will provide to the homeowner:

    *    Using energy balance calculations (which make use of  the average cost of natural gas and electricity);
    *    Electricity kW.h savings calculations for all electrical energy efficiency measures; and
    *    All present energy use and potential savings calculations must have dollars, kW.h or GJ.

The energy audit report includes total annual energy costs and consumption, potential kw.h and dollar savings, separate dollar savings listed for temperature setback and weatherstripping, building skin insualtion, ventilation natural gas savings, ventilation electric motor savings, lighting, electric motors, pipe insulation, water heater insulation, hot water use, fuel consumption, etc.

____1.    Is electrical equipment turned off when not needed (additional switches, timers or sensors may be added for better control)?
____2.    Do you use power during off-peak times; equipment can be scheduled to shut off at varying times so energy-consuming equipment such as fans are not running unnecesary; peak hours are from 5 to 7 pm)?
____3.    Are all appliances maintained in a clean condition so that power consumption is minimized?
____4.    Is your electrical metering and billing correct (cross-checking information on the electrical bill with your electric meter)?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.    Energy efficiency and energy conservation in the home

The prodution and use of energy affects the environment. Burning coal, oil and natural gas release emissions into the air that are believed to be changing the earth's atmosphere: CO2, NOx, SOx, CH4, CFC's and VOCs. Using energy efficiently plays an important role in our lives. Energy efficiency has economic and environmental benefits. Using less energy saves money. Environmental benefits include a decrease in fossil fuel pollttants. Energy conservation achieved through efficiencies and demand reduction can cut emissions significantly. With increased awareness about energy and for importance of using energy efficiently individuals will be able to make informed decisions about their own lifestyles.

There are many ways to reduce energy use and its impact on the environment. Reductions are simple to achieve and they apply throughout your house or your apartment. Energy use at home can be reduced without discomfort or major expenses. In fact, most expenses are recovered through savings in fuel bills and in a very short period of time. A typical homeowner  (parts of this also apply to people living in apartments) could reduce its gas, electricity and water bills by thousands of dollars with only a small input of time  and money. Besides giving you long-term financial benefits, reducing heat loss and being more energy-efficient, makes your house more comfortable to live in. By eliminating drafts and cold areas, you may also increase your home's resale value. A homeowner can reduce the use of energy in four basic ways by:

    *    ensuring that mechanical and electrical equipment is operated properly;
    *    ensuring that appropriate maintenance procedures are carried out on a regular schedule;
    *    upgrading the house envelope with additionalinsulation, recaulking, and weather stripping of windows and doors; and
    *    adapting or replacing inefficient equipment.

Appliances and lighting can consume 25% of the total energy used in the home. By avoiding models and products that waste energy, and by choosing efficient alternatives, you can save yourself thousands of dollars in energy costs. Other benefits are specific to particular appliances. For example, energy-efficient dishwashers use less hot water which means there will be more water left in the tank for other uses. The energy saving features on a dryer can actually prolong the life of your clothes, and certain energy-efficient features available on your kitchen range will improve its cooking performance.

The price tag of our lifestyle is not just what we pay at the cash register but also there are two more costs that must be added: the costs of maintaining and using what we got, and the associated environmental price tag, i.e. the impacts on the environment and our health.

Price Tag        =        Price of the item        +        Price of using item through its lifetime and maintaining it            +            The associated price tag on the environment and our health

This Price Tag applies to every appliance and lighting you buy in the store.

Heat loss occurs from all parts of the house structure, including walls, roofs, floors, windows and doors. The rate at which heat is lost  is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the heated air inside  the house and the temperature of the unheated air outside. The larger the temperature difference the larger the rate of heat loss. Reducing this difference will save on heating costs.

Energy conservation in the form of home insulation is one of the best investments that a homeowner can make, paying large dividends immediately in the form of decreased heating costs. Your initial cost will be recovered in a few years.

B.1    Lighting

Reducing the waste of lighting energy is the key to lower electric bills. Lighting energy is wasted by using a lamp or a fixture which converts electricity to light using more watts than necessary to produce the lumens; by transmission losses for when the light source is too far away from the place to be illuminated, or there is an obstruction blocking off the light; by overlighting, which is happening when natural substitutes (daylight, light color paint, etc.) are neglected, or when you use lights for no reason.

It is easy to save electrical energy dollars, as much as 50%, is commonplace.

Lamp efficiency is measured in limens per watt. A lumen is a unit which measures the amount of light. The lamp giving off the most lumens per watt is the most efficient lamp. The incandescent lamp is the most common type of lighting in homes and is also the most energy inefficient of the many lamps available. The pressure sodium lighting is very energy efficient but produce a very pronounced yellow light, which makes it suitable to use outdoors for security lighting. Compact fluorescent bulbs use about one-quarter of the energy of incandscent bulbs and last about 10 times longer, and provide the same light at less than half the cost. Energy-saving versions of fluorescent tubes are much more efficient and last longer than incandescent bulbs and they produce less heat which makes them ideal to use near drapes.

Lighting typically accounts for less than 10% of your monthly electric bill. If you replace a 60 watt incandescent bulb that is on for 10 hours a week with a 15 watt compact fluorescent, you will save about 25 kW.h a year, or about $2.00

____1.    Do you turn off lights when not in use?
____2.    Do you reduce wattage on bulbs to the minimum required to do the job?
____3.    Are you using compact fluorescent bulbs?
____4.    Do you make light shine on the work area, on your desk or kitchen counter rather than lighting the whole room?
____5.    Do you use twin-tube 48-inch, 40 watt fluorescent fixtures (they produce up to 4 times more light than one 100 watt incandescent bulb and last 10 times longer)?
____6.    Do you use new energy-saving 90 watt bulbs instead of a 100 watt incandescent bulbs (over its 1000 hours lifetime, a single 100 watt bulb will consume 100 kW.h of energy, costing $6. But the new 90 watt bulb will use on 90 kW.h of energy, worth $5.40, and if used 4 hours/day, will cost 64.8 cents/month)?
____7.    Do you use dimmer switches (they create many moods and at the same time save energy and extend bulb life)?
____8.    Do you have a motion activated control device?
____9.    Do you have high-low switches?
____10.    Do you choose efficient lighting fixtures with high efficiency reflectors and diffusers for outdoor lighting ( a 250 watt high pressure sodium lamp produces the same amount of light as a 1000 watt incandescent bulb at one-third the cost and lasts 10 to 20 times as long)?
____11.    Do you keep ceiling and wall finishes light in color to reflect as much light as possible?
____12.    Do you use lower-wattage bulbs in places like hallways, basement, closets, or wherever lighting levels are not required for close work?
____13.    Do you use low-wattage night lights to plug into the wall outlet (it will provide enough light to soothe a child's fears and allow anyone else to move around the house safely; they consume less than one-tenth as much energy as a 60-watt bulb)?
____14.    Do you use high or low pressure sodium lights in wall-mount fixtures as outdoor security and area lights (a 50-watt high pressure sodium light is as bright as two 100-watt incandescent bulbs and costs about one-third as much to operate; a low pressure sodium light offers even more savings; a 35-watt low pressure sodium light is almost as bright as three 100-watt incandescent bulbs and costs only about one-quarter as much to operate; both high and low pressure sodium sodium lights last as much as  25 times longer than incandescent bulbs)?
____15.    Do you use low-voltage landscape lights to light up your yard (a low voltage lighting with a set of six lights uses less electricity than a single 75-watt bulb)?
____16.    Do you use occupancy sensors which are designed to detect movement (they reduce your lighting bill between 20 and 60 per cent by making sure that light are on only when they need to be; they turn lights on when you enter the room and turn them off after yoou have left)?
____17.    Do you use motion sensors coupled with spotlights or halogen lights to provide energy-efficient security around your home?
____18.    Do you use photoelectric cells on your lights outside (walkways, driveway, etc.; they automatically turn lights on at dusk and off at dawn)?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.2    Cooking

More than 50 percent of most household electrical energy dollars are used to operate kitchen appliances. Make sure you use the appliance or cooking mehtod that consumes the least energy and produces the best meals.

In a microwave oven almost all the energy is absorbed by the food as opposed to warming the air around the food in an electric oven. A microwave oven is therefore one of the most efficient cookers which uses less than half the energy of a conventional oven and takes one-third of the time to cook the food. It saves money, preserve the nutrients in the food, and the kitchen stays cool. It is more efficient to boil a cup of water in the microvave oven than to use an electric kettle.

An electric frying pan consumes less energy than using a conventional oven for the same job (heat a casserole, bake potatoes, etc.). Toaster/broiler ovens use one-third as much electricity as a conventional oven and can handle jobs such as reheating food, baking potatoes, cakes, muffins and cookies, and cook small casseroles.

____1.    Do you use a steamer to cook vegetables?
____2.    Do you use a pressure cooker to cook casseroles, vegetables, etc.?
____3.    Do you defrost food in the refrigerator rather than in the microwave oven?
____4.    Do you have a convection feature in the oven or microwave?
____5.    Do you shut off the oven a few minutes before the food is completely cooked?
____6.    When using the oven do you cook a number of dishes at once?
____7.    Do you use only the amount of water you need in the kettle every time you boil water?
____8.    Do you avoid using electrical gadgets such as can openers, knives and coffee grinders?
____9.    Do you make sure to preheat the oven only when really necessary (a conventional oven will use 0.5 kW.h energy to preheat for a period of 10 minutes, that is more than half the energy used for the cooking  time; most preheating is unnecessary)?
____10.    Do you peek (each time you open the oven door you consume a quarter to half a kW.h of energy as the heat rushes out; oven temperature can drop as much as 24 Celsius if door is opened)?
____11.    Do you use an electric frying pan for cooking?
____12.    Do you cook using a microwave oven whenever possible (a microwave oven rated at 650 watts has an operating cost of about 3.9 cents per hour)?
____13.    Do you allow space around the microwave oven for proper ventilation?
____14.    Do you make sure never to operate your microwave oven for proper ventilation?
____15.    Do you clean the microwave oven with a damp cloth (never use spray-on or abrasive cleaners)?
____16.    Do you avoid using the oven to cook a single dish (cook double quantities and freeze a portion)?
____17.    Do you use pots and pans that are the same size or larger than the element you are cooking on?
____18.    Do you place pots and pans on the elements before turning on the heat?
____19.    Do you use a small amount of water for boiling vegetables (too much water not only wastes time and energy but results in the loss of nutrients)?
____20.    Do you use a double boiler for cooking vegetables or use a steamer (both are fine)?
____21.    Do you reduce frequency of cleaning your oven by using baking dishcharge enough to prevent spillovers?
____22.    Do you use portable appliances such as frying pans, kettles,and toasters because they are more efficient?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.3        Electric Range

The electric range is one of the most often used appliances in a home and it involves a substantial investment of money. Special care must be made in buying it. Look for the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) symbol indicating the appliance has been tested and approved by the CSA for electrical safety.

____1.    Do you make sure not to use the large stovetop element eventhough you really need to use the small one (the large stovetop element costs about 14.4 cents per hour, 2.4 kW.h, to operate and the small one about 7.8 cents per hour, 1.3 kW.h)?
____2.    Do you employ self-clean cycle immediately after using oven (it takes less time to reach cleaning temperature)?
____3.    Do you turn oven and surface elements off several minutes before removing pots or pans (food will continue to cook as temperature is reduced)?
____4.    Do you cover pots and pans to prevent unnecessary heat loss?
____5.    Do you use a self-cleaning oven (a self-cleaning oven requires about 5.9 kW.h to do its cleaning job, costing 35.4 cents but is also better insulated then a regular oven so its normal operating cost is about 4.8 cents an hour compared with 6 cents an hour for a standard oven)?
____6.    Do you make sure not to line drip pans or oven cavity with foil (foil interferes with heat circulation and can damage heating elements and the oven lining)?
____7.    Do you clean heating elements by burning off any spilled food and brushing off any spilled food and brushing with a soft brush (never scrape or use water to clean)?
____8.    Do you make sure not to use the oven to heat the kitchen?
____9.    Do you check the accuracy of the oven thermostat regularly with an oven thermometer?
____10.    Is your range hood (consisting of a hood shell, power fan, filter and a light) mounted 70 to 78 cm above the cooking surface, and does it extend to cover the front elements of the range?
____11.    Does the capacity (how quick stale air is removed) of the fan about 400 CFM ?
____12.    Do you keep the oven clean for greater efficiency and accuracy?
____13.     Do you make sure the oven door seals tightly?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.4        The freezer

____1.    Is the freezer located away from sunlight or heat sources such as range, dishwasher, laundry equipment, or furnace?
____2.    Is there proper air circulation around the freezer to ensure efficient operation?
____3.    Do you clean coils regularly to remove dirt and dust which traps heat and acts like an insulator?
____4.    Do you keep the freezer  at least two-third full (the more frozen items in the freezer, the less it costs to operate)?
____5.    Do you defrost the freezer when frost reaches a thickness of 0.5 cm (frost accumulation acts as an insulation and reduces efficiency)?
____6.    Do you wash the rubber seal around the door with a mild detergent and warm water?
____7.    Do you operate the freezer at -18 C for optimum results?
____8.    Do you try to reduce frequency of opening the freezer door?
____9.    Do you sometimes checl seal of the door ( a method for checking seal is to place a 150 watt outdoor flood lamp in the freezer compartment; the lighting in the room should be dimmed; close the door; check the light)?
____10.    When buying do you remember that a chest freezer is more efficient to operate than an upright one because cold air settles to the bottom?
____11.    Do you organize food with baskets and dividers (this reduces the length of time the lid is open while locating packages)?
____12.    Do you place the freezer on level ground in dry cool well ventilated area for most efficient operation?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.5        The refrigerator

____1.    Do you use a manual defrosting unit (an average two-door, 12 cubic foot, manually defrosting refrigerator consume about 100 kW.h/month, costing $6.00; a similar frost-free unit consumes 174 kw.h/month and costs $10.44)?
____2.    Do you try to reduce the number of times you open and close the door?
____3.    Is the unit install away from heat sources such as the range or direct sunlight?
____4.    Is there enough space for a free flow of air around the unit?
____5.    Is there enough air circulation inside the refrigerator for more efficient cooling (do not completely fill it)?
____6.    Do you drain and clean the evaporation basin?
____7.    Do you maintain the temperature inside at:
                        *    T    =    3 C (38 F) in food compartment
                        *    T    =    -18 C (0 F) in the freezer compartment
____8.    Do you clean the cooling coils and fins at the back and underneath the fridge once a month (dust creates unwanted insulation that keeps heat inside)?
____9.    Do you wash interior of refrigerator and freezer sections with a warm baking soda/water solution?
____10.    Do you check the seal of the door using a 150 watt flood lamp as explain in the freezer section above?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.6        The clothes washing machine

____1.    Do you use full loads in your washing machine (it costs about 1.2 cents, 0.2 kW.h, to wash a full load of clothing, and 14.4 cents, 2.4 kW.h, to dry the same load)?
____2.    Do you use warm wash-cold rinse or cold-cold for the laundry?
____3.    If not self-cleaning, do you clean the lint filter after each use?
____4.    Do you remove and clean the agitator once a month as indicated by the manufacturer?
____5.    Do you clean the filter of both water inlets on the back of the machine (should be cleaned once a year)?
____6.    Do you select minimum wash time (match time to size of load and degree of dirt on clothes; only very soiled clothes need maximum washing time)?
____7.    Do you pre-soak heavily soiled garments before washing to shorten wash time?
____8.    Do you avoid peak hours (from 5:00 to 7:00 pm)?
Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.8    The dishwasher

____1.    If your dishwasher does not have an energy-saver feature, do you turn it off at the end of the rinse cycle and open the door to let the dishes air dry (a normal cycle uses about 1.6 kW.h, costing 10.4 cents; cutting out the drying and using full loads, that is reduced to just 0.4 kW.h and costs 2.6 cents; in a month, using the dishwasher once a day, you would save 36 kW.h of energy and $2.34  in operating costs, and the cost of the water)?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

____2.    Do you set your automatic dishwasher at temperatures of 60 C (40 F) and let dishes air dry to save more energy?

B.9    The furnace

A combustion-efficient furnace can save a homeowner money while maintaining comfortable living and working conditions. In Alberta, most furnaces burn natural gas. The energy audit program can show you the potential for at least 10 percent for natural gas savings through improving combustion efficiency. In many cases savings are achieved through maintenance measures such as replacing or cleaning filters regularly, adjusting or replacing fan belts, or lubricating motors and fan bearings. More complex servicing are done by specialists: removing and cleaning heat exchangers, and adjusting the pilot flame. Improving combustion efficiency can be done by cleaning burners and adjusting fan speed to achieve manufacturer's specified air temperature rise, adjusting primary air shtters for proper air/fuel mixture, and cleaning the blower and fan blades.

____1.    Have you converted the fan on your furnace so that it operates only when the furnace is on (a continuously  operating fan consumes an average of 182 kW.h/month, costing $10.92; a model which operates only when the furnace is actually on consumes just 66 kW.h/month, costing $3.96)?
____2.    Do you lubricate the furnace fan motor and check the belt twice yearly?
____3.    Is the furnace pilot turned off during warmer summer months?
____4.    Do you vacuum clean or replace the filter every month?
____5.    Have you replaced the nozzle of the combustion chamber with a smaller one (the oil is sprayed into the combustion chamber through a nozzle; the smaller the nozzle the less fuel is used)?
Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.10        The hot water tank

____1.    Have you insulated your hot water tank (an electric hot water tank uses 120 kW.h of power per month and costs $7.20; an insulated blanket could reduce heat loss by 80% representing a saving of 350 to 500 kW.h and $21. to $30./year)?
____2.    Have you insulated at least the first two meters of all hot water pipes where they leave the hot water tank (do not insulate the plastic pipe as they soften)?
____3.    Do you turn the thermostat on the hot water heater down to 49 C (this will ensure that bacteria will not grow in the tank, lessens the risk of family members scalding themselves, and reduce the energy drain)?
____4.    Is water drained from the hot water tank twice a year to remove sediment build-up?
____5.    Do you call a specialist to do a maintenance check once a year?
____6.    Have you insulated your tank with 90 mm (3.5 inches) of fibreglass (keep controls, junction boxes and the top of the tank clear in gas heaters, and the control panel free from obstruction in electric heaters)?
____7.    Has the tank been installed with a U-shaped heat trap and has the first meter of pipe been insulated to keep the hot water in the tank?
Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.11         Heating the home

____1.    Do you have deciduous or broad leaf trees to provide shade in the summer and let winter sun shine through?
____2.    Do you shade, curtains, or other method, in the summer time, to block the sun from entering the house and thus reducing the heat?
____3.    Would you upgrade home insulation and turn down the thermostat rather than to install a new furnace to save money in the short-term?
____4.    Do you have your heating system cleaned and tunes every year?
____5.    Are the hot air registers in rooms kept from furniture and drapes which may block air flow?
____6.    If your home has a vestibule-type entry, do you open only one door at a time in cool weather to prevent the cold air from rushing into the house?
____7.    Do you remember to close window coverings at night and open south facing curtains during the day in winter?
____8.    If you only use your garage for the car and/or storage, do you leave it unheated?
____9.    Do you use a thermostat with a special timer to allow you to wake up to warm temperatures in the morning, decrease the temperature after you have left for work or school, and warm the house again for your return in the evening?
____10.    Do you turn down the heat at night in winter, and when you will be away for the day (turn your furnace thermostat down from 22 C to 20 C during the day and 17 C at night so as much as 15% of your energy bill is saved; turning the heat down when everyone leaves in the morning will save even more)?
____11.    Do you use draft-proofing windows and doors to reduce heat loss by up to 20% and to prevent cooling in summer?
____12.    Do you clean and maintain the heating system regularly by:
            *    adjusting and replacing belts and pulleys as required;
            *    cleaning the surface of heat exchangers;
            *    changing filters and cleaning air distribution system regularly;
            *    conducting a combustion efficiency test annually to adjust air/fuel ratios and measuring temperatures;
            *    lubricating bearings and motors; and
            *    or have a service person do all of the above for you?
____13.    Do you close damper valve when fireplace is not in use to prevent heat from escaping up the chimney?
____14.    Do you close door to attic, garage, basement and other rooms not in use so as to reduce heat loss?
____15.    Do you set thermostat at the temperature required and avoid constant changes of thermostat setting?
____16.    In the Fall, do you remove the cover of your thermostat and dust it delicately with a soft brush?
____17.    Do you check the accuracy of the set points on your thermostat with a thermometer?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.12        The air conditioning

____1.    Did you seek professional help to determine correct size for your needs (make sure it has a high 'energy efficiency ratio'; this means the unit has more cooling power for the amount of electricity)?
____2.    Do you turn off unused lights and minimize use of heat producing appliances when air conditioning unit is on?
____3.    Do you vent hot air in the attic to the outdoors by installing a small fan?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.13        Garburator

____1.    Do you use cold water when using the garbage disposal (this saves using hot water and prevents fat or grease from melting and clogging the drain; clean by filling the kitchen sink with cold water and running the disposal, and do not use cleansers)?
____2.    Do you put one or two drops of oil in the lubrication openings?
____3.    Do you make sure not to force garbage into the garbage disposal?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.14        Other energy conservation practices

____1.    Do you write to encourage manufacturers to make energy efficiency a priority for their plant and office operations as well as for the appliances, cars, or electrical products they manufacture?
____2.    Do you timers to turn the power on and off to appliances, lights, and electric equipment at a predermined time (they cut down on your electricity bill; they can be used to control your furnace thermostat, air conditioner, and kitchen, bathroom and attic fans; they regulate outdoor lighting, car block heater, battery chargers; etc.)?
____3.    Do you turn off the lights, TV set, stereo and radio when you leave a room?
____4.    Do you clean the kettle regularly with vinegar and water (it takes longer to boil when hard water deposits coat the element)?
____5.    Do you take care not to leave the iron 'on' when it is not in use?
____6.    Do you plan to do all your ironing at once (try not to heat up the iron for only one garment)?
____7.    Do you begin by ironing the clothes which need the lowest temperature?
____8.    Do you check and replace belt and brushes of your vacuum cleaners as soon as they are worn out, and clean filter to permit good air flow?
____9.    Do you replace or empty your vacuum cleaner bag frequently (the vacuum cleaner will operate better)?
____10.    Do you use floor, table and ceiling energy-efficient fans to keep you cool in summer (they can make you feel 2 - 4 C cooler, and reduce the stuffy feeling from a close-up house; their operating costs are from half-a-cent to one-and-a-half cents per hour which is much cheaper than the cost of over seven cents an hour to run a room air conditioner and  about fifteen cents an hour to operate a central air conditioner)?

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5


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Section 3.5.14   Assessment Scoring

Section Assessment Scoring
Energy Auditing and Management of the Home

I(normalized) =  0.250

In this assessment, the values used for I(normalized) are the same as those obtained and described in section 2.3 The Mathematical Model. The two tables in The Scale of Values obtained from the survey, guess-estimated and standard give all normalized values in their last columns. Although most values were not given here, they were obtained a few years ago by evaluating each impact as shown in section 2.3 under Impact equation example: Forestry. It is obvious now that one has to keep updating these impact equation calculations every year as the world is changing very fast. Their calculations are a very powerful educational tool and should be used in school to educate students in thinking globally and in terms of interactions and their multidimensional effects within themselves and on all four major interacting quality systems. To become responsible in sustaining Earth has to start at early stage in someone's life and calculating impact equations would be one of their first steps.

  Energy Auditing and Management of the Home

A.   Conducting an Energy Audit

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

B.   Energy efficiency and energy conservation in the home
B.1    Lighting
B.2    Cooking
B.3   Electric Range
B.4   The freezer
B.5   The refrigerator
B.6   The clothes washing machine
B.8   The dishwasher
B.9   The furnace
B.10   The hot water tank
B.11    Heating the home
B.12   The air conditioning
B.13  Garburator
B.14    Other energy conservation practices

Sub-section %    =    Total number of points for the subsection     x     100%
                           Total number of questions for the sub-section               5

Section Rating        =        Sub-section % total        x        0.250

                                     =       GESDI     for this section

This value of GESDI is then added to the values in the other sections of this assessment report. The total value for GESDI is the GESDI for the home and the community it belongs to.

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