Scale of Human and Earth Rights



The scale of social values

Chapter X     Scale of Human and Earth Rights

Chapter 10.1     General provisions governing the interpretation and application of the Global Constitution
Article 1:    Decision-making process subjected to Earth Government "Beliefs, Values, Principles and Aspirations" and to the Scale of Human and Earth Rights
Decision made by all Earth Government Bodies and Institutions, including Global Parliament, the Earth Executive Council, the Earth Court of Justice, and all other organs of Earth Government, are subjected to the Earth Government "Beliefs, Values, Principles and Aspirations" described in the Preamble and in Chapters 1 to 10 inclusive and by the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.
Article 2:    Field of application of Earth Government law
1.     The provisions of this Constitution are addressed to the Institutions, bodies and agencies of Earth Government with due regard for the principle of subsidiarity and to Member Nations only when they are implementing Earth Government law. They shall therefore respect the rights, observe the principles and promote the application thereof in accordance with their respective powers and respecting the limits of the powers of Earth Government as conferred on it in the other Parts of the Constitution.
2.     This Constitution does not extend the field of application of Earth Government law beyond the powers of Earth Government or establish any new power or task for Earth Government, or modify powers and tasks defined in the other Parts of the Global Constitution.
Article 3:    Scope and interpretation of rights and principles
1.     Any limitation on the exercise of the rights and freedoms recognised by this Constitution must be provided for by law and respect the essence of those rights and freedoms. Subject to the principle of proportionality, limitations may be made only if they are necessary and genuinely meet objectives of general interest recognised by Earth Government or the need to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
2.     Rights recognised by this Constitution for which provision is made in other Parts of the Global Constitution shall be exercised under the conditions and within the limits defined by these relevant Parts
3.     Insofar as this Constitution contains rights which correspond to rights guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the meaning and scope of those rights shall be the same as those laid down by the said Convention. This provision shall not prevent Earth Government law providing more extensive protection.
4.     Insofar as this Constitution recognises fundamental rights as they result from the constitutional traditions common to Member Nations, those rights shall be interpreted in harmony with those traditions.
5.     The provisions of this Constitution which contain principles may be implemented by legislative and executive acts taken by Institutions and bodies of the Earth Government, and by acts of Member Nations when they are implementing Earth Government law, in the exercise of their respective powers. They shall be judicially cognisable only in the interpretation of such acts and in the ruling on their legality.
6.     Full account shall be taken of national laws and practices as specified in this Constitution.
7.     All rights recognized by this Constitution, including those rights which correspond to rights guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and any other national government rights, shall be subjected to "Beliefs, Values, Principles and Aspirations" and to the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.
Article 4:    Level of protection
Nothing in this Constitution shall be interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective fields of application, by Earth Government law and international law and by international agreements to which Earth Government or all Member Nations are party, including the global Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and by Member Nations' constitutions. The Scale of Human and Earth Rights shall be the scale of social values from which all rights are given proper importance.
Article 5:    Prohibition of abuse of rights
Nothing in this Constitution shall be interpreted as implying any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognised in this Constitution or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for herein.
Article 6:    Fundamental rights
The inhabitants and citizens of Earth who are within the federation of all nations shall have certain inalienable rights defined hereunder. It shall be mandatory for the Global Parliament, the Earth Executive Council , and all organs and agencies of Earth Government to honor, implement and enforce these rights, as well as for the national governments of all member nations in the federation of all nations to do likewise. Individuals or groups suffering violation or neglect of such rights shall have full recourse through the Global Community Ombudspersons, the Agency of the Global Police and the Global Courts for redress of grievances. The inalienable rights shall include the following:
1.   Equal rights for all global citizens of the Global Community, with no discrimination on grounds of race, color, caste, nationality, sex, religion, political affiliation, property, or social status.
2.   Equal protection and application of global legislation and global laws for all global citizens of the Global Community.  
Article 7:    To change the ways of doing things, and our ways of doing business in the world, of Global Community citizens
Earth Government shall seek to change the ways of doing things and of doing business of all Global Community citizens as per:
a)     the "Beliefs, Values, Principles and Aspirations" of Earth Government, which constitute the Preamble and Chapter 1 to Chapter 10 inclusive;
b)     global symbiotical relationships amongst people, institutions, cities, provinces and nations of the world, and between Earth Government and all nations, and in the business sector, which constitute Chapter 7, and Chapters 20.24 and 23.3.2;
c)     global societal sustainability, which constitutes Chapter 4.4 of this Constitution;
d)     good Earth governance and management, which constitute Chapter 6.3.2 of this Constitution;
e)     the Scale of Human and Earth Rights, which constitutes Chapter 10 of this Constitution;
f)     the Statement of Rights, Responsibilities and Accountabilities of a Person and of the Global Community, which constitutes Chapter 6.3 of this Constitution;
g)     the Criteria to obtain the Global Community Citizenship, which constitutes Chapters 6.1 and 6.2 of this Constitution;
h)     consistency between the different policies and activities of Earth Government, which constitutes Chapter 15 of this Constitution; and
i)     a global market without borders in which the free movement of goods, persons, services and capitals is ensured in accordance with this Constitution, which constitutes Chapter 16 of this Constitution;
j)     the new ways of doing business in the world, which constitutes Chapters 16 and 17;
k)     the Celebration of Life Day on May 26 of each year, which constitutes Chapter 20.7 of this Constitution;
l)     the finding of an Earth flag, which constitutes Chapter 20.8 of this Constitution;
m)     the ECO Award, which constitutes Chapter 20.9 of this Constitution;
n)     the Portal of the Global Community, which constitutes Chapter 20.10 of this Constitution; and
o)     the concept of a Global Dialogue, which constitutes Chapter 20.11 of this Constitution.
Chapter 10.2     Change our ways of doing things, and our ways of doing business, as per the Scale of Human and Earth Rights
Article 1:    The new way of doing things and business on the planet
All Earth Government Bodies and Institutions shall accept Earth Government "Beliefs, Values, Principles and Aspirations" and the Scale of Human and Earth Rights as the guiding light for decision-making and as the new way of doing things on the planet. Article 100 gives more information about where in this Constitution was shown details concerning the new ways of doing business.
Article 2:    The Scale is the primary guide for the decision-making process.
More importance is given to the sections higher on the Scale, and the Scale is the primary guide for the decision-making process.
The Global Community believes that the introduction of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been a great step in humanity's evolution to better itself. But now is time to leave it behind and reach to our next step, that is, the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights resides in the fact that it gives equal emphasis to cultural rights, economic and social rights, and civil and political rights.  The Global Community asks how meaningful is the right to life or to participation in political life if the ecological base (the base of life) and the global life-support systems are seriously threatened:

*    wilderness is vastly disappearing; species of the fauna and flora becoming extinct
*    fisheries are out of control and will cease to be a part of our diet within a few decades;
*    the global Oxygen supply in the air we breathe is dangerously affected by both the burning of petroleum products and deforestation; our ways of life affect the capacity for photosynthesis;
*    losses of forest cover and of biological diversity;
*    climate change affects everyone and everything;
*    the ozone layer is dangerously damaged by man-made chemicals;
*    global warming causes major local and global problems and forces the climate to change;
*    our drinking (fresh) water is becoming more polluted and the increase in population requires much more fresh unpolluted water; our ways of life affect dangerously the water cycle;
*    clean air no longer exists; air contains chemicals affecting life all over the planet;
*    farmers do not generally engage on their own in investment in soil conservation and despite all other efforts the world is losing its best soils; global food production systems should be made to feed people as oppose to be competing for money;
*    everyone wants to consume more products and thus use more of Earth essential resources which are becoming much harder to obtain and create more pollution and wastes, and no one seems to know what to do with wastes; wastes of all kind including nuclear and release of radiation;
*    wars destroy not only human lives and community infrastructures but also other lifeforms and the environment; wars feed the economies of war makers, weapons manufacturers, and predator nations in control of the last 100 hundred years left of oil supplies in the world; and
*    chemicals produced for human use and not found in nature and, eventually, reaching the environment with impacts on Earth's waters, soils, air, and ecology.
Earth Government found evident that the ecological base is the essential prerequisite for the effectiveness and exercise of all rights recognized for human beings. The stewardship of the ecological base has to be given priority before the fulfilment of various economic and social wishes. Demands resulting from the socio-economic system of a particular country have to find their limits in the protection of the global ecosystem. Vital interests of future generations have to be considered as having priority before less vital interests of the present generation. Supply chains have to be designed in a way, that the goods can enter after usage or consumption into natural or industrial recycling processes. If serious damages to persons, animals, plants and the ecosystem cannot be excluded, an action or pattern of behaviour should be refrained from. A measure for supplying goods or services should choose a path which entails the least possible impact on the ecological and social system concerned. This way functioning proven systems will not be disturbed, and  unnecessary risks will not be taken. Supply strategies consuming less resources should have preference before those enhancing more resource consumption. When there is a need to find a solution to a problem or a concern,  a sound solution would be to choose a measure or conduct an action, if possible, which causes reversible damage as opposed to a measure or an action causing an irreversible loss.
Article 3:    Scale of Human and Earth Rights
The Scale of Human and Earth Rights contains six (6) sections. Section 1 has more importance than all other sections below, and so on.

Concerning sections 1, 2, and 3, it shall be Earth Government highest priority to guarantee these rights to Member Nations and to have proper lesgislation and implement and enforce global law as it applies.

Section  1.    Ecological rights and the protection of the global life-support systems

Section  2.    Primordial human rights

It is made clear how little importance was given to Sections 1,2,3, and 4 of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. And it is made clear how urgent it is to replace both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Charters from all nations by the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.


  • safety and security
  • have shelter
  • 'clean' energy
  • a 'clean' and healthy environment
  • drink fresh water
  • breath clean air
  • eat a balance diet and
  • basic clothing.

Section  3.    The ecological rights, the protection of the global life-support systems and the primordial human rights of future generations

Concerning Sections 4, 5 and 6, it shall be the aim of Earth Government to secure these other rights for all global citizens within the federation of all nations, but without immediate guarantee of universal achievement and enforcement. These rights are defined as Directive Principles, obligating the Earth Government to pursue every reasonable means for universal realization and implementation.

Section  4.    Community rights, rights of direct democracy, the right that the greatest number of people has by virtue of its number (50% plus one) and after voting representatives democratically

Section  5.    Economic rights (business and consumer rights, and their responsibilities and accountabilities) and social rights (civil and political rights)

Section  6.    Cultural rights and religious rights

The following table is a comparison of the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Scale. It is made clear how little importance was given to Sections 1,2,3, and 4 of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. And it is made clear how urgent it is to replace both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Charters from all nations by the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.

Importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on the Scale of Human and Earth Rights
The total degree of importance due to the Universal Declaration.
Scale Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Total degree of importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Section 1 parts of Article 3; 1% importance
1% importance
Section 2 parts of Articles 3,4,5,9,13,14,25; 35% importance
35%
Section 3 no Articles; 0%
0%
Section 4 parts of Articles 16,18,21,29; 5%
5%
Section 5 parts of Articles 15,17,20,21,22,23,24,28; 100%
100%
Section 6 parts of articles 26,27; 70%
70%


Here is how the degree of importance was obtained. For instance in Section 1 it was found that parts of Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was included as promoting very softly the protection of human life but was not promoting at all the protection of the global life-support systems. Section 1 on the Scale of Human and Earth Rights promotes both the protection of human life and the global life-support systems. No key rights were found in the Universal Declaration that would promote in any way the protection of human life and that of the global life-support systems. And it is a failure of the Universal Declaration to be in line with the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. As a result of this failure, a 1% combine importance was recorded in the table. What this means? It means that the Universal Declaration does not give any importance to human life and the protection of the global life-support systems. These results are consistent and in agreement with the fact that democracy hardly survive an overpopulation such as is seen in the world. What happens to the idea of the dignity of the human species if this population growth continues at its present rate? It will be completely destroyed. Democracy cannot survive overpopulation. Human dignity cannot survive overpopulation. Convenience and decency cannot survive overpopulation. As you put more and more people onto the world, the value of life not only declines, it disappears. It doesn't matter if someone dies, the more people there are, the less one person matters. It would be preferable to split a large population into smaller populations.


Chapter 10.3     Section  1.    Ecological rights and the protection of the global life-support systems
Article 1:    It is a crime against humanity and all life on Earth not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
It is a crime against humanity and all life on Earth not to ratify the Kyoto Protocol. It is a terrible crime against the global life-support systems, against the very existence of the next generations. On the Scale of Human and Earth Rights the crime is of maximum importance.
Article 2:    Related aspects of the global life-support systems
There are many related aspects of the global life-support systems that is affected by an overpopulated planet:
*      global warming
*      Ozone layer;
*      wastes of all kind including nuclear and release of radiation;
*      climate change;
*      species of the fauna and flora becoming extinct;
*      losses of forest cover and of biological diversity;
*      the capacity for photosynthesis;
*      the water cycle;
*      food production systems;
*      genetic resources; and
*      chemicals produced for human use and not found in nature and, eventually, reaching the environment with impacts on Earth's waters, soils, air, and ecology.


Article 3:    Fresh water and clean air are primordial human rights
The existing and future uses of water are constantly challenged; balancing supply and demand is made even harder by the amounts of pollution found in the air, land and waters. A large part of our body is made of water, and we cannot live without water; therefore water is a primordial human right by our very nature. In order to avoid conflicts and wars over drinking freshwater, freshwater has been categorized as a primordial human right. Industrial pollution plays a major role in the deterioration of nature but this time the level of pollution is above the carrying capacity of the ecosystem. Pollution also affects significantly human health and all lifeforms on Earth. Every person needs Oxygen to live so clean air is certainly also a primordial human right by our very nature.
Article 4:    The global economy does not crush and destroy local economies
Conservation of the earth's resources and creation of sustainable and satisfying livelihoods is most caringly, creatively and efficiently and equitably achieved at the local level in a global community. Localization of economics is social and ecological imperative. Only goods and services that cannot be produced locally, using local resources, local knowledge should be produced non-locally and traded long distance. Earth democracy of the Global Community is based on vibrant, resilient local economies, which support national and global economies. The global economy does not crush and destroy local economies.

Article 5:    Ecological Integrity
A)     Protect and restore the integrity of Earth's ecological systems, with special concern for biological diversity and the natural processes that sustain life
a.     Adopt at all levels sustainable development plans and regulations that make environmental conservation and rehabilitation integral to all development initiatives.
b.     Establish and safeguard viable nature and biosphere reserves, including wild lands and marine areas, to protect Earth's life support systems, maintain biodiversity, and preserve our natural heritage.
c.     Promote the recovery of endangered species and ecosystems.
d.     Control and eradicate non-native or genetically modified organisms harmful to native species and the environment, and prevent introduction of such harmful organisms.
e.     Manage the use of renewable resources such as water, soil, forest products, and marine life in ways that do not exceed rates of regeneration and that protect the health of ecosystems.
f.     Manage the extraction and use of non-renewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels in ways that minimize depletion and cause no serious environmental damage.
B)     Prevent harm as the best method of environmental protection and, when knowledge is limited, apply a precautionary approach
a.     Take action to avoid the possibility of serious or irreversible environmental harm even when scientific knowledge is incomplete or inconclusive.
b.     Place the burden of proof on those who argue that a proposed activity will not cause significant harm, and make the responsible parties liable for environmental harm.
c.     Ensure that decision making addresses the cumulative, long-term, indirect, long distance, and global consequences of human activities.
d.     Prevent pollution of any part of the environment and allow no build-up of radioactive, toxic, or other hazardous substances.
e.     Avoid military activities damaging to the environment.
C)     Adopt patterns of production, consumption, and reproduction that safeguard Earth's regenerative capacities, human rights, and community well-being
a.     Reduce, reuse, and recycle the materials used in production and consumption systems, and ensure that residual waste can be assimilated by ecological systems.
b.     Act with restraint and efficiency when using energy, and rely increasingly on renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.
c.     Promote the development, adoption, and equitable transfer of environmentally sound technologies.
d.     Internalize the full environmental and social costs of goods and services in the selling price, and enable consumers to identify products that meet the highest social and environmental standards.
e.     Ensure universal access to health care that fosters reproductive health and responsible reproduction.
f.     Adopt lifestyles that emphasize the quality of life and material sufficiency in a finite world.
D)     Advance the study of ecological sustainability and promote the open exchange and wide application of the knowledge acquired
a.     Support international scientific and technical cooperation on sustainability, with special attention to the needs of developing nations.
b.     Recognize and preserve the traditional knowledge and spiritual wisdom in all cultures that contribute to environmental protection and human well-being.
c.     Ensure that information of vital importance to human health and environmental protection, including genetic information, remains available in the public domain.
Article 6:    Technologies which must be eliminated and prohibited because of hazards and dangers to life
Implementation of intensive programs to discover, develop and institute safe alternatives and practical substitutions for technologies which must be eliminated and prohibited because of hazards and dangers to life.
Article 7:    Everyone has the right to life
*     Rapid elimination of and prohibitions against technological hazards and man-made environmental disturbances which are found to create dangers to life on Earth.
*     Protection for everyone against the hazards and perils of technological innovations and developments.
*     Protection of the natural environment which is the common heritage of humanity against pollution, ecological disruption or damage which could imperil life or lower the quality of life.
Article 8:    Conservation of natural resources
Conservation of those natural resources of Earth which are limited so that present and future generations may continue to enjoy life on the planet Earth.
Article 9:    The rights that the Global Community has in protecting the global life-support systems
Earth rights are ecological rights and the rights that the Global Community has in protecting the global life-support systems. Earth rights are those rights that demonstrate the connection between human well-being and a sound environment. They include individuals and global communities human rights and the rights to a clean environment, and participation in development decisions. We define ecological rights as those rights of the ecosystem of the Earth beyond human purpose. They are those rights that protect and preserve the ecological heritage of the Earth for future generations. The biggest challenge for social democracy today is to articulate coherent policies based on a unifying vision for society.

The major problems to address include:

A.     the enormous worldwide wealth gap and the underlying concentration of land and natural resource ownership and control;
B.     the privatized monetary structures; and
C.     building global governance institutions and financing governance and development in such a way as to divert funds from military industrial profits and into social development and environmental restoration.

We need a basic clarification of First Principles on the concept of "ownership", starting with the principle that the land and natural resources of the planet are a common heritage and belong equally as a birthright to everyone. Products and services created by individuals are properly viewed as private property. Products and services created by groups of individuals are properly viewed as collective property.

We can hatch many birds out of one egg when we shift public finance OFF OF private property and ONTO common heritage property. From the local to the global level we need to shift taxes off of labor and productive capital and onto land and natural resource rents. In other words, we need to privatize labor (wages) and socialize rent (the value of surface land and natural resources). This public finance shift will promote the cooperatization of the ownership of capital in a gradual way with minimal government control of the production and exchange of individual and collective wealth. Natural monopolies (infrastructure, energy, public transportation) should be owned and/or controlled or regulated by government at the most local level that is practical.

The levels of this public finance shift can be delineated thusly: municipalities and localities to collect the surface land rents within their jurisdiction. Regional governing bodies to collect resource rents for forest lands, mineral, oil and water resources; the global level needs a Global Resource Agency to collect user fees for transnational commons such as satellite geostationary orbits, royalties on minerals mined or fish caught in international waters and the use of the electromagnetic spectrum.

An added benefit of this form of public finance is that it provides a peaceful way to address conflicts over land and natural resources. Resource rents should be collected and equitably distributed and utilized for the benefit of all, either in financing social services and/or in direct citizen dividends in equal amount to all individuals.

A portion of revenues could pass from the lower to the higher governance levels or vice versa as needed to ensure a just development pattern worldwide and needed environmental restoration.

In the area of monetary policy we need seignorage reform, which means that money should be issued as spending by governments, not as debt by private banking institutions. We also need guaranteed economic freedoms to create local and regional currencies on a democratic and transparent basis.

Policies for securing earth rights are:

1.     It is better to tax "bads" rather than "goods". Governments have long used selective taxation to discourage use of alcohol and cigarettes, while unprocessed food and children¹s clothing remain tax-free. It is best to continue this tradition with selective "eco-sin taxes" to discourage a wide range of grey products and lifestyles. At the same time, taxes would be eliminated on green products and lifestyles. People should be able to avoid taxation by choosing green products and lifestyles.

2.    Taxes should be designed to conserve resources and energy. Rather than taxing jobs and profits, taxes should be moved to resource use and energy consumption to reward conservation. The community should benefit from the use of commonly held resources. Using resources is a privilege, not a right, and the user should pay for the privilege. Resources must also be shared with future generations and other species.

3.     Taxes should be designed to increase employment. Moving taxes onto resources and land use and off of incomes will make people less expensive to employ. Products produced by green production methods, which tends to use fewer resources and less energy will avoid taxation. As energy costs rise, the price of labour becomes more economical, and green products which tend to encourage value-added processes, will provide more high quality, skilled jobs than resource intensive products.

4.     Distributive taxes are preferable to re-distributive taxes. If wealth is distributed more fairly in the first place less re-distribution will be necessary. Eliminating consumption taxes will eliminate the only tax the poor must pay. By moving taxes on to resource use and land, the poor, who generally own less land and use fewer resources, will avoid taxation, thus requiring less redistribution. Taxing land but not the use of land, will reduce taxation on higher density housing, lowering housing costs for low-income citizens, thus reducing another need for re-distribution.

5.     Resource taxes should be assessed as early as possible. Resources should be taxed before entering the manufacturing process in order to green all aspects of the manufacturing process from extraction to the finished product. Increasing taxes on resource and energy use will encourage resource and energy efficiency, innovation, reuse, repair, recycling, and used material recovery.

6.     Taxing unearned income is preferable to taxing earned income. The tax shift to resource use and community-generated land values will distribute income more fairly without dependence on income and business taxation to redistribute income. Taxing unearned income (resources, land) and not earned income (jobs, profits) will reduce the rich-poor gap since the rich are always in a better position to capture unearned or windfall income by their ability to hold assets that they do not have to consume.

7.     Green tax shifting is revenue-neutral, not a tax break or tax grab. The taxes paid by businesses and individuals collectively will not change, but greener businesses and consumers will reduce their taxes. Grey businesses and consumers will pay higher taxes. Studies have shown that 50% of businesses and consumers will be unaffected or only slightly affected by tax shifting, roughly one quarter will realize tax reductions one quarter will be taxed more.

8.     Resource use and community-generated land value taxation are fairer. Resource use and land taxes are much simpler to collect and harder to evade than taxes on income and business profits. Since there are far fewer points of taxation than with traditional tax sources, a move to resource use and land taxation will reduce the size of the underground economy. The difficulty of evading these taxes will reduce the problem of overseas tax havens.

9.     Green taxation increases international competitiveness. Eliminating taxes on domestic labour will reduce labour costs in Ontario and therefore reduce out-sourcing by businesses seeking cheap labour in other countries or provinces.

10.     Pay for what you take, not for what you make. Businesses should not be taxed for hiring people or for earning a profit, but should be charged for using resources and polluting the planet. People should not be taxed for earning an income or purchasing products but should be charged for the value of land they own and the resources used in the products they buy. Resource use and polluting are privileges not rights, and businesses and consumers should pay for these privileges.

11.     Taxing community-generated land values is beneficial. Since the community around it, not its owner, creates the value of land, the community should receive the benefits it has created. The owner is entitled to a fair profit but not to a windfall profit that rightfully belongs to the community that generated the wealth in the first place. Under LVT the specific use of the land will not be taxed, only the land itself, within the existing zoning. Community-generated land value taxation encourages the efficient use of land, reduces sprawl, reduces speculation, tends to reduce land prices and improves land use patterns.

12.     Taxes should encourage local, sustainable, value-added production over imports. Culturally unique products and services will be valued by green tax reform over mass production. The sale price should include the true costs of products, services and distances traveled, and should be designed to encourage local, sustainable production.

13.     Taxes should break up monopolies. The most important monopolies are resource monopolies and land monopolies. When a person or a business has control or exclusive rights over large amounts of a resource or large amounts of land, this person or business reaps windfall profits, which is unjust. These resources and this land belong to the community and if individuals are granted access to it they should pay a fair price for this privilege or right. Land Value Taxation aims to ensure that the wealth created by usage of land and resources that rightfully belong to the community accrue back to that community.

14.     Taxes should be applied only once. Rather than taxing the same wealth repeatedly through personal income, business income, sales, re-sale, interest, capital gains, property transfer, inheritance, taxation should only impact the use of a resource and the ownership of land on a sustained basis (ie property tax on site value).

15.     MINIMIZING INCOME TAXES

a)     Moving taxes off of incomes and onto resource use and community-generated land value is critical in order to achieve and maintain a green economy and society.

b)     Traditionally governments tax the component of production in least supply. In the first half of the 20th century labour was scarce and resources and land were plentiful and indeed considered infinite, so it made sense for government to tax incomes and not resource use or land. Now, however, resources and land are scarce and labour is plentiful, so governments should modernize the tax structure by switching the source of taxation away from incomes and onto resources use and land.

c)     Income taxes are a regressive tax since they tax a "good" not a "bad". Since jobs are desirable we should not tax employment. Income taxes are a disincentive to employment since they make people expensive to employ. Employers often avoid taxation by employing fewer people and opting instead for energy-intensive, chemical-intensive and resource-intensive production. Conversely, taxing resource and land lightly sends the message that these community-held resources are unimportant and may be squandered by anyone without consequences.

d)     It is claimed that income taxes help reduce economic inequity among people. This is untrue since employers simply pass on the extra payroll deduction to consumers. The amount of income tax paid is irrelevant to labour negotiations, since bargaining is based on net pay, not gross pay. In determining an employee's worth, the employer simply calculates the gross amount based on take-home pay. Salaries of high worth employees and CEOs are simply raised to the level necessary to ensure net pay reaches the desired level.

e)     In contrast the rich-poor gap will be narrowed more effectively by moving taxes off of incomes and onto resource and land use, since wealthier people who choose to spend their money on grey products and lifestyles will be taxed more while people with lower incomes will be able to avoid taxation by living green. In addition, replacing income taxes with green taxes would help conserve resources, save energy, foster value-added and labour intensive production (ie. more jobs), and reduce pollution.

16.     MINIMIZING BUSINESS TAXES

a)     Neither the right wing call for corporate tax cuts nor the left-wing mantra of increased corporate taxes will engender a transition to a just or green society. Reducing or increasing taxes on corporate profits is green-neutral (taxes which neither encourage nor discourage greening the planet). If the goal is for businesses to succeed and employ people, it makes no sense to apply business taxes or payroll deductions.

b)     Moving taxes off of profits and employment and onto the resources, land and pollution will speed progress toward a green industrial economy. Recourse use and pollution are privileges not rights, and businesses should pay for these privileges. While business people would prefer not to pollute the planet or squander resources, the present tax structure gives them little choice. Businesses usually follow the path of least tax resistance and will readily go green if tax incentives pointed the way.

c)     Green production means more jobs, resource conservation, and less pollution. Ecological fiscal reform and green tax shifting are revenue neutral; the collective tax burden paid by business is unchanged, but it will reward businesses that go green and discourage businesses that remain grey.

17.     PHASE OUT CONSUMPTION TAXES

a)     Sales taxes are unhelpful in moving to a green society since socially useful and ecologically sound products are taxed equally to socially or ecologically detrimental products. To reduce consumption of resources, taxes should be applied early in the manufacturing process in order to green all aspects of the manufacturing process. Taxing early will dramatically reduce the ticket price of green products and raise the price of grey products, positively influencing consumer behaviour. Taxing early will encourage resource and energy efficiency, innovation, reuse, repair, recycling, and used material recovery.

b)     Sales taxes are regressive since they discourage people from making both green and grey purchases, thus damaging the economy and killing jobs. As well sales taxes are often unfairly evaded by the underground economy, while resource use, pollution and land rent levies, by contrast, are simpler to apply and more difficult to evade.

18.     RESOURCE USE TAXATION

a)     Income taxes, consumptions taxes, and taxes on profits are all green-neutral, ie. green jobs, green purchases and green profits are taxed at the same rate as grey jobs, grey purchases and grey profits. By contrast, resources taxes levied early in the production process foster conservation, efficiencies, innovation, value-added production, and labour-intensive production. Local sustainable production, short run niche production, and skilled trades and crafts receive a bias since the full costs of transportation and mass production are internalized.

b)     Taxing resources minimizes waste and pollution thus reducing the load on government for health care costs, waste disposal costs, transportation infrastructure, and pollution cleanup costs. The market will drive resource and energy conservation without government micro-management.

c)     Resource taxation would focus on a small number of key local resources and a small number of imported resources

Article 10:    To build a sustainable global community
In order to build a sustainable global community, each individual, each local community, and national governments of the world must initiate their commitment to the Global Community, fulfill their obligations under existing international agreements, and support the implementation of Constitution principles with an international legally binding instrument on environment and development.
Article 11:    Every individual, family, organization, and community has a vital role to play
Life often involves tensions between important values. This can mean difficult choices. However, we must find ways to harmonize diversity with unity, the exercise of freedom with the common good, short-term objectives with long-term goals. Every individual, family, organization, and community has a vital role to play. The arts, sciences, religions, educational institutions, media, businesses, nongovernmental organizations, and governments are all called to offer creative leadership. The partnership of government, civil society, and business is essential for effective governance. In order to build a sustainable global community, each individual, each local community, and national governments of the world must initiate their commitment to the Global Community, fulfill their obligations under existing international agreements, and support the implementation of Global Constitution principles with an international legally binding instrument on environment and development.

Chapter 10.4     Section  2.    Primordial human rights
Chapter 10.4.1     Primordial human rights
Article 1:    Primordial human rights
Human rights represent an ideal and a supreme goal which can give meaning to life in society. Throughout the history of humanity, the rights of human beings have been defined and enshrined with reference to the values of the dignity of each individual and of freedom, equality and justice. These values are universal. The Global Community has accepted and enshrined them into its own ways of behaving and dealing with all peoples. Cultures and societies differ so much that their expression takes varying forms, but diversity does not affect the foundation of inalienable values constituted by human and Earth rights. Each individual is recognized as a representative of humankind. Human dignity resides in each of us, and this dignity must be recognized and respected by all.

How meaningful is the right to life or to participation in political life if poverty, gender inequality, destitution and epidemics prevent individuals from enjoying freedom of movement, freedom to vote, to marry and so on? The economic and social rights are the essential prerequisite for the effectiveness and exercise of all other rights (other than ecological rights) recognized for human beings. The developing countries are having a harder time than others to achieve the exercise of these rights on a lasting basis, with the problems of economic globalization presenting new challenges. We must therefore beware of enforcing economic rights alone to the detriment of individual civil rights and the rights of all individuals to decide their own fate and the future of their country, their political rights. The universality of human rights recognizes the right of all individuals to participate in the cultural life of their community and of other country, to receive education and training, and to be informed.

Primordial human rights are necessarily human needs but not all human needs are primordial human rights. To determine rights requires an understanding of needs and reponsibilities and their importance.

On the Scale of Human and Earth Rights, Primordial Human Rights are those that individuals have by virtue of their very existence as human beings. They are very specific primordial human needs. First there are the material needs, the requisites for a dignified life and truly the primordial human rights:
  • safety and security
  • eat a balance diet
  • 'clean' energy
  • a 'clean' and healthy environment
  • drink fresh water
  • breath clean air
  • basic clothing and
  • have shelter.

Then there are the nonmaterial needs which can evolve, and are flexible and adaptive:
  • social justice
  • basic health care
  • communications facilities in the community
  • well-rounded education
  • cultural protection
  • spiritual and religious acceptance and
  • human and Earth rights

Primordial human rights are:
a)     an assurance for everyone of adequate housing, of adequate and nutritious food supplies, of safe and adequate water supplies, of pure air with protection of oxygen supplies and the ozone layer, and in general for the continuance of an environment which can sustain healthy living for all.
b)     Safety of property from arbitrary seizure; protection against exercise of the power of eminent domain without reasonable compensation.
c)     Prohibition against private armies and paramilitary organizations as being threats to the common peace and safety.
d)     Prohibition against slavery, peonage, involuntary servitude, and conscription of labor.
e)     Prohibition against military conscription.
f)     Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests.
g)     Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment.

Article 2:    Primordial human rights and ecological rights are the most important rights on the Scale
Primordial human rights are separate categories from those of ecological rights, community rights, the right of the greatest number of people, economic rights, social rights, cultural rights and religious rights. Ecological and primordial human rights are the only rights that have existed unchanged throughout the evolutionary origin of our species. Any major change would have threatened our very existence. All other human rights listed here are rights created by human beings and can be changed depending of new circumstances; they are not stagnant but are rather flexible and adaptive, and they can evolve. Ecological and primordial human rights of this generation and of future generations are therefore much more important than any other human rights existing now and in the future.
Article 3:    A global strategy to reinforce primordial human rights
Earth Government has developed a global strategy to reinforce primordial human rights. Recommendations to that effect are:
*     provision of minimal standards of health, education, and housing worldwide
*     reduce inequality in access to work opportunities
*     care for the quality of life of the people
*     all nations must ratify an agreement to form Global Parliament and the Earth Court of Justice
*     increase global cooperation between nations to deal with terrorism in a more selective, targeted way
*     help the Earth Community promote and implement its global civic ethic program worldwide
*     allow our volunteers perform their global ethical management tasks during conflict resolution
*     emphasise social responsibility of corporations in the whole cycle of their products or services
*     expand coordination and global cooperation among nations, agencies, and NGOs, regarding information, early warning, apprehension, and punishment of terrorists through the Earth Court of Justice. The Court will create an environment for transparent Justice.
*     when there is massive damage done to a country that is abhorent to most countries of the world then the Earth Court of Justice will find it justified to go after the suspected criminals wherever they may be hiding
Article 4:    Security cannot be achieved through the military
The world is too crowded and too small nowadays! And weapons too lethal! So security cannot be achieved through the military. The only job the military should be asked to do today is to protect the global life-support systems. These systems have the highest priority on the Scale of Human and Earth Rights and are certainly more important than any of the other rights on the Scale including security. Simply because without life there is no other right possible. Without Oxygen there is no life! Without clean water there is no life! So protect life on Earth at all costs. Wars are the biggest threat to life and the ecosystem of the planet.
Article 5:    The production and trade in arms should be listed as a criminal act against humanity
The production and trade in arms should be listed as a criminal act against humanity; this global ministry, the Ministry of Global Security and Peace, shall introduce a Convention on the curtailment of the arms trade, a provision for a mandatory Arms Register and the prohibition of the financing or subsidy of arms exports by governments.
Article 6:    We propose a world population of 500 million people
In general, populations of all lifeforms grow exponentially that is by a steady proportion of whatever was there before. When there is no practical limit on resource then populations usually grow maximally and the only limit is that of the reproductive capacity of the female animal. About 10,000 years ago, human beings were obliged to commit themselves more or less fully to agriculture and the human population was 5 to 10 million. After only 8,000 years of large-scale agriculture, the human population was 100 to 300 million. After this time, the exponential growth of the population entered its rapid phase. The billion mark was passed by 1800 A.D. By year 2000, the human population exceeded 6 billion. Thus agriculture allowed a thousand-fold increase in numbers over a period of 10,000 years.

In practical sense, agriculture cannot feed a human population that has grown beyond the capacity limit. We must ask ourselves whether we can stop the growth by means that are voluntary and benign, or whether the eventual environmental restraint will be out of our hands. At some questionable time in our future we will find that our soil will no longer have the nutrients it needs to produce quality food. For some time we may counter this problem by fresh weathering of rock. Not for long! The loss of lifeforms on Earth will be permanent.

We need to form a global ministry dealing only about agriculture and the protection of our soils. All nations will be part of the ministry. We have to design systems of food production that meet our own needs, and also leave room for these other lifeforms we want to take along with us. Western agriculture is designed in the end to maximize profit. As a primordial human right, the prime concern of the human species is to feed people. Therefore we have to do things differently. We will have to produce less livestock as we effectively double the population we need to feed: ourselves, plus the livestock that is supposed to be feeding us. We also have to apportion the land surface of the whole world more efficiently, using some for highhly intensive food production (which makes use of less land), some for extensive agriculture (combining food production with wildlife conservation) and designing some specifically as wilderness areas with global corridors between them.

Obviously something has to be done! Earth Government proposes a tight global policy, benignly implemented, or it will be very nasty indeed. In practice, a human population of 10 to 12 billion would be too uncomfortably high and would add a high strain on world resources. What kind of world population would be reasonable? What goal should we aim at? A population should be small enough to be sustainable indefinitely and still allow plenty of leeway for ourselves and other lifeforms. It should also be large enough to allow the formation of healthy civilizations.

We propose a world population of 500 million. It would take a thousand years to reach our goal of a population of 500 million. To achieve our goal will require from each and every one of us a stand on the rights and on belonging to the Global Community, the human family. If our population was to decrease as projected here then what other major global problems would be managed automatically?

This question is really saying that the overpopulation is the cause of several major global problems such as:

*      lack of resources
*      poverty
*      wars
*      climate change
*      damage to the global life-support systems
*      a lesser quality of life
*      threat to security
*      lack of good quality soils for agriculture
*      polluted air, water and land
*      overcrowed cities
*      weapons and war products and equipment able to spark global wars
*      widespread drug, human and Earth rights abuse, more old and new diseases out of control
Article 7:    Policies to control our population growth
Perhaps the most important step towards achieving global sustainability now and for future generations is to control our population growth. World overpopulation is now at the turning point and requires from each and every one of us making a commitment to a statement of rights, responsibilities and accountabilities, and of belonging to the Global Community, the human family. Humanity has to regulate its population by means that are voluntary and benign and has to take along with a fair proportion of other lifeforms. Proper Earth management will certainly be a necessary tool to achieve our goal. If not there will be a collapse of humanity and of the environment. From now on every global decision has tremendous consequences on our future. Comprehensive population policies are an essential element in a world development strategy that combines access to reproductive health services, to education and economic opportunities, to improved energy and natural resource technologies, and to healthyer models of consumption and the "good life."
Article 8:    Policies to decrease world population
  • delay reproduction until later in life
    Delaying reproduction is important in influencing population growth rates. Over a period of 60 years, if people delay reproduction until they are 30 years old, you would have only two generations, while if you do not delay reproduction you would have three generations (one generation every 20 years).
  • spread your children farther apart
  • to have fewer children overall
  • government commitment to decreasing population growth
    Create policies that help decreasing the number of children being born. Policies such as income tax deductions for dependent children and maternity and paternity leaves are essentially pronatalist and should be eliminated.
  • programs that are locally designed and that include information on family planning and access to contraceptives
  • educational programs that emphasize the connection between family planning and social good
  • The vast disparities in reproductive health worldwide and the greater vulnerability of the poor to reproductive risk point to several steps all governments can take, with the support of other sectors, to improve the health of women and their families:

    • Give women more life choices. The low social and economic status of women and girls sets the stage for poor reproductive health
    • Invest in reproductive health care
    • Encourage delays in the onset of sexual activity and first births
    • Help couples prevent and manage unwanted childbearing
    • Ensure universal access to maternal health care
    • Support new reproductive health technologies
    • Increase efforts to address the HIV pandemic
    • Involve communities in evaluating and implementing programs
    • Develop partnerships with the private sector, policymakers and aid donors to broaden support for reproductive health

    • Measure Progress

    More and more young people on every continent want to start bearing children later in life and to have smaller families than at any time in history. Likewise, in greater proportions than ever, women and girls in particular want to go to school and to college, and they want to find fulfilling and well-paid employment. Helping people in every country obtain the information and services they need to put these ambitions into effect is all that can be done, and all that needs to be done, to bring world population growth to a stable landing in the new century.

    Chapter 10.4.2     Respect and Care for the Community of Life
    Article 1:    Respect and Care for the Community of Life
    A)     Respect Earth and life in all its diversity

    a.     Recognize that all beings are interdependent and every form of life has value regardless of its worth to human beings.
    b.     Affirm faith in the inherent dignity of all human beings and in the intellectual, artistic, ethical, and spiritual potential of humanity.

    B)     Care for the community of life with understanding, compassion, and love
    a.     Accept that with the right to own, manage, and use natural resources comes the duty to prevent environmental harm and to protect the rights of people.
    b.     Affirm that with increased freedom, knowledge, and power comes increased responsibility to promote the common good.

    C)     Build democratic societies that are just, participatory, sustainable, and peaceful

    a.     Ensure that communities at all levels guarantee human rights and fundamental freedoms and provide everyone an opportunity to realize his or her full potential.
    b.     Promote social and economic justice, enabling all to achieve a secure and meaningful livelihood that is ecologically responsible.

    D)     Secure Earth's bounty and beauty for present and future generations

    a.     Recognize that the freedom of action of each generation is qualified by the needs of future generations.
    b.     Transmit to future generations values, traditions, and institutions that support the long-term flourishing of Earth's human and ecological communities.

    Chapter 10.4.3     Human Dignity
    Article 1:    Human dignity
    Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.
    Article 2:    Right to life
    1.     Everyone has the right to life.
    2.     No one shall be condemned to the death penalty, or executed.
    Article 3:    Right to the integrity of the person
    1.     Everyone has the right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity.
    2.     In the fields of medicine and biology, the following must be respected in particular:   
    (a) the free and informed consent of the person concerned, according to the procedures laid down by law,
    (b) the prohibition of eugenic practices, in particular those aiming at the selection of persons,
    (c) the prohibition on making the human body and its parts as such a source of financial gain,
    (d) the prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings.
    Article 4:    Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
    No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
    Article 5:    Prohibition of slavery and forced labour
    1.     No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
    2.     No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
    3.     Trafficking in human beings is prohibited.

    Chapter 10.4.4     Freedoms
    Article 1:    Right to liberty and security
    Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.
    Article 2:    Respect for private and family life
    Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.
    Article 3:    Protection of personal data
    1.     Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.
    2.     Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right of access to data which has been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it rectified.
    3.     Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent authority.
    Article 4:    Right to marry and right to found a family
    The right to marry and the right to found a family shall be guaranteed in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of these rights.
    Article 5:    Freedom of thought, conscience and religion
    1.     Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
    2.     The right to conscientious objection is recognised, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of this right.
    Article 6:    Freedom of expression and information
    1.     Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers.
    2.     The freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected.
    Article 7:    Freedom of assembly and of association
    1.     Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association at all levels, in particular in political, trade Earth Government and civic matters, which implies the right of everyone to form and to join trade Earth Governments for the protection of his or her interests.
    2.     Political parties at Earth Government level contribute to expressing the political will of the Global Community citizens of Earth Government.
    Article 8:    Freedom of the arts and sciences
    The arts and scientific research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.
    Article 9:    Right to education
    1.     Everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
    2.     This right includes the possibility to receive free compulsory education.
    3.     The freedom to found educational establishments with due respect for democratic principles and the right of parents to ensure the education and teaching of their children in conformity with their religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of such freedom and right.
    Article 10:    Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work
    1.     Everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation.
    2.     Every citizen of Earth Government has the freedom to seek employment, to work, to exercise the right of establishment and to provide services in any Member Nation.
    3.     Nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of Member Nations are entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of Global Community citizens of Earth Government.
    Article 11:    Freedom to conduct a business
    The freedom to conduct a business in accordance with Earth Government law and national laws and practices is recognised.
    Article 12:    Right to property
    1.     Everyone has the right to own, use, dispose of and bequeath his or her lawfully acquired possessions. No one may be deprived of his or her possessions, except in the public interest and in the cases and under the conditions provided for by law, subject to fair compensation being paid in good time for their loss. The use of property may be regulated by law insofar as is necessary for the general interest.
    2.     Intellectual property shall be protected.
    Article 13:    Right to asylum
    The right to asylum shall be guaranteed with due respect for the rules of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of refugees and in accordance with the Constitution.
    Article 14:    Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition
    1.     Collective expulsions are prohibited.
    2.     No one may be removed, expelled or extradited to a Nation where there is a serious risk that he or she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

    Chapter 10.4.5     Equality
    Article 1:    Equality before the law
    Everyone is equal before the law.
    Article 2:    Non-discrimination
    1.     Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
    2.     Within the scope of application of the Constitution and without prejudice to any of its specific provisions, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.
    Article 3:    Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity
    Earth Government shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.
    Article 4:    Equality between men and women
    Equality between men and women must be ensured in all areas, including employment, work and pay. The principle of equality shall not prevent the maintenance or adoption of measures providing for specific advantages in favour of the under-represented sex.
    Article 5:    The rights of the child
    1.     Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is necessary for their well-being. They may express their views freely. Such views shall be taken into consideration on matters which concern them in accordance with their age and maturity.
    2.     In all actions relating to children, whether taken by public authorities or private Institutions, the child's best interests must be a primary consideration.
    3.     Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal relationship and direct contact with both his or her parents, unless that is contrary to his or her interests.
    Article 6:    The rights of the elderly
    Earth Government recognises and respects the rights of the elderly to lead a life of dignity and independence and to participate in social and cultural life.
    Article 7:    Integration of persons with disabilities
    Earth Government recognises and respects the right of persons with disabilities to benefit from measures designed to ensure their independence, social and occupational integration and participation in the life of the community.
    Chapter 10.4.6     Solidarity
    Article 1:    Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking
    Workers or their representatives must, at the appropriate levels, be guaranteed information and consultation in good time in the cases and under the conditions provided for by Earth Government law and national laws and practices.
    Article 2:    Right of collective bargaining and action
    Workers and employers, or their respective organisations, have, in accordance with Earth Government law and national laws and practices, the right to negotiate and conclude collective agreements at the appropriate levels and, in cases of conflicts of interest, to take collective action to defend their interests, including strike action.
    Article 3:    Right of access to placement services
    Everyone has the right of access to a free placement service.
    Article 4:    Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal
    Every worker has the right to protection against unjustified dismissal, in accordance with Earth Government law and national laws and practices.
    Article 5:    Fair and just working conditions
    1.     Every worker has the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and dignity.
    2.     Every worker has the right to limitation of maximum working hours, to daily and weekly rest periods and to an annual period of paid leave.
    Article 6:    Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work
    The employment of children is prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not be lower than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as may be more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations. Young people admitted to work must have working conditions appropriate to their age and be protected against economic exploitation and any work likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social development or to interfere with their education.
    Article 7:    Family and professional life
    1.     The family shall enjoy legal, economic and social protection.
    2.     To reconcile family and professional life, everyone shall have the right to protection from dismissal for a reason connected with maternity and the right to paid maternity leave and to parental leave following the birth or adoption of a child.
    Article 8:    Social security and social assistance
    1.     Earth Government recognises and respects the entitlement to social security benefits and social services providing protection in cases such as maternity, illness, industrial accidents, dependency or old age, and in the case of loss of employment, in accordance with the rules laid down by Earth Government law and national laws and practices.
    2.     Everyone residing and moving legally within Earth Government is entitled to social security benefits and social advantages in accordance with Earth Government law and national laws and practices.
    3.     In order to combat social exclusion and poverty, Earth Government recognises and respects the right to social and housing assistance so as to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack sufficient resources, in accordance with the rules laid down by Earth Government law and national laws and practices.
    Article 9:    Health care
    Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment under the conditions established by national laws and practices. A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Earth Government policies and activities.
    Article 10:    Access to services of general economic interest
    Earth Government recognises and respects access to services of general economic interest as provided for in national laws and practices, in accordance with the Constitution, in order to promote the social and territorial cohesion of Earth Government.
    Article 11:    Environmental protection
    A high level of environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of the environment must be integrated into the policies of Earth Government and ensured in accordance with the principle of sustainable development.
    Article 12:    Consumer protection
    Earth Government policies shall ensure a high level of consumer protection.
    Chapter 10.4.7     Universal health care, education, retirement security and employment services to every Global Community citizen
    Article 1:    Universal services
    Implemented through the Global Community with built-in mechanisms for optimum input and oversight guaranteed to all member-states, the Global Community offers a practicable starting point for achieving:
    (a)     a healthful, sustainable environment for every global community citizen,
    (b)     universal health care, publicly supported,
    (c)     education for all based upon individual capability,
    (d)     creative/productive employment for every global community citizen, and
    (e)     post-retirement security.

    This effort will lead over time to an escalation of human values and symbiotical relationships transcending money centered economics.
    Chapter 10.4.8     The immediate formation of the Earth Ministry of Health
    Article 1:    The immediate formation of the Earth Ministry of Health
    Earth Government is calling for the immediate formation of the Earth Ministry of Health. The globalization of trade, the extensive mouvement of people all over the world, the increase of poverty and diseases in developing countries and all over the world, have caused pathogens and exotic diseases to migrate over enormous distances and now, are an increasing threat to local ecosystems and communities, economies and health of every human being and all life. The Global Community, the Human Family, is calling this threat of the upmost importance and must be dealt with immediately by every nation. We must manage health in the world. We are calling for the immediate creation of the Earth Ministry of Health.

    Formation of a Global Ministry of Environmental Health
    1.     Must be non-profit, grassroots, and at community level.
    2.     Finances: drug companies and governments.
    3.    Global Declaration
    a)    very strict and mandatory
    b)    all nations participate
    c)    scientists and professionals in the fields who have dedicated their lives to environmental health
    d)    humanitarians
    Chapter 10.4.9     Legal rights
    Article 1: Everyone has the right to security of person.
    Article 2: No one shall be held in slavery.
    Article 3: No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
    Article 4: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
    Article 5:  Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence.
    Article 6: Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
    Article 7: Well-being
    (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
    2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

    Chapter 10.5     Section  3.    The ecological rights, the protection of the global life-support systems and the primordial human rights of future generations
    Article 1:    All rights of Sections 1 and 2 apply to future generations.
    Article 2:    Earth Government protects rights of future generations
    Earth Government shall protect the ecological rights, the global life-support systems and the primordial human rights of future generations. Global Parliament shall make legislation to that effect.

    The Global Community was built from a grassroots process with a vision for humanity that is challenging every person on Earth as well as nation governments, and has a vision of the people working together building a new civilization including a healthy and rewarding future for the next generations. Global cooperation brings people together for a common future for the good of all.


    Chapter 10.6     Section  4.    Community rights, rights of direct democracy, the right that the greatest number of people has by virtue of its number (50% plus one) and after voting representatives democratically
    Chapter 10.6.1     Rights of Global Community citizens
    Article 1:    Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the Global Parliament
    1.     Every citizen of Earth Government has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the Global Parliament in Member Nation in which he or she resides, under the same conditions as nationals of that Nation.
    2.     Members of the Global Parliament shall be elected by direct universal suffrage in a free and secret ballot.
    Article 2:    Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections
    Every citizen of Earth Government has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections in Member Nation in which he or she resides under the same conditions as nationals of that Nation.
    Article 3:    Right to good administration
    1.     Every person has the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the Institutions, bodies and agencies of Earth Government.
    2.     This right includes:
    (a)     the right of every person to be heard, before any individual measure which would affect him or her adversely is taken;
    (b)     the right of every person to have access to his or her file, while respecting the legitimate interests of confidentiality and of professional and business secrecy;
    (c)     the obligation of the administration to give reasons for its decisions.
    3.     Every person has the right to have Earth Government make good any damage caused by its Institutions or by its servants in the performance of their duties, in accordance with the general principles common to the laws of Member Nations.
    4.     Every person may write to the Institutions of Earth Government in one of the languages of the Constitution and must have an answer in the same language.
    Article 4:    Right of access to documents
    Any citizen of Earth Government, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member Nation, has a right of access to documents of the Institutions, bodies and agencies of Earth Government, in whatever form they are produced.
    Article 5:    Global Ombudsperson
    Any citizen of Earth Government and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member Nation has the right to refer to the global Ombudsperson cases of maladministration in the activities of the Institutions, bodies or agencies of Earth Government, with the exception of the global Court of Justice and the High Court acting in their judicial role.
    Article 6:    Right to petition
    Any citizen of Earth Government and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member Nation has the right to petition Global Parliament .
    Article 7:    Freedom of movement and of residence
    1.     Every citizen of Earth Government has the right to move and reside freely within the territory of Member Nations.
    2.     Freedom of movement and residence may be granted, in accordance with the Constitution, to nationals of third countries legally resident in the territory of a Member Nation.
    Article 8:    Diplomatic and consular protection
    Every citizen of Earth Government shall, in the territory of a third country in which Member Nation of which he or she is a national is not represented, be entitled to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any Member Nation, on the same conditions as the nationals of that Member Nation.
    Chapter 10.6.2     Justice
    Article 1:    Right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial
    Everyone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of Earth Government are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article. Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal previously established by law. Everyone shall have the possibility of being advised, defended and represented. Legal aid shall be made available to those who lack sufficient resources insofar as such aid is necessary to ensure effective access to justice.
    Article 2:    Presumption of innocence and right of defence
    1.     Everyone who has been charged shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
    2.     Respect for the rights of the defence of anyone who has been charged shall be guaranteed.
    Article 3:    Principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and penalties
    1.     No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national law or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the Global Judiciary of a criminal offence, the law provides for a lighter penalty, that penalty shall be applicable.
    2.     This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles recognised by the community of nations.
    3.     The severity of penalties must not be disproportionate to the criminal offence.
    Article 4:    Right not to be tried or punished twice in criminal proceedings for the same criminal offence
    No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings for an offence for which he or she has already been finally acquitted or convicted within Earth Government in accordance with the law.
    Article 5:    A sense of belonging given to the Global Community
    Earth Government shall create a sense of belonging given to the Global Community for all global citizens.
    Article 6:    Directive Principles for Global Community citizens
    It shall be the aim of Earth Government to secure certain other rights for all inhabitants within the federation of all nations, but without immediate guarantee of universal achievement and enforcement. These rights are defined as Directive Principles, obligating Earth Government to pursue every reasonable means for universal realization and implementation.
    a)     Prohibition against the death penalty.
    b)     Freedom for change of residence to anywhere on Earth conditioned by provisions for temporary sanctuaries in events of large numbers of refugees, stateless persons, or mass migrations.
    c)     Full access to information and to the accumulated knowledge of the human race.
    d)     Free and adequate public education available to everyone, extending to the pre-university level; Equal opportunities for elementary and higher education for all persons; equal opportunity for continued education for all persons throughout life; the right of any person or parent to choose a private educational institution at any time.
    e)     Free and adequate public health services and medical care available to everyone throughout life under conditions of free choice.
    f)     Equal opportunity for useful employment for everyone, with wages or remuneration sufficient to assure human dignity.
    g)     Freedom for investigation, research and reporting.
    h)     Freedom to travel without passport or visas or other forms of registration used to limit travel between, among or within nations.
    i)     Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
    j)     Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
    k)     The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
    l)     Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
    m)     The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.
    n)     Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
    o)     In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.

    Chapter 10.6.3     Rights of direct democracy
    Article 1:    Rights of direct democracy
    As defined in Article 10 of Chapter 9, direct democracy is a community right. Direct democracy is the right of global citizens to hold referendums on any issue -- and to veto legislation.

    Direct Democracy implies that:
    *     Global Citizens are willing and able to participate fully in the decision making process on issues that most affect them.
    *     Global Citizens should have full access to information on global affairs, and the conduct of global business should be open and transparent, with a well-developed global-wide communication system.
    *     Global Parliament should always recognize that it is accountable to Global Citizens.
    *     Direct democracy will encourage global citizen input into global policy, and enable Global Citizens to participate more actively in global affairs.
    *     Direct democracy will raise the level of public awareness and encourage debate of key global issues.
    *     Global Parliament can exercise the leadership necessary to become a model of effective ďdirect democracyĒ for all global communities.
    *     A direct democracy global law gives Global Citizens and Global Parliament an effective and orderly way of addressing contentious issues.
    *     A direct democracy global law strengthens the hand of Global Parliament by providing additional credibility in dealing with senior governments and non-elected bodies.
    *     A direct democracy bylaw shows that Global Parliament has faith in its Global Citizens. Thus, Global Parliament in turn earns increased respect from Global Citizens.
    *     Direct democracy does not mean government by referendum. Almost all Global Parliament decisions would continue to be made as they are now with the usual consultative processes. Few issues would be important and contentious enough to prompt referenda.




    Direct democracy is important to sustain life on the planet but its position on the Scale gives it its overall importance. 'Direct democracy' is very much like a voting system based on 'proportional representation'. There are many different aspects of 'direct democracy'. For instance, in a single riding there may be as many as 8 seats and and several candidates running. Parties offer voters a slate of local candidates. Voters can rank candidates of the same party, but may also choose to give support to candidates of different parties. Voters rank as many or as few candidates as they wish. Voters can rank any number of candidates without fear their vote will be wasted by selecting unpopular candidates. A voterís rankings will be considered in order until that voterís ballot can be used. When your number one choice is eliminated for lack of support your number two becomes your first choice. When a voterís ballot is used in support of a given candidate, but that candidate has a surplus of votes, a ballotís unused portion will be transferred to the voterís next choice until a ballotís full value has been used. Most votes will count, little fear of wasting oneís vote, no fear of vote splitting. No need to support a candidate or party you donít really want for fear of helping elect those you like even less. You can vote authentically. This is freedom for voters. This is how democracy is supposed to work. This voting system empowers voters more than parties because votes are for candidates not for parties. Also, candidate selection will take place at the local riding level, not at party head office. Most importantly, voters will rank candidates of the same party as well as candidates of different parties. It maximizes choice for voters. Competition is not just between candidates of different parties but also between candidates of the same party. This voting system is also a measure of independence from party control and that will make a very significant contribution to greater accountability in government. It will yield a legislature that mirrors the political, social, ethnic, and geographic diversity of a population. Electing candidates in multi-member ridings ensures a broader range of political interests and issues will be represented than is possible under any other system. Preferential voting induces a politics of cooperation, consensus, and civility.

    Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein all citizens can directly participate in the political decision-making process. Some proposed systems would give people both legislative and executive powers, but most extant systems allow input into the legislative process only. Direct democracy in its traditional form is rule by the people through referenda. The people are given the right to pass laws, veto laws and withdraw support from a representative (if the system has representatives) at any time.

    Direct democracy in its modern sense is characterized by three pillars:

    *     Initiative
    *     Referendum including binding referenda
    *     Recall

    The second pillar can include the ability to hold a binding referendum on whether a given law should be scrapped. This effectively grants the populace a veto on government legislation. The third pillar gives the people the right to recall elected officials by petition and referendum.

    In Canada, the use of citizens' assemblies (also known as an estates-general in the province of Quebec), involving citizen bodies chosen at random, is growing and avoids the disadvantages of older, more plebiscitary forms of direct democracy. The province of British Columbia recently set up a Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform in which members were chosen at random for each riding. The citizens' assembly has just recommended the province use Single Transferable Voting (STV) to elect the provincial legislature. In a referendum conducted on May 17, 2005, 57% of the voters approved by this new system of voting.

    Chapter 10.7     Section  5.    Economic (business and consumer rights, and their responsibilities and accountabilities) and social rights (civil and political rights)
    Chapter 10.7.1     Economic (business and consumer rights, and their responsibilities and accountabilities)
    Article 1:     A democratically planned global economy is needed to eradicate poverty in the world
    A)     Eradicate poverty as an ethical, social, and environmental imperative

    a.     Guarantee the right to potable water, clean air, food security, uncontaminated soil, shelter, and safe sanitation, allocating the national and international resources required.
    b.     Empower every human being with the education and resources to secure a sustainable livelihood, and provide social security and safety nets for those who are unable to support themselves.
    c.     Recognize the ignored, protect the vulnerable, serve those who suffer, and enable them to develop their capacities and to pursue their aspirations.

    B)     Ensure that economic activities and institutions at all levels promote human development in an equitable and sustainable manner

    a.     Promote the equitable distribution of wealth within nations and among nations.
    b.     Enhance the intellectual, financial, technical, and social resources of developing nations, and relieve them of onerous international debt.
    c.     Ensure that all trade supports sustainable resource use, environmental protection, and progressive labor standards.
    d.     Require multinational corporations and international financial organizations to act transparently in the public good, and hold them accountable for the consequences of their activities.

    C)     Affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to sustainable development and ensure universal access to education, health care, and economic opportunity

    a.     Secure the human rights of women and girls and end all violence against them.
    b.     Promote the active participation of women in all aspects of economic, political, civil, social, and cultural life as full and equal partners, decision makers, leaders, and beneficiaries.
    c.     Strengthen families and ensure the safety and loving nurture of all family members.

    D)     Uphold the right of all, without discrimination, to a natural and social environment supportive of human dignity, bodily health, and spiritual well-being, with special attention to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities

    a.     Eliminate discrimination in all its forms, such as that based on race, color, sex, sexual orientation, religion, language, and national, ethnic or social origin.
    b.     Affirm the right of indigenous peoples to their spirituality, knowledge, lands and resources and to their related practice of sustainable livelihoods.
    c.     Honor and support the young people of our communities, enabling them to fulfill their essential role in creating sustainable societies.
    d.     Protect and restore outstanding places of cultural and spiritual significance.

    Article 2:     Corporations that they take responsibility on behalf of society
    Earth Government proposes to corporations that they take responsibility on behalf of society and people, and that they should pay more attention to human and Earth rights, working conditions and getting ride of corruption in the world of business and trade. Earth Government has developed a criteria, the Certified Corporate Global Community Citizenship, for businesses and ask everyone to turn it into practice. Governments should encourage enterprises to use the criteria both by legal and moral means. At first, the criteria should be adopted in key areas such as procurement, facilities management, investment management, and human resources. Corporations want to be seen as good corporate leaders and have a stronger form of accountability. Business and trade will prosper after stronger common bonds and values have been established. Adopting the criteria will have a beneficial impact on future returns, and share price performance. Complying with the Criteria will help businesses to be part of the solution to the challenges of globalisation. In this way, the private sector in partnership with the civil society can help realize a vision: allowing a global equitable and peaceful development and a more stable and inclusive global economy.

    There is a need to have a sense of direction or proper guidance for projects and programs. On reviewing a development projects, the Global Community investigate the development proposal. Some of the questions to be asked include:

    Is the project one which affects, or is affected by the natural environments?
    Is the projects one which has the potential to affect land, water, air?
    Does the project affect commerce, employment, industry, lifestyles, etc.?
    Is the project one which affects existing public facilities, public services, utilities, institutions?
    Is the project one which affects the local tax base, property values, minority group, special interest groups, traffic?
    Is the project one which affects the community character and stability?
    Is there an anticipated organized opposition to the proposal?
    Does the project significantly affect historic and conservation lands?
    Will the project have impacts which have the potential to degrade the quality of the environment?
    Will the environmental effects of the project cause substantial adverse effects on human beings?
    Are the development and the existing habitats compatible? If "YES", what conservation methods will be necessary to protect the habitats?
    if the developer described conservation methods that will be used to protect sensitive habitats, are they likely to be successful?
    Are the claims of the developer with respect to these conservation methods realistic?
    If the development and habitats are not compatible, what communities will be at risk from:

    1. physical destruction;
    2. changes in groundwater level;
    3. change in quality of standing or flowing water, Oxygen content, salinity, turbidity, flow rate and temperature;
    4. chemical pollution change in sitting;
    5. air pollution; dust depositing;
    6. changes in nutrient status of habitats;

    In each of the above cases, what is the local, regional and national status of any habitats at risk?
    What dependent communities will be at risk?

    The Global Community Assessment Centre (GCAC) guides businesses on how to better integrate the Criteria issues in business. In the context of a healthy world sustainable development, companies shall perform better and increase shareholder value by properly managing risks, anticipating regulatory action or accessing new markets. Tangible results of adopting the Criteria include a better company reflected in its reputation and quality of brands.

    Complying with the Criteria is a tremendous asset to business owners, self-regulatory organizations, investors, brokers, regulators, stock exchanges, accountants, analysts, financial advisers, asset managers, and consultants. It will contribute to strengthen investment markets.

    Article 3:     The quality of Earth governance is reflected in each local community worldwide
    The quality of Earth governance is reflected in each local community worldwide. Earth Government shall show leadership by creating a global civil ethic within our ways of life. This Constitution describes all values needed for good global governance: mutual respect, tolerance, respect for life, justice for all everywhere, integrity, and caring. The Scale of Human and Earth Rights has become an inner truth and the benchmark of the millennium in how everyone sees all values. The Scale encompasses the right of all people to:
    *     the preservation of ethnicity;
    *     equitable treatment, including gender equity;
    *     security;
    *     protection against corruption and the military;
    *     earn a fair living, have shelter and provide for their own welfare and that of their family;
    *     peace and stability;
    *     universal value systems;
    *     participation in governance at all levels;
    *     access the Earth Court of Justice for redress of gross injustices; and
    *     equal access to information


    Article 4:     To make a business even better
    As a business you may:

    a)     be a corporate Knight
    b)     be a socially responsible investor
    c)     have taken the challenge of a more integrated approach to corporate responsibility by placing environmental and community-based objectives and measures onto the decision-making table alongside with the strategic business planning and operational factors that impact your bottom-line results
    d)    provide not only competitive return to your shareholders but you also operate your business in light of environmental and social contributions, and you have understood the interdependence between financial performance, environmental performance and commitment to the community
    e)     have taken a full life-cycle approach to integrate and balance environmental and economic decisions for major projects
    f)     have an active Environmental, Health and Safety Committee and integrated codes of conduct, policies, standards and operating procedures to reflect your corporate responsibility management
    g)     have scored high on categories such as:

    *     environmental performance
    *     product safety
    *     business practices
    *     help small business in the least developed countries
    *     commitment to the community
    *     abolition of child labour
    *     eliminate discrimination in respect of employment and occupation
    *     employee relations and diversity
    *     effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining
    *     corporate governance
    *     share performance
    *     global corporate responsibility
    *     against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery
    *     health, safety and security
    *     provided help to combat diseases such as AIDS
    *     uphold the freedom of association
    *     audits and inspections
    *     emergency preparedness
    *     corporate global ethical values
    *     ensured decent working conditions
    *     implemented no-bribe policies
    *     standards of honesty, integrity and ethical behaviour
    *     elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour
    *     in line with the Scale of Human and Earth Rights and the Global Constitution
    h)     support a balance and responsible approach that promotes action on the issue of climate change as well as all other issues related to the global life-support systems:

    *     global warming
    *     Ozone layer
    *     wastes of all kind including nuclear and release of radiation
    *     climate change
    *     species of the fauna and flora becoming extinct
    *     losses of forest cover and of biological diversity
    *     the capacity for photosynthesis
    *     the water cycle
    *     food production systems
    *     genetic resources
    *     chemicals produced for human use and not found in nature and, eventually, reaching the environment with impacts on Earth's waters, soils, air, and ecology


    Now is time to reach a higher level of protection to life on Earth. We all need this for the survival of our species. Earth Government can help you integrate and balance global life-support systems protection, global community participation, and economic decisions into your operations and products.

    Earth Government wants to help you be an active corporate member of the Global Community, the human family, the Earth Community.

    Apply to us to be a global corporate citizen of the Global Community. Apply to obtain the Certified Corporate Global Community Citizenship

    A Certified Corporate Global Community Citizenship is a unique way to show the world that your ways of doing business are best for the Global Community.

    You can obtain the citizenship after accepting the Criteria of the Global Community Citizenship and following an assessment of your business. The process shown here is now standardized to all applicants. Earth Government then asked to operate your business as per the values of the citizenship.
    Article 5:    Scientists, tehnologists, technicians, engineers and all professionals to find sound solutions to human needs
    The Global Community has come to realize that peoples live in a world of increasing interdependence and our faith is intrinsically related to the preservation of the global life-support systems for the survival of humanity and all forms of life. Earth Government is calling upon scientists, tehnologists, technicians, engineers and all professionals to:

    a) create positive actions in their own fields to use the knowledge of science in a responsible manner, and
    b) find sound solutions to human needs and to fulfill aspirations without misusing human knowledge.
    Article 6:    Science has a responsibility for the well-being of humanity.
    Science gives a person a set of rules, a way of thinking, a philosophy to look at the physical universe, to observe and analyze it, and to discover its making, its functioning, and its structure. The scientific method is very reassuring to oneself. It gives us the basic reasoning we need in order to make informed and sound policy and management decisions.

    Science has a responsibility for the well-being of humanity. Science is found everywhere in our societies. Because of science, new technologies and techniques were developed and used in the market place. The products of science take important places in all aspects of our lives and actually save lives every second. They make our lives manageable in a million difeerent ways. Science has also played a destructive role in our history and is continuing to do so today. Science, technology and engineering are directly or indirectly responsible for threats to our environment, for wasteful uses of the Earth's resources and for wars and conflicts in the world.
    Article 7:    Science, technology and engineering are major forces of socio-economic change.
    Science, technology and engineering are major forces of socio-economic change. They cause humanity and its social and natural environment to evolve rapidly and, therefore, they carry serious responsibility and accountability. They are no longer regarded as benefactors of humanity. Ethical integrity has declined. In several parts of the world people have become suspicious and are questioning abuses of various kinds. Many scientists and other professionals have shown little regard to ethical problems arising from their work and must become responsible and accountable just like everyone else. There are no exception. We are all asked in helping humanity and all life on Earth from complete extinction. It is a common goal.
    Article 8:    Public funding should be directed towards very specific research projects related to the life-support system of the planet
    Researchers and other professionals receive public funding for finding solutions to problems in society. Public funding should be directed towards very specific research projects related to the life-support system of the planet and to a more sustainable biosphere.
    Article 9:    Science, technology and engineering to state ethical responsibilties and become a voice to present and future generations
    Science, technology and engineering must regain public trust, state ethical responsibilties and become a voice to present and future generations. Continuous discussions are needed on the ethical issues related to science, technology and engineering, their practices and ideologies.

    The public should be informed about research projects and their wider implications. All parties involved should collaborate with the public. Strong legal and moral safeguards must be implemented to discourage unethical practice and the wrongly use of science, technology and engineering for the development and manufacturing of mass destruction weapons, and for experiments which do not respect the dignity of human persons and animals.

    Article 10:    Prohibiting all acts, research projects, technology development, which do not conform to the ideas of humanity.
    Just as for human rights, the respect of the dignity of the human person is at the root of the ethics of science, technology and engineering. The Scale of Human Rights is aimed at prohibiting all acts, research projects, technology development, which do not conform to the ideas of humanity.

    There are many aspects of science, technology and engineering that must be discussed with respect to the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. For instances: cloning of human beings, and prohibiting the making of the human body and its products as a source of financial gain.

    Article 11:    A set of rules to balance consumption, consumer rights and responsibilities
    Globalization is a process interaction which involves growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide with implications and impacts on social, cultural, political, environmental and familial aspects and rights. With the globalization of the economy comes now the task for defining the obligations that go with the rights. This phenomenon is also present in the arena of international finance. In this area, however, the presumed virtues of globalization are far from being materialised. Until now, no orderly or stable financial system has been implemented. Furthermore, the current financial system does not succeed in channelling sufficient funds to finance crucial world problems such as adequate social development in poor countries. We have assigned ourselves the task of defining a set of rules to balance consumption, consumer rights and responsibilities :
    a)     Socially responsible and sustainable to future generations
    b)     In line with the universal values defined in this Constitution
    Article 12:    Democracy is not to be enforced by anyone and to anyone or to any global community
    The political system of an individual country does not have to be a democracy. Political rights of a country belong to that country alone. Democracy is not to be enforced by anyone and to anyone or to any global community. Every Member Nation of Earth Government can and should choose the political system of their choice with the understanding of the importance of such a right on the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. On the other hand, representatives to Earth Government must be elected democratically in every part of the world. An individual country may have any political system at home but the government of that country will have to ensure (and allow verification by Earth Government) that representatives to Earth Government have been elected democratically. This way, every person in the world can claim the birth right of electing a democratic government to manage Earth: the rights to vote and elect representatives to form Earth Government.
    Article 13:    The role of families has impacts on sustainable consumption and development
    Global consumption is a very important aspect of a community's needs. Consumers should be concerned with the impact of their decisions on the environment but also on the lives, human and Earth rights and well-being of other people. Since one of the key functions of families as a social institution is to engage in production (selling their labour in return for wages) and consumption (using those wages to buy goods and services), then the role of families has impacts on sustainable consumption and development. This certainly limits the rights of a family and of a community.
    Article 14:    Universal quality of life values which lead to 'human betterment' or the improvement of the human condition
    Just as corporations have social responsibilities and so do consumers in societies. Consumers are socialized to improve the quality of their lives. Quality of life is a multi-dimensional, complex and very subjective concept. For instance, someone who has changed their consumption habits to better ensure that their choices will make a better quality of life for themselves, the environment and future generations, may be seen by others as having a lower or inferior quality of life since they have removed themselves from the materialistic mainstream characteristic of our consumer society. Someone may feel that an absence of violence and abuse in their life leads to a higher quality of living even though they have fewer tangible resources, money, or shelter; peace of mind and freedom from abuse has increased the quality of their daily life relative to what it was like before. There are universal quality of life values which lead to 'human betterment' or the improvement of the human condition. In addition to the value of species survival (human and other living organisms), they include: adequate resources, justice and equality, freedom, and peace or balance of power. A better quality of life for all people of the Global Community is a goal for all of us.
    Article 15:     Trade laws to facilitate cross border transactions
    Consumers' rights impinge on the rights of other humans living in the Global Community. The right to choice is the consumer right that refers to the right to have a range and variety of goods and services at competitive, fair prices and variable, satisfactory quality. In order to assure choice in the developed country markets, governments have implemented trade laws to facilitate cross border transactions and transnational corporations (TNCs) have set up business off shore so they can lessen the cost of the production process. The goods that are available in the developed country markets are provided by slave labour, child labour, sweatshops or in countries that allow the TNCs to forego adhering to pollution or ecological concerns and human rights in pursuit of profit. Labour rights are abused in efforts to earn more profits. This leads to abhorrent working conditions, job insecurity and low living standards (all human rights). Consumers in developed countries have been socialized to want more and more things to consume but have not been socialized to appreciate the impact of their consumption choices on the human rights of other people; that is, they are not being responsible for their decisions.
    Article 16:     Social justice is a universal value
    As universal values, equality, justice and freedoms are concerned with our ability to decide, to choose values and to participate in the making of laws, and they are dependent on the recognition of other people. These values forbid any form of discrimination on the grounds of race, nationality, sex, religion, age or mother tongue. By accepting both values of freedom and equality we can achieve justice. One can be answerable for one's actions in a 'just' way only if judgements are given in the framework of democratically established laws and courts. Social justice is another universal value to which Earth Government aspires and accepts as a universal value. Social justice consists in sharing wealth with a view to greater equality and the equal recognition of each individual's merits. All persons within a given society deserve equal access to goods and services that fulfill basic human needs.

    Chapter 10.7.2     Social rights (civil and political rights)
    Article 1:     Social justice
    The debt of developing countries was really a global tax developed countries had to pay to developing countries The Earth Court of Justice is required to rule that the debt of the poor nations or 'developing nations' to the rich nations was in actuality a form of global tax and therefore the poor or 'developing' nations dont have to pay it back. In fact poor nations should expect way more money as tax by the rich nations and not as loans. The state of the world today is the result of a specific set of interlocking institutions: the IMF, the World Bank and the WTO. These institutions are designed to generate massive wealth for the few and poverty for the rest. The same people who make the decisions in government and corporation make the profit. They create a tight concentration of power. Together they are a form of anti-government whose only goal is profit. The IMF, through Structural Adjustment Programs, now directly runs the economies of over 70 countries. That means that about 1000 economists and bureaucrats control the economic policies for 1.4 billion people in these countries. That is a form of anti-government. The people that profit most from the global economy are white people. The people who are most oppressed by the global economy are people of colour. Racism and sexism have become the norm. The entire planet is in a state of low intensity civil war.The ruling elite profit off of the exploitation of the rest of the world. Earth Government was looking for a method of raising global taxes, of redistributing incomes to the poorest communities, of providing debt-free technical assistance to non-industrial and developing countries to help them out of poverty and to meet environmental and social standards, but there it was all along right on our eyes. The Earth Court of Justice will be asked to decide on the debt be changed into an actual tax to be paid by the rich nations to the poor nations, and to decide on the amount of tax to be paid. Developing nations will then be able to start rebuilding their communities as per the Scale of Human and Earth Rights and the Global Constitution. They will not have to satisfy the economic needs and wishes of the rich nations. The Earth Court of Justice will also be asked to rule illegal the activities of the IMF, the World Bank and the WTO unless they become a part of a greater whole such as the Earth Ministry of Financial Institutions, a part of Earth Government. These institutions will be controlled by the greater whole.

    Article 2:    Socially responsible use of science and technology
    Earth Government shall explore ways of encouraging a more socially responsible use of science and technology in a number of fields, including information technology, biotechnology and genetic engineering. It also explores corporate responsibility, often generated in relation to social and environmental issues.
    Article 3:    Civil and social rights and freedoms
    a)     Assure to each child the right to the full realization of his or her potential.
    b)     Social Security for everyone to relieve the hazards of unemployment, sickness, old age, family circumstances, disability, catastrophies of nature, and technological change, and to allow retirement with sufficient lifetime income for living under condi tions of human dignity during older age.
    c)     Equal opportunity for leisure time for everyone; better distribution of the work load of society so that every person may have equitable leisure time opportunities.
    d)     Equal opportunity for everyone to enjoy the benefits of scientific and technological discoveries and developments.
    e)     Freedom of choice in work, occupation, employment or profession.
    f)     Right of privacy of person, family and association; prohibition against surveillance as a means of political control.
    g)     Right to family planning and free public assistance to achieve family planning objectives.
    h)     Right of habeous corpus; no ex-post-facto laws; no double jeopardy; right to refuse self-incrimination or the incrimination of another.
    i)     Freedom of assembly, association, organization, petition and peaceful demonstration.
    j)     Freedom to vote without duress, and freedom for political organization and campaigning without censorship or recrimination.
    k)     Freedom to profess and promote political beliefs or no political beliefs.
    Article 4:    Democratic rights, and equality rights
    a)     Everyone has the right to a nationality;
    b)     Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others;
    c)     No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property;
    d)     Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association;
    e)     No one may be compelled to belong to an association;
    f)     Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives;
    g)     Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country;
    h)     Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality;
    i)     Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment;
    j)     Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work;
    k)     Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and  supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection;
    l)     Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests;
    m)     Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay; and n)     Everyone is entitled to a social and international order.

    Chapter 10.8     Section  6.    Cultural and religious rights
    Article 1:    Cultural and religious differences can promote human and Earth rights
    Traditional customs and standards could burden the sustainability of all life on Earth. They could burden Earth society or any society forever, and holds individuals in a straitjacket. We cannot accept that. No one can! There are choices to be made and you must make them. Cultures can develop and can go on developing. Even religious beliefs may evolve. We are living now and we are able to create these changes. Cultural and religious differences cannot be a reason or an excuse or a pretext for not respecting human and Earth rights including and most importantly the ecological rights. Quite the contrary, all kinds of cultures may promote human and Earth rights. They are different in their achievements, but they are equal in dignity where they are expressions of freedom. At any time or in any given place, men, women and children use their culture to invent new ways of making human and Earth rights a living reality. Diversity enriches us if it respects the dignity of each individual, and if it takes account of human and Earth rights as a whole.

    A sustainable world can be built with the help of a very powerful entity: the human spirit. Community participation generates the energy needed to sustain the planet and all life.



    Religious and environmental communities have formed a powerful alliance for sustainability.


    Intrinsic human cooperation at the core of creative cultural evolution promises to give rise to a new epoch for humanity defined by societal sustainability and lasting world peace. The biological basis for human cooperation and symbiotical relationships both validate and underlie evolutionary panaltruism in and beyond the twenty-first century. Twenty-first century education centered on human empathy and compassion and a terror-free global community by the year 2010 garners important impetus from The Golden Rule principle.

    The Golden Rule principle, also called the Ethic of Reciprocity by theologians, says: "Dont do to others what you wouldn't want done to you." Or treat others the way you would want to be treated. The Golden Rule has a moral aspect found in each religion or faith. It could be used as a global ethic. There are analogues for the golden rule in 13 faiths. These 13 analogue statements are passages found in the scriptures or writings that promote this ethos. Every faith is unanimous of saying that every individual should be treated with the same respect and dignity we all seek for ourselves. As a first step in bringing together religious leaders all around the world, the Global Community is presenting here 13 statements that unify us all in one Golden Rule.

    A new symbiotical relationship between religion and the protection of the global life-support systems has begun to take place all over the world. Religious rituals now support the conservation efforts and play a central role in governing sustainable use of the natural environment.

    Major faiths are issuing declarations, advocating for new national policies, and creating educational activities in support of a sustainable global community. The Global Community is establishing a symbiotical relationship between spirituality and science, between our heart and mind, and God, between religion and the environment.

    The human family is finding its role in the universe, a higher purpose and a meaning. We now can celebrate life.

    A sustainable world can be built with the help of a very powerful entity: the human spirit. Community participation generates the energy needed to sustain the planet and all life. Religious and environmental communities have formed a powerful alliance for sustainability. Our next objective will be to find statements from all religions that promote the respect, stewardship, protection, ethical and moral responsibility to life and of the environment, the Earth global life-support systems, and statements that promote a responsible Earth management. We are also asking for specific statements on environmental conservation such as those expressed by the Islamic religion.

    Societal sustainability in addressing international terrorism and the creation of a democratically planned global economy marshals previously untapped human cooperation, energy, and resources. Investigating, understanding, and eradicating the root causes of international terrorism entails objective analyses of all social dichotomies ranging in realm from religious dogmas, to political ideologies, to economic systems.

    Native Spirituality
    We are as much alive as we keep the Earth alive.
    Chief Dan George

    Sikhism
    I am a stranger to no one; and no one is a stranger to me. Indeed, I am a friend to all.
    Guru Granth Sahib, pg. 1299

    Christianity
    In everything, do to others as you would have them do to you; for this is the law and the prophets.
    Jesus, Matthews 7:12

    BaHa'I Faith
    Lay not on any soul a load that you would not wish to be laid upon you, and desire not for anyone the things you would not desire for yourself.
    Baha'ullah, Gleanings

    Judaism
    What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbour. This is the whole Torah; all the rest is commentary.
    Hillel, Talmud, Shabbat 31a

    Buddhism
    Treat not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.
    Udana-Varga 5.18

    Islam
    Not one of you truly believes until you wish for others what you wish for yourself.
    The Prophet Muhammad, Hadith

    Taoism
    Regard your neighbour's gain as your own gain, and your neighbour's loss as your own loss.
    T'ai Shang Kan Ying P'ien, 213-218

    Hinduism
    This is the sum of duty: do not do to others what would cause pain if done to you.
    Mahabharata 5:1517

    Confucianism
    One word which sums up the basis of all good conduct...loving kindness. Do not do to others what you do not want done to yourself.
    Confucius, Analeets, 15.23

    Jainism
    One should treat all creatures in the world as one would like to be treated.
    Mahavira,Sutrakritanga

    Unitarianism
    We affirm and promote respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part.
    Unitarian principle

    Zoroastrianism
    Do not do unto others whatever is injurious to yourself.
    Shayast-na-Shayast, 13.29

    Article 2:    Encouragement for cultural diversity
    Article 3:    Freedom for peaceful self-determination for minorities, refugees and dissenters
    Article 4:    Freedom to profess, practice and promote religious or religious beliefs or no religion or religious belief
    Article 5:    Fundamental freedoms, and language rights
    (1)    Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
    (2)    Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
    (3)    Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

    Article 6:    Right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community
    Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
    Article 7:    Freedom of thought and conscience
    Freedom of thought and conscience, speech, press, writing, communication, expression, publication, broadcasting, telecasting, and cinema, except as an overt part of or incitement to violence, armed riot or insurrection.
    Article 8:    A crime against the natural world is a sin
    To commit a crime against the natural world is a sin. It is a sin for humans to:
    a)     cause species to become extinct and to destroy the biological diversity of God's creation
    b)     degrade the integrity of Earth by causing changes in its climate, by stripping the Earth of its natural forests, or destroying its wetlands
    c)     injure other humans with disease
    d)     contaminate the Earth's waters, its land, its air, and its life, with poisonous substances

    We have become un-Creators. Earth is in jeopardy at our hands.
    Article 9:    The special responsibility that falls to all Global Community citizens
    The imperative first step is to repent of our sins, in the presence of God and one another. This repentance of our social and ecological sins will acknowledge the special responsibility that falls to those of us who are citizens of the world.
    Article 10:    God's sacred Earth is the moral assignment of our time
    Earth Government firmly believes that addressing the degradation of God's sacred Earth is the moral assignment of our time comparable to the Civil Rights struggles of the 1960s, the worldwide movement to achieve equality for women, or ongoing efforts to control weapons of mass destruction in a post-Hiroshima world.
    Article 11:    Ecological Affirmations of Faith
    a)     We stand with awe and gratitude as members of God's bountiful and good creation. We rejoice in the splendor and mystery of countless species, our common creaturehood, and the interdependence of all that God makes. We believe that the Earth is home for all and that it has been created intrinsically good.
    b)     We lament that the human species is shattering the splendid gifts of this web of life, ignoring our responsibility for the well being of all life, while destroying species and their habitats at a rate never before known in human history.
    c)     We believe that the Holy Spirit, who animates all of creation, breathes in us and can empower us to participate in working toward the flourishing of Earth's community of life. We believe that the people of God are called to forge ways of being human that enable socially just and ecologically sustainable communities to flourish for generations to come.
    d)     We lament that we have rejected this vocation, and have distorted our God-given abilities and knowledge in order to ransack and often destroy ecosystems and human communities rather than to protect, strengthen, and nourish them.
    e)     We believe that, in boundless love that hungers for justice, God acts to restore and redeem all creation (including human beings). God incarnate affirms all creation, which becomes a sacred window to eternity. In the cross and resurrection we know that God is drawn into life's most brutal and broken places and there brings forth healing and liberating power. That saving action restores right relationships among all members of the whole creation.
    f)     We confess that instead of living and proclaiming this salvation through our very lives and worship, we have abused and exploited the Earth and people on the margins of power and privilege, altering climates, extinguishing species, and jeopardizing Earth's capacity to sustain life as we know and love it.
    g)     We believe that the created world is sacred-a revelation of God's power and gracious presence filling all things. This sacred quality of creation demands moderation and sharing, urgent antidotes for our excess in consumption and waste, reminding us that economic justice is an essential condition of ecological integrity.
    h)     We cling to God's trustworthy promise to restore, renew, and fulfill all that God creates. We long for and work toward the day when churches, will respond to the groaning of creation and to God's passionate desire to renew the face of the Earth.
    i)     We look forward to the day when the lamentations and groans of creation will be over, justice with peace will reign, humankind will nurture not betray the Earth, and all of creation will sing for joy.

    Article 12:    Eco-justice
    The Global Community is compelled to seek eco-justice, the integration of social justice and ecological integrity.
    a)     The quest for eco-justice also implies the development of a set of human environmental rights, since one of the essential conditions of human well being is ecological integrity. These moral entitlements include protection of soils, air, and water from diverse pollutants; the preservation of biodiversity; and governmental actions ensuring the fair and frugal use of creation's riches.
    b)     Sustainability -- living within the bounds of planetary capacities indefinitely, in fairness to both present and future generations of life. God's covenant is with humanity and all other living creatures for all future generations. The concern for sustainability forces us to be responsible for the truly long-term impacts of our lifestyles and policies.
    c)     Bioresponsibility-- extending the covenant of justice to include all other life forms as beloved creatures of God and as expressions of God's presence, wisdom, power, and glory. We do not determine nor declare creation's value, and other creatures should not be treated merely as instruments for our needs and wants. Other species have their own integrity. They deserve a fair share of Earth's bounty- a share that allows a biodiversity of life to thrive along with human communities.
    d)     Humility--recognizing, as an antidote to arrogance, the limits of human knowledge, technological ingenuity, and moral character. We are not the masters of creation. Knowing human capacities for error and evil, humility keeps our own species in check for the good of the whole of Earth as God's creation.
    e)     Generosity--sharing Earth's riches to promote and defend the common good in recognition of God's purposes for the whole creation and God's gift of abundant life. Humans are not collections of isolated individuals, but rather communities of socially and ecologically interdependent beings. A measure of a good society is not whether it privileges those who already have much, but rather whether it privileges the most vulnerable members of creation. Essentially, these tasks require good government at all levels, from local to regional to national to Earth Government.
    f)     Frugality -- restraining economic production and consumption for the sake of eco-justice. Living lives filled with God's Spirit liberates us from the illusion of finding wholeness in the accumulation of material things and brings us to the reality of God's just purposes. Frugality connotes moderation, sufficiency, and temperance. Many call it simplicity. It demands the careful conservation of Earth's riches, comprehensive recycling, minimal harm to other species, material efficiency and the elimination of waste, and product durability. Frugality is the corrective to a cardinal vice of the age: prodigality - excessively taking from and wasting God's creation. On a finite planet, frugality is an expression of love and an instrument for justice and sustainability: it enables all life to thrive together by sparing and sharing global goods.
    g)     Solidarity -- acknowledging that we are increasingly bound together as a global community in which we bear responsibility for one another's well being. The social and environmental problems of the age must be addressed with cooperative action at all levels-local, regional, national and Earth Government. Solidarity is a commitment to the global common good through international cooperation.
    h)     Compassion -- sharing the joys and sufferings of all Earth's members and making them our own. The Global Community sees the vulnerable and excluded. From compassion flows inclusive caring and careful service to meet the needs of others.

     








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