Newsletter Volume 1 Issue 6, June 2004
Earth Community Organization (ECO)
the Global Community
Climate change prelude
Table of Contents
1.0 Leaders, issues and articles concerned with above theme Read
The following articles were copied from issues 1, 25, 26, 28, 30, 32, 36, and 47 listed on the website.
1. Protection of the global life-support systems.
What is climate change? What has caused the climate to change?
1. The variation in the radiation balance of the Earth;
2. Greenhouse gas concentrations;
3. The hydrological cycle of precipitation;
4. The melting of glaciers and the Greenland ice cap;
6. Land use conversion;
7. The ice and snow fields;
8. Contamination of the atmosphere;
9. Absorption of heat by the oceans;
10. Changes in the ecosystems of the Earth and in biodiversity;
11. Urban growth;
12. Volcanic activities; and
13. Photosynthesis in terrestrial and ocean systems.
1. Natural factors such as the solar radiation variability and volcanic activities.
2. Human activities such as deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions.
* burning of fossil fuels and deforestation leading to higher carbon dioxide concentrations,
* cattle farming and pipeline losses leading to higher methane concentrations,
* the use of CFCs in refrigeration and fire suppression systems.
1.The trapping of heat by greenhouse gases (greenhouse effect)
2.Variation in the output of the sun (solar variation)
3.Reflectivity of the earth's surface (see deforestation)
The greatest threat to all life on Earth is a trace element.
* agriculture and forestry 5 %
* waste 8 %
* oil and gas industry 14 %
* electricity 4 %
* transportation 39 %
* residential 7 %
* commercial 5 %
* other industry 18 %
|a. Stationary Combustion Sources||19,000||17,700||16,400||17,900||17,900||20,000||21,500||19,100||19,500||21,500||22,300||21,500|
|Electricity and Heat Generation||1,170||1,040||1,270||2,340||2,180||2,700||768||1,190||1,870||1,520||2,690||3,260|
|Fossil Fuel Industries||3,890||3,130||1,950||1,060||1,970||2,770||4,790||3,010||3,670||5,200||3,800||3,060|
|Commercial & Institutional||2,820||3,070||3,180||3,560||3,290||3,360||3,400||3,290||2,880||2,960||3,390||3,040|
|Agriculture & Forestry||323||375||374||374||205||155||191||270||253||263||315||357|
|b. Transportation Combustion Sources||19,800||20,300||20,700||21,000||22,400||23,900||24,500||25,400||25,800||26,100||26,300||25,600|
|Light Duty Gasoline Trucks||2,770||2,980||3,220||3,490||3,780||3,990||4,140||4,560||4,860||5,140||5,180||5,300|
|Heavy Duty Gasoline Vehicles||355||412||481||558||640||706||708||667||827||623||596||532|
|Light Duty Diesel Trucks||79||60||49||43||40||37||34||41||39||26||60||64|
|Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles||2,920||2,840||2,890||3,020||3,300||3,530||3,710||3,850||3,750||3,950||4,060||4,170|
|Propane & Natural Gas Vehicles||782.0||769.0||582.0||491.0||622.0||571.0||407.0||403.0||482.0||313.0||331.0||325.0|
|c. Fugitive Sources||3,460||3,600||3,840||4,100||4,820||5,430||5,770||5,840||5,930||5,880||6,080||6,810|
|Oil and Natural Gas||2,970||3,120||3,480||3,630||4,300||4,860||5,140||5,180||5,380||5,390||5,600||6,290|
|a. Mineral Production||843||781||668||947||1,020||1,060||1,070||1,120||1,080||1,050||1,200||1,190|
|b. Chemical Industry2||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Nitric Acid Production||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Adipic Acid Production||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|c. Metal Production||1,290||1,290||1,310||1,320||1,270||1,140||1,150||1,150||1,170||1,210||1,200||1,080|
|Iron and Steel Production||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|SF6 used in Magnesium Smelters||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|d. Consumption of Halocarbons1||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|e. Other & Undifferentiated Production2||711||758||574||944||1,100||1,150||662||714||534||685||883||381|
|SOLVENT & OTHER PRODUCT USE||50||51||52||54||56||57||59||60||60||61||61||62|
|a. Enteric Fermentation||909.0||926.0||949.0||942.0||1,010.0||1,050.0||1,050.0||1,020.0||979.0||976.0||960.0||1,000.0|
|b. Manure Management||467.0||472.0||476.0||487.0||527.0||546.0||554.0||554.0||556.0||563.0||571.0||591.0|
|c. Agriculture Soils||1,200.0||1,090.0||1,130.0||1,180.0||1,200.0||1,180.0||1,230.0||1,260.0||1,050.0||1,150.0||1,090.0||1,190.0|
|LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY (non-CO2 only)3||1,590.0||1,850.0||1,420.0||1,250.0||518.0||205.0||453.0||444.0||443.0||443.0||495.0||492.0|
|Wildfires in the Wood Production Forest||191.0||40.8||62.4||5.0||75.2||97.5||9.7||1.0||-||-||52.1||48.6|
|a. Solid Waste Disposal on Land||3,390.0||3,660.0||3,780.0||3,800.0||3,890.0||4,010.0||4,330.0||4,420.0||4,500.0||4,650.0||4,730.0||4,810.0|
|b. Wastewater Handling||185.0||189.0||195.0||200.0||207.0||212.0||218.0||222.0||224.0||226.0||228.0||230.0|
|c. Waste Incineration||66.7||68.4||70.4||72.4||74.6||76.7||78.7||80.3||81.1||81.7||82.4||83.0|
3 CO2 emissions and removals in the LUCF sector are not included in the national totals. Non CO2 emission from fires located in the National Parks are not included in the provincial/territorial totals but are reported in the national totals.
|a. Stationary Combustion Sources||282,000||276,000||287,000||281,000||287,000||294,000||302,000||307,000||313,000||326,000||348,000||342,000|
|Electricity and Heat Generation||95,300||96,700||103,000||93,800||96,000||101,000||99,700||111,000||124,000||125,000||136,000||137,000|
|Fossil Fuel Industries||51,500||49,500||52,100||52,600||53,400||54,700||55,300||51,000||56,500||65,400||66,900||67,300|
|Fossil Fuel Production||25,400||23,700||25,000||24,600||26,200||26,300||26,600||24,100||29,600||38,100||39,100||38,200|
|Iron and Steel||6,490||6,450||6,720||6,660||7,470||7,040||7,330||7,300||7,000||7,280||7,190||5,890|
|Non Ferrous Metals||3,230||2,610||2,830||2,730||3,310||3,110||3,500||3,180||3,410||3,260||3,190||3,500|
|Pulp and Paper||13,500||12,800||12,100||12,000||11,800||11,500||12,000||11,800||11,000||11,000||10,800||9,630|
|Commercial & Institutional||25,800||26,500||27,000||28,100||27,400||29,000||29,600||30,000||27,200||28,900||33,200||32,900|
|Agriculture & Forestry||2,420||2,760||3,270||3,060||2,560||2,790||2,950||2,940||2,610||2,690||2,570||2,210|
|b. Transportation Combustion Sources||153,000||148,000||152,000||156,000||164,000||169,000||173,000||180,000||184,000||189,000||190,000||187,000|
|Light Duty Gasoline Trucks||21,800||22,300||24,000||25,600||27,400||28,500||29,900||32,000||32,800||36,600||37,600||39,400|
|Heavy Duty Gasoline Vehicles||3,140||3,330||3,730||4,070||4,480||4,760||4,980||5,050||5,490||4,210||4,370||4,130|
|Light Duty Diesel Trucks||591||507||456||429||432||416||402||505||455||500||645||643|
|Heavy Duty Diesel Vehicles||24,500||23,800||24,300||25,700||28,500||30,800||32,500||35,500||35,600||37,300||38,700||38,600|
|Propane & Natural Gas Vehicles||2,210||2,320||2,680||2,030||1,920||2,100||1,980||1,840||1,780||1,500||1,100||1,140|
|Off RoadTransport hors-route||16,500||14,700||13,100||14,700||15,900||16,600||17,900||18,400||20,600||20,500||22,100||19,500|
|c. Fugitive Sources||37,900||39,600||42,400||44,400||46,600||49,800||52,700||52,800||52,400||52,800||54,000||54,800|
|Oil and Natural Gas||36,000||37,500||40,600||42,500||44,900||48,100||51,000||51,200||51,000||51,700||53,100||53,800|
|Limestone and Soda Use||439||418||453||299||280||343||343||359||677||758||403||403|
|Nitric Acid Production||777||766||776||777||766||782||792||786||771||786||799||795|
|Adipic Acid Production||10,700||10,000||9,950||9,080||11,000||10,700||11,500||9,890||5,070||1,750||900||802|
|Iron and Steel Production||7,590||8,900||9,080||8,760||8,090||8,440||8,290||8,100||8,320||8,500||8,510||7,920|
|SF6 used in Magnesium Smelters||2,870||3,260||2,170||2,010||2,040||1,880||1,360||1,390||1,540||1,670||2,310||2,020|
|d.Consumption of Halocarbons||-||-||-||-||-||508||908||883||936||936||936||936|
|e.Other & Undifferentiated Production||9,220||9,560||8,960||9,680||10,600||10,200||11,400||11,500||11,500||11,800||11,900||11,700|
|SOLVENT & OTHER PRODUCT USE||417||422||428||432||437||442||447||452||456||459||463||468|
|LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY (non-CO2 only)1||2,260||3,840||2,430||2,720||3,040||4,670||1,840||753||2,910||1,410||660||2,080|
|Wildfires in the Wood Production Forest||698||1,820||877||1,310||2,500||4,260||1,400||310||2,470||851||79||1,510|
|a.Solid Waste Disposal on Land||18,500||19,200||19,600||20,100||20,300||20,400||20,400||20,900||21,400||22,100||22,600||23,100|
|b. Wastewater Handling||1,220||1,240||1,250||1,270||1,280||1,300||1,310||1,330||1,340||1,350||1,360||1,370|
|LAND USE CHANGE AND FORESTRY1||-107,000||-93,200||-85,900||-69,200||-42,500||-12,600||-40,200||-49,100||-34,600||-29,500||-53,300||-36,400|
|a.Changes in Forest and Woody Biomass Stocks||-109,000||-95,000||-87,200||-70,500||-43,900||-14,200||-42,500||-51,400||-36,700||-31,600||-55,700||-39,300|
|b.Forest and Grassland Conversion||1,420||1,390||1,420||1,700||2,060||2,380||2,840||2,910||3,020||3,140||3,400||3,760|
|c.Abandonment of Managed Lands||-3,240||-3,300||-3,270||-3,240||-3,220||-3,180||-3,160||-3,180||-3,210||-3,240||-3,270||-3,300|
|d.CO2 Emissions and Removals from Soil||3,520||3,780||3,140||2,840||2,630||2,390||2,640||2,510||2,350||2,240||2,260||2,430|
1 CO2 emissions and removals in the LUCF sector are not included in the national totals. Non CO2 emission from fires located in the National Parks are not included in the provincial/territorial totals but are reported in the national totals.
|Greenhouse gas, GHG||Global Warming Potential, GWP|
|HFCs||140 - 11700|
|PFCs||6500 - 9200|
|Comparison of 100-Year GWP Estimates from the IPCC's Second (1996) and Third (2001) Assessment Reports|
|Gas||1996 IPCC GWPa||2001 IPCC GWPb|
|Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)||23,900||22,200|
Table ES-2: Recent Trends in U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks (Tg CO2 Eq.)
Gas/Source 1990 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
CO2 5002.30 5602.50 5676.30 5859.00 5731.80 5782.40
Fossil Fuel Combustion 4814.70 5412.40 5488.80 5673.60 5558.80 5611.00
Iron and Steel Production 85.4 67.4 64.4 65.7 59.1 54.4
Cement Manufacture 33.3 39.2 40 41.2 41.4 42.9
Waste Combustion 10.9 17.1 17.6 18 18.8 18.8
Ammonia Production and Urea Application 19.3 21.9 20.6 19.6 16.2 17.7
Lime Manufacture 11.2 13.9 13.5 13.3 12.8 12.3
Limestone and Dolomite Use 5.5 7.4 8.1 6 5.7 5.8
Natural Gas Flaring 5.8 6.6 6.9 5.8 5.4 5.3
Aluminum Production 6.3 5.8 5.9 5.7 4.1 4.2
Soda Ash Manufacture 4.1 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1
and Consumption Titanium Dioxide Production 1.3 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2
Phosphoric Acid Production 1.5 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3
Carbon Dioxide Consumption 0.9 0.9 0.9 1 0.8 1.3
Ferroalloys 2 2 2 1.7 1.3 1.2
Land-Use Change and Forestry (Sink)a (957.9) (705.8) (675.8) (690.2) (689.7) (690.7)
International Bunker Fuelsb 113.9 115.1 105.3 101.4 97.9 86.8
Biomass Combustionb 216.7 217.2 222.3 226.8 204.4 207.1
CH4 650.2 620.1 613.1 614.4 605.1 598.1
Landfills 210 196.6 197.8 199.3 193.2 193
Natural Gas Systems 122 124.5 120.9 125.7 124.9 121.8
Enteric Fermentation 117.9 116.7 116.6 115.7 114.3 114.4
Coal Mining 81.9 62.8 58.9 56.2 55.6 52.2
Manure Management 31 38.8 38.6 38 38.8 39.5
Wastewater Treatment 24.1 27.7 28.2 28.4 28.1 28.7
Petroleum Systems 28.9 25 23.7 23.5 23.5 23.2
Stationary Sources 8.2 7.2 7.5 7.7 7.2 6.9
Rice Cultivation 7.1 7.9 8.3 7.5 7.6 6.8
Mobile Sources 5 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2
Abandoned Coal Mines 3.4 4.8 4.4 4.4 4.2 4.1
Petrochemical Production 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.5
Iron and Steel Production 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1
Agricultural Residue Burn 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7
Silicon Carbide Production + + + + + +
International Bunker Fuelsb 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
N2O 393.2 432.1 428.4 425.8 417.3 415.8
Agricultural Soil Managem. 262.8 294.2 292.1 289.7 288.6 287.3
Mobile Sources 50.7 59.6 58.6 57.4 55 52.9
Manure Management 16.2 17.3 17.4 17.7 18 17.8
Nitric Acid 17.8 20.9 20.1 19.6 15.9 16.7
Human Sewage 12.8 14.7 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.6
Stationary Sources 12.6 13.8 13.9 14.4 13.9 14
Adipic Acid 15.2 6 5.5 6 4.9 5.9
N2O Product Usage 4.3 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8
Field Burning of Agricultural Residues 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4
Waste Combustion 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4
International Bunker Fuelsb 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8
HFCs PFCs and SF6 90.9 135.7 134.8 139.1 129.7 138.2
Substitution of Ozone Depleting Substances 0.3 56.5 65.8 75.1 83.4 91.7
HCFC-22 Production 35 40.2 30.4 29.8 19.8 19.8
Electrical Transmission and Distribution 29.2 17.1 16.4 15.9 15.6 14.8
Aluminum Production 18.1 9 8.9 8.9 4 5.2
Semiconductor Manufacture 2.9 7.1 7.2 6.3 4.5 4.4
Magnesium Production and Processing 5.4 5.8 6 3.2 2.5 2.4
Total 6129.10 6790.50 6852.50 7038.30 6883.90 6934.60
Net Emissions Sources and Sinks) 5171.30 6084.70 6176.80 6348.20 6194.10 6243.80
+ Does not exceed 0.05 Tg CO2 Eq.
a Sinks are only included in net emissions total,
and are based partially on projected activity data.
Parentheses indicate negative values (or sequestration).
b Emissions from International Bunker Fuels and Biomass combustion are not included in totals.
Note: Totals may not sum due to independent rounding.
|The worst polluters on the planet|
total fuel combustion
total fuel combustion
(Tg CO2 Eq)
metric ton CO2
per person per year
|The worst polluters on the planet in year 2005|
metric ton CO2
per person per year
total fuel combustion
(Tg CO2 Eq)
total fuel combustion
|33% of the world population contributes to 63% of CO2 pollution|
* rice paddies
* anaerobic bacterial fermentation where oxygen is scarce, as in swamps and landfills (smelly)
* intestinal tracts of cattle and termites
* bacterial action following the melting of permafrost
* extraction and use of fossil fuels
Global warming tic-O-tack!
Results from studies on climate change.
Local and global impacts.
(1) Remove a large sink for atmospheric carbon (because forests take up and store larger amounts of carbon than do other terrestrial ecosystems). Tropical and temperate rainforests have been subjected to heavy logging during the 20th century, and the area covered by rainforest around the world is shrinking rapidly. Estimates range from 1 1/2 acres to 2 acres of rainforest disappear each second. Rainforests used to cover 14% of the Earth's surface. This percentage is now down to 6% and it is estimated that the remaining rainforests could disappear within 40 years at this present rate of logging. Further estimates suggest that large numbers of species are being driven extinct, possibly 50,000 species a year due to the removal of their habitat. The largest rainforests can be found today in the Amazon basin (the Amazon Rainforest), the inner parts of Democratic Republic of Congo and on Borneo.
(2) Add a large source for atmospheric carbon (when the trees decay or are burned, releasing carbon). About 80% of the wood removed during tropical deforestation is destroyed (burned or decayed) or used as fuel wood, so the carbon stored in it is released rapidly as CO2, as opposed to the delayed slow release that occurs when used for lumber.
* a direct effect is the composition of the earth atmosphere: CO2 and Ozone.
* some indirect effects are climate parameters resulting from climate change: temperature, insolation, rainfall, humidity
* other indirect effects are the side effects due to the climatic changes:
increase of the sea level, changes in ocean currents, tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms...
* productivity, in terms of quantity and quality;
* agricultural practices, through changes of water use (irrigation), agricultural inputs (herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers);
* environmental level, in particular in relation of frequency and intensity of soil drainage (leading to nitrogen leaching), soil erosion, reduction of crop diversity; and
* rural space, through the loss of previously cultivated lands, land speculation, land renunciation, hydraulic amenities.
Storing excess carbon in terrestrial and ocean systems.
* land use changes from agriculture to forest ecosystems; this change could remove CO2 from the atmosphere at rates of 2000 to 20,000 kg of CO2 per hectare per year for periods of 50 years;
* soil conservation practices can help build up carbon reservoirs in forest and agricultural soils; and
* extracting CO2 from stacks and dispose of it in liquid form in underground reservoirs or deep oceans.
British Columbia’s battlefield for life.
* In winter, increased winter precipitation, permafrost degradation and glacier retreat due to warmer temperatures may lead to landslides in unstable mountainous regions, and put fish and wildlife habitat, roads and other man-made structures at risk. Increased precipitation will put greater stress on water and sewage systems, while glacier reduction could affect the flow of rivers and streams that depend on glacier water, with potential negative impacts on tourism, hydroelectric generation, fish habitat and lifestyles.
* Spring flood damage could be more severe both on the coast and throughout the interior of British Columbia and the Yukon, and existing flood protection works may no longer be adequate.
* Summer droughts along the south coast and southern interior will mean decreased stream flow in those areas, putting fish survival at risk, and reducing water supplies in the dry summer season when irrigation and domestic water use is greatest.
* Many small glaciers in southern BC may disappear.
* Average annual precipitation may increase by 10 to 20 percent.
* Average annual temperature in BC may increase by 1ºC to 4ºC.
* More heat energy is available for plant and insect growth.
* Water in the Fraser River is warmer in summer.
Preventive actions to climate change.
1. reducing the rate and magnitudes of change through mitigating the causes, and
2. reducing the harmful consequences through anticipatory adaptation.
1. policy response to the consequences of the global warming, and
2. strategies to adapt to the consequences of the unavoidable climate change.
a) be corporate shareholders in good standingNow is time to reach a higher level of protection to life on Earth. We all need this for the survival of our species. We can help you integrate and balance global life-support systems protection, global community participation, and economic decisions into your operations and products.
b) be a socially responsible investor
c) have taken the challenge of a more integrated approach to corporate responsibility by placing environmental and community-based objectives and measures onto the decision-making table alongside with the strategic business planning and operational factors that impact your bottom-line results
d) provide not only competitive return to your shareholders but you also operate your business in light of environmental and social contributions, and you have understood the interdependence between financial performance, environmental performance and commitment to the community
e) have taken a full life-cycle approach to integrate and balance environmental and economic decisions for major projects
f) have an active Environmental, Health and Safety Committee and integrated codes of conduct, policies, standards and operating procedures to reflect your corporate responsibility management
g) have scored high on categories such as:
* environmental performance
* product safety
* business practices
* commitment to the community
* employee relations and diversity
* corporate governance
* share performance
* global corporate responsibility
* health, safety and security
* audits and inspections
* emergency preparedness
* corporate global ethical values
* standards of honesty, integrity and ethical behaviour
* in line with the Scale of Human and Earth Rights and the Charter of Earth Community
h) support a balance and responsible approach that promotes action on the issue of climate change as well as all other issues related to the global life-support systems:
* global warming
* Ozone layer
* wastes of all kind including nuclear and release of radiation
* climate change
* species of the fauna and flora becoming extinct
* losses of forest cover and of biological diversity
* the capacity for photosynthesis
* the water cycle
* food production systems
* genetic resources
* chemicals produced for human use and not found in nature and, eventually, reaching the environment with impacts on Earth's waters, soils, air, and ecology
* predict future anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. While demographic, technological and economic factors are in many respects inherently speculative, better observations and understanding of the processes by which human activities directly or indirectly contribute to emissions are clearly required. These in particular include emissions from deforestation and agricultural activities.
* obtain more data on the effect of human emissions on atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Not only do we need to reduce the uncertainties about past and current sinks for emitted greenhouse gases, but we need to better understand and quantify the long term feedbacks such as CO2 fertilization and physical and biological response to climate change if we expect to improve our confidence in projections of future concentrations.
* measure direct and indirect effects of radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and aerosols.
* measure climate sensitivity to changes in radiative forcing.
* measure the response to climate change of biological and physical processes with the terrestrial and ocean systems. * obtain an early detection of the signal of human interference with the climate system against the change caused by natural forces or internal system noise is important in fostering timely and responsible coping actions.
* develop actions to limit emissions of greenhouse gases and prepare to adapt to climate change.
* live with the facts that climate change is unavoidable, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are already signficantly higher than pre-industrial levels, and that aggressive efforts to reduce their anthropogenic emission sources would only slow down the growth in their concentrations, not stop it. Therefore, policy response to this issue must also include strategies to adapt to the consequences of unavoidable climate change.
* the model equilibrium responses of average surface temperatures to a doubling of CO2 consistently lies between 1.5 and 4.5°C, and clearly exclude zero change;There are approaches to limit and regulate the pollution emissions of industrial activities. These are standards, taxes and pollution permits. The choice among these alternatives depends on the administrative structure of a nation.
* the rate of average global warming due to increasing greenhouse concentrations anticipated over the century is in the range of 0.2 to 0.5°C per decade. Inclusion of effects of increases in aerosols may reduce this by 0.1°C/decade;
* land areas warm more than oceans, and high northern latitudes more than equatorial regions. Greatest warming is in high northern latitudes in winter.
* precipitation and soil moisture increases in high latitudes in winter. Most models also project dryer summer soil conditions in interior continental regions of northern mid-latitudes;
* global sea levels are expected to rise about 2 to 8 cm/decade for the next several centuries, in response to melting land ice and increasing ocean temperatures. Such rises threaten many island states and low lying coastal areas around the world with inundation. For example, a one-meter sea level rise would displace millions of people in countries such as Bangladesh, and would affect 15% of agricultural lands in Egypt.
* margins of many terrestrial ecosystems will experience increasing stress as ambient regional climates become mismatched with those required for healthy growth of species within. While most species can migrate in response to slow climate change, paleo studies suggest than rates of change in excess of 0.1°C/decade are almost certainly too rapid to avoid disruption. Species in mountainous terrain also have absolute limits in vertical migration potential, with high elevation species threatened with extinction as climate warming eliminates their climatic ecozones. Increased vulnerability to insect and disease infestation adds to such stresses.
a) Provide a daily report to the public
b) Define air pollution in terms of the amount of pollution created by polluters
c) Define air quality in all parts of the city
d) Measure progress toward air quality goals
e) Propose abatement steps
f) Alarm the public in case of danger
g) Provide data to researchers
h) Provide information for compliance
i) Make intelligent decisions with regard to priorities of programs toward environmental improvement
* Introduction of appropriate sustainable agricultural system with balanced use of chemical fertilizers incorporated organic minerals and green manure's.
* Phase wise replacement of chemical fertilizer by organic fertilizer. Similarly biodegradable insecticide should be replace by the non-biodegradable insecticides.
* The entrepreneur should take proper mitigation measures of industrial pollution by set-up of industrial waste treatment plant.
* Control of insect, pests through biological, natural process, alternatives of using harmful insecticides or fungicides is important to introduce.
* Promotion of research activities in the field of industrial waste utilization and waste recovery process.
* Re-utilization of agricultural residues through bio-conservation to industrial products.
* Need proper implementation of Environmental Policy, Environment Conservation Act’s and Legislation.
* Enhancement of the capacity of NGOs, Govt. agencies to successfully implement poverty alleviation program including non-formal education on environmental pollution awareness.
* Immediate and honest actions by the USA, Russia, Japan and Canada, and all countries in resolving the problems creating the greenhouse gases. The ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and the implementation of measurable positive actions to resolve the problems of global warming.
* The support of the Climate Change Ministry.
Government leadership – set aggressive GHG reduction targets for provincial facilities and vehicle fleets, enforce standards for major building projects;
Urban land use – use tax shifting to discourage sprawl and favour more compact, transit-oriented communities; develop a policy to promote shared energy systems; and work with municipalities to provide incentives and tools for encouraging GHG reduction targets in official community plans and regional strategies by 2005;
Transportation – implement increased funding of transit and strategic road improvements, California-style vehicle emission standards for cars, higher emission standards for light to heavy duty trucks, and incentives to purchase more fuel-efficient vehicles and lower GHG fuels;
Buildings – establish phased-in energy performance standards, with a revolving fund for energy efficiency upgrades, provincial tax relief for the purchase of sustain-able products and equipment, and other supporting policies;
Electricity – adopt a GHG emission standard and offset requirement for thermal power generation that is coordinated with the federal government and builds on the province’s current energy efficiency and clean energy objectives;
Natural gas – develop an efficient and harmonized regulatory, fiscal, and land access framework to facilitate expansion of natural gas production consistent with sustainability; and tax or other incentives to reduce fugitive emissions and to promote acid gas reinjection into depleted reservoirs for disposing of CO2 emissions;
Fuel cells – prepare a strategic plan to grow BC’s world leading fuel cell cluster; make a long-term provincial commitment to the hydrogen economy; and ensure active government participation in private and public sector fuel cell demonstrations;
Forest products – establish incentives to encourage energy from biomass; targets and support for afforestation and reforestation projects; and policies to prevent deforestation (all consistent with international carbon accounting protocols); and
Aluminum (and other sectors) – negotiate voluntary binding agreements for GHG emission reduction with the aluminum smelting and other industry sectors that are harmonized with federal initiatives.
1. Environment Canada, Canada's Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990 - 2000
2. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reporting Instructions, Vol. 1; and Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reference Manual, Vol. 3, Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, 1997.
3. Statistics Canada, Annual Demographic Statistics, 2000, Catalogue #91-213.
4. Statistics Canada, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), expenditure-based, annual (Dollars), CANSIM II, Table 384-0002.
5. Statistics Canada, Quarterly Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada (QRESD), Catalogue #57-003.
6. T.J. McCann and Associates, et al., Fossil Fuel Energy Trade & Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Prepared for Environment Canada, 1997.
7. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Review of the Implementation of Commitments and of Other Provisions of the Convention, FCCC/CP/1999/7.
8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, Draft for Public Comment, February 2002. (Available on the internet at http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/
9. The Government of Canada Climate Change web site at http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/english/
10. The Water, Air and Climate Change Branch website manage by the BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. The website is found at: http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/air/climate/