Thousands of years ago, the human species was first created, engineered, on Earth, by extra-terrestrial Elohim beings.
by Germain Dufour
April 10, 2019
Note to the reader:
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Table of Contents of May 2019 Newsletter.
- The universe.
- Big Bang theory of the universe.
- General Relativity.
- Dark matter and dark energy.
- Quantum cosmology.
- String theory of quantum gravity.
- Second law of thermodynamics.
- Entropy and heat death of the universe.
- Religious or mythological cosmology.
- Over time, after the original book of the Bible, the Hebrew Bible, the names Elohim and YHWH were translated wrongly by later, succeeding, religious leaders.
- Evolutionist, Creationist, and Intelligent Design by extraterrestrial beings.
The universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the entire universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe: it is currently estimated to be 93 billion light years in diameter. In various multiverse hypotheses, a universe is one of many causally disconnected constituent parts of a larger multiverse, which itself comprises all of space and time and its contents.
The Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the Milky Way, which is one of at least hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe. Many of the stars in our galaxy have planets. At the largest scale, galaxies are distributed uniformly and the same in all directions, meaning that the universe has neither an edge nor a center. At smaller scales, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters which form immense filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century have suggested that the universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since then, and is currently still expanding at an increasing rate.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the universe. Under this theory, space and time emerged together 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago and the energy and matter initially present have become less dense as the universe expanded. After an initial accelerated expansion called the inflationary epoch at around 10−32 seconds, and the separation of the four known fundamental forces, the universe gradually cooled and continued to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and simple atoms to form. Dark matter gradually gathered forming a foam-like structure of filaments and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were gradually drawn to the places where dark matter was most dense, forming the first galaxies, stars, and everything else seen today. It is possible to see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light-years because space itself has expanded, and it is still expanding today. This means that objects which are now up to 46.5 billion light-years away can still be seen in their distant past, because in the past when their light was emitted, they were much closer to the Earth.
The age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%). This age may represent the age of the Earth's accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed. This dating is based on evidence from radiometric age-dating of meteorite material and is consistent with the radiometric ages of the oldest-known terrestrial and lunar samples. Following the development of radiometric age-dating in the early 20th century, measurements of lead in uranium-rich minerals showed that some were in excess of a billion years old. The oldest such minerals analyzed to date—small crystals of zircon from the Jack Hills of Western Australia—are at least 4.404 billion years old. Calcium–aluminium-rich inclusions —the oldest known solid constituents within meteorites that are formed within the Solar System—are 4.567 billion years old, giving a lower limit for the age of the solar system. It is hypothesised that the accretion of Earth began soon after the formation of the calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and the meteorites. Because the time this accretion process took is not yet known, and predictions from different accretion models range from a few million up to about 100 million years, the difference between the age of Earth and of the oldest rocks is difficult to determine. It is also difficult to determine the exact age of the oldest rocks on Earth, exposed at the surface, as they are aggregates of minerals of possibly different ages.
How Many Particles Are in the Observable universe? For this calculations, data from the Planck space telescope that was used to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), can give us a good estimate for the density and radius of the observable universe. Another variable is the fraction of matter that is stored in baryons, which are particles made up of three smaller particles called quarks (the most common baryons by far are protons and neutrons). Finally, consider the mass of a proton and a neutron (about the same), and you have everything you need to come up with a good estimate for how many particles are in the observable universe. In essence, we take the total density of the universe, multiplies it by the fraction of the density that is just baryons (protons and neutrons), multiplies that density by the volume of the universe to get the mass of all the baryons, and then divides that mass by the mass of one bayron to get the total number of baryons in the universe. But we are not looking for the number of baryons, we are looking for the number of particles. Each baryon is made up of three quarks, which are the particles we are counting. What's more, the total number of protons will equal the total number of electrons, which is the other particle we are counting. And in addition to that, we know that 75 percent of the universe is hydrogen and 25 percent is helium, and in a calculation of this scale, the rest is negligible. Using this information, we can calculates the number of baryons that are neutrons, the number that are protons, and the corresponding number of electrons. Now we multiply all the protons and neutrons by three for the quarks, and we have our number. So how many are there?
3.2679 particles in the universe.
Or more than a vigintillionbut less than acentillion. So, pretty much incomprehensible. However, given the enormity of the universe, even that incomprehensible number doesn't fill up much of the total volume. If there are 3.2679 particles in the universe, that means there is only about one particle per cubic meter. The majority of space is, after all, empty space.
From studying the movement of galaxies, it has been discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects; stars, galaxies, nebulas and interstellar gas. This unseen matter is known as dark matter (dark means that there is a wide range of strong indirect Shape Flat with only a 0.4% margin of error evidence that it exists, but we have not yet detected it directly). The ΛCDM model (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model, is the most widely accepted model of our universe. It suggests that about 69.2% ± 1.2% of the mass and energy in the universe is a cosmological constant (or, in extensions to ΛCDM, other forms of dark energy such as a scalar field) which is responsible for the current expansion of space, and about 25.8% ± 1.1% is dark matter. Ordinary ("baryonic") matter is therefore only 4.9% of the physical universe. Stars, planets, and visible gas clouds only form about 6% of ordinary matter, or about 0.3% of the entire universe. There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the universe and about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information about prior states will ever be accessible. Some physicists have suggested various multiverse hypotheses, in which our universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist.
The observable universe is a spherical region of the universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth or its space-based telescopes and exploratory probes at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach the Solar System and Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. There are at least 2 trillion galaxies in the observable universe. Assuming the universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable universe has a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the observer. Every location in the universe has its own observable universe, which may or may not overlap with the one centered on Earth.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the observable universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The model describes how the universe expanded from a very high-density and high-temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure and Hubble's law (the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth). If the observed conditions are extrapolated backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the prediction is that just before a period of very high density there was a singularity which is typically associated with the Big Bang. Physicists are undecided whether this means the universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the universe at that time. Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the universe. After its initial expansion, the universe cooled sufficiently to allow the formation of subatomic particles, and later simple atoms. Giant clouds of these primordial elements (mostly hydrogen, with some helium and lithium) later coalesced through gravity, eventually forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Astronomers also observe the gravitational effects of dark matter surrounding galaxies. Though most of the mass in the universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons) but it is unclear exactly what it is made out of.
The ΛCDM is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains three major components: first, a cosmological constant denoted by Lambda (Greek Λ) and associated with dark energy; second, the postulated cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM); and third, ordinary matter. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of Big Bang cosmology because it is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of the following properties of the cosmos:The model assumes that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity on cosmological scales. It emerged in the late 1990s as a concordance cosmology, after a period of time when disparate observed properties of the universe appeared mutually inconsistent, and there was no consensus on the makeup of the energy density of the universe. The ΛCDM model can be extended by adding cosmological inflation, quintessence and other elements that are current areas of speculation and research in cosmology. Some alternative models challenge the assumptions of the ΛCDM model. Examples of these are modified Newtonian dynamics, entropic gravity, modified gravity, theories of large-scale variations in the matter density of the universe, bimetric gravity, and scale invariance of empty space.
- the existence and structure of the cosmic microwave background
- the large-scale structure in the distribution of galaxies
- the abundances of hydrogen (including deuterium), helium, and lithium
- the accelerating expansion of the universe observed in the light from distant galaxies and supernovae
The accelerated expansion of the universe is thought to have begun since the universe entered its dark-energy-dominated era roughly 5 billion years ago. Within the framework of general relativity, an accelerated expansion can be accounted for by a positive value of the cosmological constant Λ, equivalent to the presence of a positive vacuum energy, dubbed "dark energy". While there are alternative possible explanations, the description assuming dark energy (positive Λ) is used in the current standard model of cosmology, which also includes cold dark matter (CDM) and is known as the Lambda-CDM model.
universe Age within Lambda-CDM model: ( 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years)
Diameter (unknown) of the observable universe : 8.8 x 1026 m (28.5 Gpc or 93 Gly)
Mass (ordinary matter: at least 1053 kg )
Average density (including the contribution from energy) 9.9x10-30 g/cm3
Average temperature 2.72548 K
Main contents: ordinary matter (baryonic) (4.9%)
Dark matter (26.8%)
Dark energy (68.3%)
Shape Flat with only a 0.4% margin of error.
Cosmology is a branch of astronomy concerned with the studies of the origin and evolution of the universe, from the Big Bang to today and on into the future. It is the scientific study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe. Physical cosmology is the scientific study of the universe's origin, its large- scale structures and dynamics, and its ultimate fate, as well as the laws of science that govern these areas.
Cosmology differs from astronomy in that the former is concerned with the universe as a whole while the latter deals with individual celestial objects. Modern physical cosmology is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which attempts to bring together observational astronomy and particle physics; more specifically, a standard parameterization of the Big Bang with dark matter and dark energy, known as the Lambda-CDM model.
In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang. The current measurement of the age of the universe is 13.799 ± 0.021 billion (109) years within the Lambda-CDM concordance model. The uncertainty has been narrowed down to 21 million years, based on a number of projects that all give extremely close figures for the age. These include studies of the microwave background radiation, and measurements by the Planck spacecraft, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and other probes. Measurements of the cosmic background radiation give the cooling time of the universe since the Big Bang, and measurements of the expansion rate of the universe can be used to calculate its approximate age by extrapolating backwards in time. The Lambda-CDM concordance model describes the evolution of the universe from a very uniform, hot, dense primordial state to its present state over a span of about 13.8 billion years of cosmological time. This model is well understood theoretically and strongly supported by recent high-precision astronomical observations such as WMAP. In contrast, theories of the origin of the primordial state remain very speculative. If one extrapolates the Lambda-CDM model backward from the earliest well-understood state, it quickly (within a small fraction of a second) reaches a singularity. This is known as the "initial singularity" or the "Big Bang singularity". This singularity is not understood as having a physical significance in the usual sense, but it is convenient to quote times measured "since the Big Bang" even though they do not correspond to a physically measurable time. For example, "10−6 seconds after the Big Bang" is a well-defined era in the universe's evolution. If one referred to the same era as "13.8 billion years minus 10−6 seconds ago", the precision of the meaning would be lost because the minuscule latter time interval is eclipsed by uncertainty in the former. Though the universe might in theory have a longer history, the International Astronomical Union presently use "age of the universe" to mean the duration of the Lambda-CDM expansion, or equivalently the elapsed time since the Big Bang in the current observable universe.
A theory of everything (TOE or ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe. Finding a TOE is one of the major unsolved problems in physics. Over the past few centuries, two theoretical frameworks have been developed that, as a whole, most closely resemble a TOE. These two theories upon which all modern physics rests are general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT). GR is a theoretical framework that only focuses on gravity for understanding the universe in regions of both large scale and high mass: stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. On the other hand, QFT is a theoretical framework that only focuses on three non-gravitational forces for understanding the universe in regions of both small scale and low mass: sub-atomic particles, atoms, molecules, etc. QFT successfully implemented the Standard Model and unified the interactions (so-called Grand Unified Theory) between the three non-gravitational forces: strong, weak, and electromagnetic force.
In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the spatial distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large-scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.The cosmological principle is usually stated formally as 'Viewed on a sufficiently large scale, the properties of the universe are the same for all observers.' This amounts to the strongly philosophical statement that the part of the universe which we can see is a fair sample, and that the same physical laws apply throughout. In essence, this in a sense says that the universe is knowable and is playing fair with scientists.
The cosmological principle depends on a definition of "observer," and contains an implicit qualification and two testable consequences. "Observers" means any observer at any location in the universe, not simply any human observer at any location on Earth. The qualification is that variation in physical structures can be overlooked, provided this does not imperil the uniformity of conclusions drawn from observation: the Sun is different from the Earth, our galaxy is different from a black hole, some galaxies advance toward rather than recede from us, and the universe has a "foamy" texture of galaxy clusters and voids, but none of these different structures appears to violate the basic laws of physics. The two testable structural consequences of the cosmological principle are homogeneity and isotropy. Homogeneity means that the same observational evidence is available to observers at different locations in the universe ("the part of the universe which we can see is a fair sample"). Isotropy means that the same observational evidence is available by looking in any direction in the universe ("the same physical laws apply throughout"). The principles are distinct but closely related, because a universe that appears isotropic from any two (for a spherical geometry, three) locations must also be homogeneous.
The theoretical scientific exploration of the ultimate fate of the universe became possible with Albert Einstein's 1915 theory of general relativity. General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
General relativity can be employed to describe the universe on the largest possible scale. There are many possible solutions to the equations of general relativity, and each solution implies a possible ultimate fate of the universe. Starting in 1998, observations of supernovas in distant galaxies have been interpreted as consistent with a universe whose expansion is accelerating. Subsequent cosmological theorizing has been designed so as to allow for this possible acceleration, nearly always by invoking dark energy, which in its simplest form is just a positive cosmological constant. In general, dark energy is a catch-all term for any hypothesised field with negative pressure, usually with a density that changes as the universe expands.
Gravity or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy, including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light, are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects, and the Moon's gravity causes the ocean tides. The gravitational attraction of the original gaseous matter present in the universe caused it to begin coalescing, forming stars – and for the stars to group together into galaxies – so gravity is responsible for many of the large-scale structures in the universe. Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects. Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity which describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of the curvature of spacetime caused by the uneven distribution of mass. The most extreme example of this curvature of spacetime is a black hole, from which nothing—not even light, can escape once past the black hole's event horizon. However, for most applications, gravity is well approximated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which describes gravity as a force which causes any two bodies to be attracted to each other, with the force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Gravity is the weakest of the four fundamental forces of physics, approximately 1038 times weaker than the strong force, 1036 times weaker than the electromagnetic force and 1029 times weaker than the weak force. As a consequence, it has no significant influence at the level of subatomic particles. In contrast, it is the dominant force at the macroscopic scale, and is the cause of the formation, shape and trajectory (orbit) of astronomical bodies. For example, gravity causes the Earth and the other planets to orbit the Sun, it also causes the Moon to orbit the Earth, and causes the formation of tides, the formation and evolution of the Solar System, stars and galaxies.
The earliest instance of gravity in the universe, possibly in the form of quantum gravity, supergravity or a gravitational singularity, along with ordinary space and time, developed during the Planck epoch (up to 10-43 seconds after the birth of the universe), possibly from a primeval state, such as a false vacuum, quantum vacuum or virtual particle, in a currently unknown manner. Attempts to develop a theory of gravity consistent with quantum mechanics, a quantum gravity theory, which would allow gravity to be united in a common mathematical framework (a theory of everything) with the other three forces of physics, are a current area of research.
General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time, or spacetime. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations. Some predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics, especially concerning the passage of time, the geometry of space, the motion of bodies in free fall, and the propagation of light. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, the gravitational redshift of light, and the gravitational time delay. The predictions of general relativity in relation to classical physics have been confirmed in all observations and experiments to date. Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest theory that is consistent with experimental data. However, unanswered questions remain, the most fundamental being how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. Einstein's theory has important astrophysical implications. For example, it implies the existence of black holes—regions of space in which space and time are distorted in such a way that nothing, not even light, can escape—as an end-state for massive stars. There is ample evidence that the intense radiation emitted by certain kinds of astronomical objects is due to black holes; for example, microquasars and active galactic nuclei result from the presence of stellar black holes and supermassive black holes, respectively. The bending of light by gravity can lead to the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, in which multiple images of the same distant astronomical object are visible in the sky. General relativity also predicts the existence of gravitational waves, which have since been observed directly by the physics collaboration LIGO. In addition, general relativity is the basis of current cosmological models of a consistently expanding universe. Widely acknowledged as a theory of extraordinary beauty, general relativity has often been described as the most beautiful of all existing physical theories.
A gravitational singularity, spacetime singularity or simply singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system. The quantities used to measure gravitational field strength are the scalar invariant curvatures of spacetime, which includes a measure of the density of matter. Since such quantities become infinite within the singularity, the laws of normal spacetime cannot exist. Gravitational singularities are mainly considered within general relativity, where density apparently becomes infinite at the center of a black hole, and within astrophysics and cosmology as the earliest state of the universe during the Big Bang. Physicists are undecided whether the prediction of singularities means that they actually exist (or existed at the start of the Big Bang), or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe what happens at such extreme densities.
General relativity predicts that any object collapsing beyond a certain point (for stars this is the Schwarzschild radius) would form a black hole, inside which a singularity (covered by an event horizon) would be formed. The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems define a singularity to have geodesics that cannot be extended in a smooth manner. The termination of such a geodesic is considered to be the singularity. The initial state of the universe, at the beginning of the Big Bang, is also predicted by modern theories to have been a singularity. In this case the universe did not collapse into a black hole, because currently-known calculations and density limits for gravitational collapse are usually based upon objects of relatively constant size, such as stars, and do not necessarily apply in the same way to rapidly expanding space such as the Big Bang. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics can currently describe the earliest moments of the Big Bang, but in general, quantum mechanics does not permit particles to inhabit a space smaller than their wavelengths.
Many theories in physics have mathematical singularities of one kind or another. Equations for these physical theories predict that the ball of mass of some quantity becomes infinite or increases without limit. This is generally a sign for a missing piece in the theory, as in the ultraviolet catastrophe, re-normalization, and instability of a hydrogen atom predicted by the Larmor formula. Some theories, such as the theory of loop quantum gravity, suggest that singularities may not exist. This is also true for such classical unified field theories as the Einstein–Maxwell–Dirac equations. The idea can be stated in the form that due to quantum gravity effects, there is a minimum distance beyond which the force of gravity no longer continues to increase as the distance between the masses becomes shorter, or alternatively that interpenetrating particle waves mask gravitational effects that would be felt at a distance. There are different types of singularities, each with different physical features which have characteristics relevant to the theories from which they originally emerged, such as the different shape of the singularities, conical and curved. They have also been hypothesized to occur without Event Horizons, structures which delineate one spacetime section from another in which events cannot affect past the horizon; these are called naked.
Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter that is thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe and about a quarter of its total energy density. The majority of dark matter is thought to be non-baryonic in nature, possibly being composed of some as-yet undiscovered subatomic particles. Its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects that cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen. For this reason, most experts think dark matter to be ubiquitous in the universe and to have had a strong influence on its structure and evolution. Dark matter is called dark because it does not appear to interact with observable electromagnetic radiation, such as light, and is thus invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum, making it extremely difficult to detect using usual astronomical equipment.
The primary evidence for dark matter is that calculations show that many galaxies would fly apart instead of rotating, or would not have formed or move as they do, if they did not contain a large amount of unseen matter. Other lines of evidence include observations in gravitational lensing, from the cosmic microwave background, from astronomical observations of the observable universe's current structure, from the formation and evolution of galaxies, from mass location during galactic collisions, and from the motion of galaxies within galaxy clusters. In the standard Lambda-CDM model of cosmology, the total mass–energy of the universe contains 5% ordinary matter and energy, 27% dark matter and 68% of an unknown form of energy known as dark energy. Thus, dark matter constitutes 85% of total mass, while dark energy plus dark matter constitute 95% of total mass–energy content.
Because dark matter has not yet been observed directly, if it exists, it must barely interact with ordinary baryonic matter and radiation, except through gravity. The primary candidate for dark matter is some new kind of elementary particle that has not yet been discovered, in particular, weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), or gravitationally-interacting massive particles (GIMPs). Many experiments to directly detect and study dark matter particles are being actively undertaken, but none have yet succeeded. Dark matter is classified as cold, warm, or hot according to its velocity (more precisely, its free streaming length). Current models favor a cold dark matter scenario, in which structures emerge by gradual accumulation of particles. Although the existence of dark matter is generally accepted by the scientific community, some astrophysicists, intrigued by certain observations that do not fit the dark matter theory, argue for various modifications of the standard laws of general relativity, such as modified Newtonian dynamics, tensor–vector–scalar gravity, or entropic gravity. These models attempt to account for all observations without invoking supplemental non-baryonic matter.
The current scientific consensus of most cosmologists is that the ultimate fate of the universe depends on its overall shape, how much dark energy it contains, and on the equation of state which determines how the dark energy density responds to the expansion of the universe. Recent observations conclude, from 7.5 billion years after the Big Bang, that the expansion rate of the universe has likely been increasing, commensurate with the Open universe theory. However, other recent measurements by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe suggest that the universe is either flat or very close to flat. In a closed universe, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the universe, after which it starts to contract until all matter in the universe collapses to a point, a final singularity termed the "Big Crunch", the opposite of the Big Bang. Some new modern theories assume the universe may have a significant amount of dark energy, whose repulsive force may be sufficient to cause the expansion of the universe to continue forever. Even without dark energy, a negatively curved universe expands forever, with gravity negligibly slowing the rate of expansion. With dark energy, the expansion not only continues but accelerates. The ultimate fate of an open universe is either universal heat death, the "Big Freeze", or the "Big Rip", where the acceleration caused by dark energy eventually becomes so strong that it completely overwhelms the effects of the gravitational, electromagnetic and strong binding forces.
Quantum cosmology is the attempt in theoretical physics to develop a quantum theory of the universe. This approach attempts to answer open questions of classical physical cosmology, particularly those related to the first phases of the universe. The classical cosmology is based on Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity (GTR or simply GR). It describes the evolution of the universe very well, as long as you do not approach the Big Bang. It is the gravitational singularity and the Planck time where relativity theory fails to provide what must be demanded of a final theory of space and time. Therefore, a theory is needed that integrates relativity theory and quantum theory. Such an approach is attempted for instance with the loop quantum gravity, the string theory and the causal set theory.
Loop quantum gravity (LQG) is a theory of quantum gravity, merging quantum mechanics and general relativity, making it a possible candidate for a theory of everything. Its goal is to unify gravity in a common theoretical framework with the other three fundamental forces of nature, beginning with relativity and adding quantum features. It competes with string theory that begins with quantum field theory and adds gravity. From the point of view of Einstein's theory, all attempts to treat gravity as another quantum force equal in importance to electromagnetism and the nuclear forces have failed. According to Einstein, gravity is not a force – it is a property of spacetime itself. Loop quantum gravity is an attempt to develop a quantum theory of gravity based directly on Einstein's geometric formulation. To do this, in LQG theory space and time are quantized, analogously to the way quantities like energy and momentum are quantized in quantum mechanics. The theory gives a physical picture of spacetime where space and time are granular and discrete directly because of quantization just like photons in the quantum theory of electromagnetism and the discrete energy levels of atoms. Distance exists with a minimum. Space's structure prefers an extremely fine fabric or network woven of finite loops. These networks of loops are called spin networks. The evolution of a spin network, or spin foam, has a scale on the order of a Planck length, approximately 10−35 metres, and smaller scales do not exist. Consequently, not just matter, but space itself, prefers an atomic structure. The vast areas of research developed in several directions that involve about 30 research groups worldwide. They all share the basic physical assumptions and the mathematical description of quantum space. Research follows two directions: the more traditional canonical loop quantum gravity, and the newer covariant loop quantum gravity, called spin foam theory. Physical consequences of the theory proceed in several directions. The most well-developed applies to cosmology, called loop quantum cosmology (LQC), the study of the early universe and the physics of the Big Bang. Its greatest consequence sees the evolution of the universe continuing beyond the Big Bang called the Big Bounce.
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is a finite, symmetry-reduced model of loop quantum gravity (LQG) that predicts a "quantum bridge" between contracting and expanding cosmological branches. The distinguishing feature of LQC is the prominent role played by the quantum geometry effects of loop quantum gravity (LQG). In particular, quantum geometry creates a brand new repulsive force which is totally negligible at low space-time curvature but rises very rapidly in the Planck regime, overwhelming the classical gravitational attraction and thereby resolving singularities of general relativity. Once singularities are resolved, the conceptual paradigm of cosmology changes and one has to revisit many of the standard issues—e.g., the "horizon problem"—from a new perspective. Since LQG is based on a specific quantum theory of Riemannian geometry, geometric observables display a fundamental discreteness that play a key role in quantum dynamics: While predictions of LQC are very close to those of quantum geometrodynamics (QGD) away from the Planck regime, there is a dramatic difference once densities and curvatures enter the Planck scale. In LQC the big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce. Study of LQC has led to many successes, including the emergence of a possible mechanism for cosmic inflation, resolution of gravitational singularities, as well as the development of effective semi-classical Hamiltonians. Due to the quantum geometry, the big bang is replaced by a big bounce without any assumptions on the matter content or any fine tuning. An important feature of loop quantum cosmology is the effective space-time description of the underlying quantum evolution. The effective dynamics approach has been extensively used in loop quantum cosmology to describe physics at the Planck scale and the very early universe. Rigorous numerical simulations have confirmed the validity of the effective dynamics, which provides an excellent approximation to the full loop quantum dynamics. It has been shown that only when the states have very large quantum fluctuations at late times, which means that they do not lead to macroscopic universes as described by general relativity, that the effective dynamics has departures from the quantum dynamics near bounce and the subsequent evolution. In such a case, the effective dynamics overestimates the density at the bounce, but still captures the qualitative aspects extremely well.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings. It describes how these strings propagate through space and interact with each other. On distance scales larger than the string scale, a string looks just like an ordinary particle, with its mass, charge, and other properties determined by the vibrational state of the string. In string theory, one of the many vibrational states of the string corresponds to the graviton, a quantum mechanical particle that carries gravitational force. Thus string theory is a theory of quantum gravity. String theory is a broad and varied subject that attempts to address a number of deep questions of fundamental physics. String theory has been applied to a variety of problems in black hole physics, early universe cosmology, nuclear physics, and condensed matter physics, and it has stimulated a number of major developments in pure mathematics. Because string theory potentially provides a unified description of gravity and particle physics, it is a candidate for a theory of everything, a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter. Despite much work on these problems, it is not known to what extent string theory describes the real world or how much freedom the theory allows in the choice of its details.
Cosmogony can be distinguished from cosmology, which studies the universe at large and throughout its existence, and which technically does not inquire directly into the source of its origins. There is some ambiguity between the two terms. For example, the cosmological argument from theology regarding the existence of God is technically an appeal to cosmogonical rather than cosmological ideas. In practice, there is a scientific distinction between cosmological and cosmogonical ideas. Physical cosmology is the science that attempts to explain all observations relevant to the development and characteristics of the universe as a whole. Questions regarding why the universe behaves in such a way have been described by physicists and cosmologists as being extra-scientific (i.e., metaphysical), though speculations are made from a variety of perspectives that include extrapolation of scientific theories to untested regimes (i.e., at Planck scales), and philosophical or religious ideas.
In Physics, the second law of thermodynamics is one of those puzzling laws of nature that simply emerges from the fundamental rules. It says that entropy, a measure of disorder in the universe, must always increase in any closed system. But how is it possible that our universe today, which looks to be organized and ordered with solar systems, galaxies and intricate cosmic structure, is somehow in a higher-entropy state than right after the Big Bang? The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model of the early development of the universe. The most commonly held view is that the universe originates in a gravitational singularity, which expanded extremely rapidly from its hot and dense state. There are two competing types of explanations for the origins of the singularity which is the main disagreement between the scientists who study cosmogony and centers on the question of whether time existed "before" the emergence of our universe or not. One cosmogonical view sees time as fundamental and even eternal: the universe could have contained the singularity because the universe evolved or changed from a prior state (the prior state was "empty space", or maybe a state that could not be called "space" at all). The other view, held by proponents like Stephen Hawking, says that there was no change through time because "time" itself emerged along with this universe (in other words, there can be no "prior" to the universe). Thus, it remains unclear what combination of "stuff", space, or time emerged with the singularity and this universe. One problem in cosmogony is that there is currently no theoretical model that explains the earliest moments of the universe's existence (during the Planck time) because of a lack of a testable theory of quantum gravity. Researchers in string theory and its extensions (for example, M theory), and of loop quantum cosmology, have nevertheless proposed solutions of the type just discussed.
The common understanding of entropy and time implies a very low-entropy state just after the Big Bang. Yet, that moment is often described as a “soup” of photons, quarks and electrons, something that, by comparison with everyday textbook examples, seems very high entropy. How is that primal state low-entropy?
The thermodynamic arrow of time implies that entropy always goes up, so it better be larger today than it was in the past. Entropy, S, is a state function and is a measure of disorder or randomness. A positive (+) entropy change means an increase in disorder. The universe tends toward increased entropy. All spontaneous change occurs with an increase in entropy of the universe.There is yet another way of expressing the second law of thermodynamics. This version relates to a concept called entropy. By examining it, we shall see that the directions associated with the second law—heat transfer from hot to cold, for example—are related to the tendency in nature for systems to become disordered and for less energy to be available for use as work. The entropy of a system can in fact be shown to be a measure of its disorder and of the unavailability of energy to do work.
With respect to entropy, there are only two possibilities: entropy is constant for a reversible process, and it increases for an irreversible process. There is a fourth version of the second law of thermodynamics stated in terms of entropy: the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant in any process; it never decreases. For example, heat transfer cannot occur spontaneously from cold to hot, because entropy would decrease.
Entropy is very different from energy. Entropy is not conserved but increases in all real processes. Reversible processes (such as in Carnot engines) are the processes in which the most heat transfer to work takes place and are also the ones that keep entropy constant. Thus we are led to make a connection between entropy and the availability of energy to do work.
What does a change in entropy mean, and why should we be interested in it? Entropy is directly related to the fact that not all heat transfer can be converted into work. An increase in entropy may result in less heat transfer into work. When entropy increases, a certain amount of energy becomes permanently unavailable to do work. The energy is not lost, but its character has changed, so that some of it can never be converted to doing work—that is, to an organized force acting through a distance.
Entropy is related not only to the unavailability of energy to do work—it is also a measure of disorder. This notion was initially postulated by Ludwig Boltzmann in the 1800s. For example, melting a block of ice means taking a highly structured and orderly system of water molecules and converting it into a disorderly liquid in which molecules have no fixed positions. There is a large increase in entropy in the process. When ice melts, it becomes more disordered and less structured. The systematic arrangement of molecules in a crystal structure is replaced by a more random and less orderly movement of molecules without fixed locations or orientations. Its entropy increases because heat transfer occurs into it. Entropy is a measure of the disorder.
Some people misunderstand the second law of thermodynamics, stated in terms of entropy, to say that the process of the evolution of life violates this law. Over time, complex organisms evolved from much simpler ancestors, representing a large decrease in entropy of the Earth’s biosphere. It is a fact that living organisms have evolved to be highly structured, and much lower in entropy than the substances from which they grow. But it is always possible for the entropy of one part of the universe to decrease, provided the total change in entropy of the universe increases.
How is it possible for a system to decrease its entropy? Energy transfer is necessary. If I pick up marbles that are scattered about the room and put them into a cup, my work has decreased the entropy of that system. If I gather iron ore from the ground and convert it into steel and build a bridge, my work has decreased the entropy of that system. Energy coming from the Sun can decrease the entropy of local systems on Earth. But the overall entropy of the rest of the universe increases by a greater amount—that is positive and greater in magnitude. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is not violated.
Every time a plant stores some solar energy in the form of chemical potential energy, or an updraft of warm air lifts a soaring bird, the Earth can be viewed as a heat engine operating between a hot reservoir supplied by the Sun and a cold reservoir supplied by dark outer space—a heat engine of high complexity, causing local decreases in entropy as it uses part of the heat transfer from the Sun into deep space. There is a large total increase in entropy resulting from this massive heat transfer. A small part of this heat transfer is stored in structured systems on Earth, producing much smaller local decreases in entropy.
What is entropy? It is simply the degree of disorder and randomness in a system. So, what exactly is “order”? Think of it is “organized”. Solids are more ordered than liquids, which are more ordered than gasses. Large complex molecules (say, chlorophyll) are more ordered than simple ones (oxygen, water, etc.). Matter is more ordered than energy. Atoms themselves have a tremendous amount of order within them – think about how precisely neutrons, electrons, and protons are arranged and balanced within an atom. Any time order is changed to disorder, energy is generated. Therefore if atoms are destroyed, energy is generated and entropy increases. If bonds within complex molecules are broken, energy in generated and entropy increases. If the orderly directional flow of atoms is disrupted, energy in generated and entropy increases
The universe, without exception, is moving from a state of order to disorder. This statement leads to confusion – our everyday experience with reality shows entropy being reversed. For example, solar energy hits the leaf of a tree, and is used to create complex carbohydrates. Using lower order energy to create greater order in the carbohydrates of a leaf seemingly violates the laws of thermodynamics. Except, that it doesn’t. To generate that ray of light, inside the sun, 600 million tons of hydrogen per second is converted to energy. This is a massive flow of order (the atoms) to disorder (energy). The leaf of a tree converts a tiny percentage of this disordered energy back to order. Combining the two together shows that, overall, there is still a massive flow of order to disorder.
Looking up at the night sky what you see are entropy generating machines – the stars are destroying order on a massive scale.Earth’s entropy may decrease in the process of intercepting a small part of the heat transfer from the Sun into deep space. Entropy for the entire process increases greatly while Earth becomes more structured with living systems and stored energy in various forms.
The ultimate fate of the universe is likely to be thermodynamic equilibrium, where the universal temperature is constant and no energy is available to do work. Let us take a look at some examples related to the application of entropy.
Entropy is a measure of disorder, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics states that all closed systems tend to maximize entropy. Reversing this ever increasing tendency toward disorder requires the input of energy. That's why housekeeping is so tiresome. Left on its own, a house would get dusty, spiders would move in, and eventually, it would fall apart. However, the energy put into preventing disorder in one place simultaneously increases it somewhere else. Overall, the entropy of the universe always increases.
Entropy also manifests itself when there is no perfect transfer of energy. Our body (or a cell) cannot perfectly utilize food as an energy source because some of that energy is lost forever to the universe.
Why is atomic energy so much more powerful than all other forms of energy? A cubic meter of uranium can generate 3 million times more energy than a cubic meter of coal. Why? Well the fission reactor destroys matter by converting it to energy. It is going in the direction of the entropic flow!
Coal represents fossilized solar energy. It is part of the eddy toward more order as part of the massive order destroying activities of the sun. Complex molecules captured a small (1%) of the suns energies, over thousands or millions of years. That is what we are utilizing – the ancient scraps of the leftovers of nuclear fission in the sun.
We can rank all forms of energy based on their change in order to disorder. Remember, when we use energy we are consuming orderliness, and increasing entropy. So here they are ranked:
- Electromagnetic energy (solar)
- Motion of atoms (wind, tides, hydropower)
- Chemical breakdown of complex molecules (wood, oil, gas, coal)
- Breakdown of atomic structures (fission, geothermal, and fusion)
- Complete destruction of atoms (antimatter)
Why is geothermal lumped with fission and fusion? That is because the heat of the earth is largely a byproduct of natural radioactive decay, which is fission.
Now fusion, fission, geothermal, and antimatter are entropically positive – meaning they are deriving their energy from destruction of order in atoms. Fossil fuels, wood, hydropower, and wind power are entropic eddies – energy from entropic positive sources that has been incidentally and accidentally concentrated and can be harvested. Solar represents degraded order at its lowest form – we are converting one form of energy (visible light) to a lower form (infrared light), harvesting the tiny amount of remaining order in the system.
Strangely, the more entropy already in the energy source, the more order must be placed into our energy harvesting mechanisms! Let’s rank these in how easy it is to harvest energy from the energy source?
- Complete destruction of atoms (antimatter)
- Breakdown of atomic structures (fission and fusion and geothermal power)
- Chemical breakdown of complex molecules (wood, oil, gas, coal)
- The motion of atoms (wind, tides, hydropower)
- Disordered energy (solar)
The list may be hard to understand because fission is difficult to do, while solar is so easy!
What does it take to turn antimatter into energy? Nothing – it spontaneously turns into energy in the presence of matter. It is so destructive that no antimatter remains in our corner of the universe! It has all degraded to energy.
Fusion? Hard to do on earth, but look up at the stars – there are trillions of fusion reactors floating around in space. All you need is a great big ball of atoms lighter than lead. That is it.
Fission? Atoms naturally decay, but to get real energy, you need to collect the right sort of atoms together. This can and has happened naturally (yes there are natural fission reactors). Why were old atomic reactors called “atomic piles”? They were literally piles of uranium atoms! So we have already progressed from doing nothing at all, to getting a big ball of atoms together, to getting just the right kind of atoms together. Why is nuclear power so expensive? To protect us from the vast amounts of energy released. What is the primary purpose of out reactor? To control the energy production rate of the uranium atoms. If left alone, they would generate too much energy and destroy the reactor. Why don’t we have fusion on earth? It is an anomaly – we can’t get a big enough ball of atoms together. If we could, it would happen spontaneously. So it is expensive to try and replicate those conditions without a giant ball of atoms.
Chemical breakdowns require a bit more finesse – we need to bring just the right atoms together, under the right conditions. Coal, wood, and oil won’t burn without oxygen, and an ignition source, in the right quantities. Instead of just uranium atoms, we need three kinds of atoms, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Still, the system to harvest the chemical energy is relatively simple. We just need to combine the right atoms in the right conditions.
Hydropower? Now we need a more complex structure to harvest the energy. It its simplest form coal can generate energy by creating a big pile and lighting it on fire. In its simplest form, water power requires we construct and maintain a mechanism for extracting the energy (say a water wheel). The level of order of the extraction system has to increase dramatically because the source of energy is more disordered to begin with. Wind power is worse than hydropower because air is a gas and is more disordered than water.
Lastly is solar energy. Solar panels are organized and engineered at the atomic scale. They are very highly ordered objects designed to harvest the remaining, marginal energy left in sunshine. Even the simplest solar harvester, a magnifying glass, requires that I refine a very special type of atom (silica), and shape it into a very specific design (a lens). The energy collection mechanism is highly ordered. It has to be.
And how does a leaf capture and convert solar energy to chemical energy? Well, by an exceedingly complex biomolecular design. And even that works at 1% efficiency.
The early universe was full of matter and radiation ( perhaps 1088 particles, including matter, antimatter, gluons, quarks, neutrinos and photons, in total), and was so hot and dense that the quarks and gluons present didn’t form into individual protons and neutrons, but remained in a quark-gluon plasma. During the very early universe all those particles were all whizzing around at energies billions of times higher than even the LHC can obtain today. There were so many of them — 1088 in total — all crammed into a volume as small as a soccer ball. Right at the instant of the hot Big Bang, this tiny region with these tremendously energetic particles would grow into our entire observable universe over the next 13.8 billion years.
Understandably, the universe, from this hot Big Bang until the present day, underwent a huge amount of growth and evolution, and continues to do so. Clearly, the universe today is much cooler, larger, more full-of-structure and non-uniform. But we can actually quantify the entropy of the universe at both times, at the moment of the Big Bang and today, in terms of Boltzmann’s constant, kB(where kB is the Boltzmann constant (also written as simply k) and equal to 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K).
In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann's equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, the number of real microstates corresponding to the gas' macrostate
In short, the Boltzmann formula shows the relationship between entropy and the number of ways the atoms or molecules of a thermodynamic system can be arranged.
At the moment of the Big Bang, almost all of the entropy was due to radiation, and the total entropy of the universe was S = 1053kB. On the other hand, if we calculate the entropy of the universe today, it’s about a quadrillion times as large: S = 10193kB. While both of these numbers seem large, the former number is most definitely low-entropy compared to the latter: it’s only 0.0000000000001% as large!
Our observable universe, as we see it today with its 2 trillion galaxies and their 1025 stars and around 1019 potentially Earth-like planets, is far clumpier, more clustered, and generating of starlight than the early universe was. So why is the entropy so different? There’s an important thing to keep in mind when we talk about these numbers, though. When you hear terms like “a measure of disorder” bandied about, that’s actually a very, very poor description of what entropy actually is. Imagine, instead, that you’ve got whatever system you like: such as matter and radiation. Presumably, there will be some energy encoded in there, whether it’s kinetic, potential, field energy or any other type. What entropy actually measures is the number of possible arrangements of the state of your system.
If a system has, say, a cold part and a hot part, you can arrange it in fewer ways than if the whole thing is the same temperature. One of the systems maybe at a lower-entropy than the other one. Photons in the cosmic microwave background have practically the same entropy today as they did when the universe was first born. This is why people say the universe expands adiabatically, which means with a constant entropy. While we might look at galaxies, stars, planets, etc., and marvel at how ordered or disordered they appear to be, their entropy is negligible. So what caused that tremendous entropy increase? The reason is the existence of black holes. Black holes are something the universe wasn’t born with, but has grown to acquire over time. They now dominate the universe’s entropy.
If you think about all the particles that go into making a black hole, it’s a tremendous number. Once you fall into a black hole, you inevitably arrive at a singularity. And the number of states is directly proportional to the masses of the particles in the black hole, so the more black holes you form (or the more massive your black holes get), the more entropy you get in the universe. The Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, alone, has an entropy that’s S = 1098 kB, about a factor of 1,000 more than the entire universe at the Big Bang. Given the number of galaxies and the masses of black holes in general, the total entropy today has reached a value of S = 10133 kB.
And this is only going to get worse! In the far future, more and more black holes will form, and the large black holes that exist today will continue to grow for about the next 1029 years. If you were to turn the entire universe into a black hole, we’d reach a maximal entropy of approximately S = 10123 kB, or a factor of 100 quintillion greater than the entropy today. When these black holes decay on even larger timescales — up to around 10160 years — that entropy will remain almost constant, as the blackbody (Hawking) radiation produced by the decaying black holes will have the same number of possible state arrangements as the formerly-existing black hole itself.Over long enough timescales, black holes shrink and evaporate thanks to Hawking radiation. That’s where information loss occurs, as the radiation no longer contains the information once encoded on the horizon.
So why was the early universe so low-entropy? Because it didn’t have any black holes. Hawking showed that black holes emit radiation, known today as Hawking radiation, which may continue until they exhaust their energy and evaporate. An entropy of S = 1053 kB is still a tremendously large value, but it’s the entropy of the entire universe, which is almost exclusively encoded in the leftover radiation (and, to a slightly lesser extent, neutrinos) from the Big Bang. Because the “stuff” we see when we look out at the universe like stars, galaxies, etc., has a negligible entropy compared to that leftover background, it’s easy to fool ourselves into thinking that entropy changes significantly as structure forms, but that’s merely a coincidence, not the cause.At minimum, it took tens of millions of years for the universe to form its very first star, and its very first black hole. Until that happened, the entropy of the universe, to more than a 99% accuracy, remained unchanged.
If there were no such things as black holes, the entropy of the universe would have been almost constant for the past 13.8 billion years! That primal state actually had a considerable amount of entropy; it’s just that black holes have so much more, and are so easy to make from a cosmic perspective.
One implication of the second law is that heat flows spontaneously from a hotter region to a cooler region, but will not flow spontaneously the other way. This applies to anything that flows: it will naturally flow downhill rather than uphill. The second law also predicts the end of the universe which implies that the universe will end in a "heat death" in which everything is at the same temperature. This is the ultimate level of disorder; if everything is at the same temperature, no work can be done, and all the energy will end up as the random motion of atoms and molecules.
A measure of the level of disorder of a system is entropy, represented by S. Although it's difficult to measure the total entropy of a system, it's generally fairly easy to measure changes in entropy. For a thermodynamic system involved in a heat transfer of size Q at a temperature T , a change in entropy can be measured by:
ΔS = Q/T
The second law of thermodynamics can be stated in terms of entropy. If a reversible process occurs, there is no net change in entropy. Even if change in entropy is zero, it doesn't mean the entropy of the system is at maximum. If you take an ideal reversible process, the change in Entropy would be zero but the entropy of the system wouldn't be maximum. Maximum Entropy means no macroscopic object: only photons and particles flying around freely. There can be no stars, planets or intelligent life in maximum entropy state. And, this is where the universe is heading. Entropy always increases in systems when the degree of freedom are increased (adding particles, adding energy, expanding volume, etc ). Concerning the entropy of the whole universe and forgetting the expansion of the universe for the moment, since by definition the universe contain all the particles, and energy is constant, then the entropy will be constant.The same thing happens on a much larger scale. The Sun, and every other star, is radiating heat into the universe. But they can’t do it forever. Eventually the heat will have spread out so much that there won’t be warmer objects and cooler objects. Everything will be the same temperature. The same, very cold, temperature. The vast majority of the universe is already screaming cold, so the heat death of the universe is just about burning what fuel there is and mixing the heat so created into the ever-expansive, cold, and unyielding cosmos. Both the burning of fuel (mostly through fusion in stars) and the distribution of heat are processes which increase entropy.
In an irreversible process, entropy always increases, so the change in entropy is positive. The total entropy of the universe is continually increasing.
Once everything is the same temperature, the universe attains a “steady state”. With no energy differences, there’s no reason for anything to change what it’s doing (all forces can be expressed as an energy imbalance or “potential gradient“). Heat death is the point at which the universe has finally settled down completely (or almost completely), and nothing interesting ever happens again.
Anything with a beginning is wrapped up in a time-space capsule, carries an expiry date. Since, admittedly, the universe has a beginning, it is also in a time-frame. The ‘Time’ dimension helps conformity. Doubts, if any, can be only on’What then?’ The major religions differ on this, Indian Faith saying that the universe is cyclical in existence, it lies submerged in a time-frame only to re-emerge to same old form, and for the cycle to repeat endlessly.
If the universe is finite and has a beginning and end, then there is something else outside the universe which is infinite and has no beginning and no end and for which entropy is totally stable, with some universes expanding and others contracting. Unfortunately, our poor little brains can’t interpret things that are not finite.
Entropy is defined mathematically as S = dQ/dt. In our solar system heat is generated everywhere including solar fusion and radiated heat from planets. dQ is therefore always a positive number. This is the reason that in our known universe, entropy S, is always positive. But in another universe such as black holes, energy as well as mass are swallowed and the energy Q is converted backed to mass to formed a very densed mass in the core of black hole. In this situation, heat Q becomes a negative value, and entropy S will be a negative value. So it is possible to have a negative entropy if your definition of universe includes black holes or neutron stars.
If the topology of the universe is open or flat, or if dark energy is a positive cosmological constant (both of which are consistent with current data), the universe will continue expanding forever, and a heat death is expected to occur, with the universe cooling to approach equilibrium at a very low temperature after a very long time period. The idea of heat death stems from the second law of thermodynamics, of which one version states that entropy tends to increase in an isolated system. From this, the hypothesis implies that if the universe lasts for a sufficient time, it will asymptotically approach a state where all energy is evenly distributed. In other words, according to this hypothesis, there is a tendency in nature to the dissipation (energy transformation) of mechanical energy (motion) into thermal energy; hence, by extrapolation, there exists the view that, in time, the mechanical movement of the universe will run down as work is converted to heat because of the second law.
The conjecture that all bodies in the universe cool off, eventually becoming too cold to support life. All planets have an internal heat and are now at some particular stage of cooling. Jupiter, for instance, is still too hot for life to arise there for thousands of years, while the Moon is already too cold. The final state, in this view, is described as one of "equilibrium" in which all motion ceases.
The final state of the universe depend on the assumptions made about its ultimate fate, and these assumptions have varied considerably over the late 20th century and early 21st century. In a hypothesized "open" or "flat" universe that continues expanding indefinitely, either a heat death or a Big Rip is expected to eventually occur. If the cosmological constant is zero, the universe will approach absolute zero temperature over a very long timescale. However, if the cosmological constant is positive, as appears to be the case in recent observations, the temperature will asymptote to a non-zero positive value, and the universe will approach a state of maximum entropy.
If a Big Rip does not happen long before that, the "heat death" situation could be avoided if there is a method or mechanism to regenerate hydrogen atoms from radiation, dark matter, dark energy, zero-point energy, or other sources so that star formation and heat transfer can continue to avoid a gradual running down of the universe due to the conversion of matter into energy and heavier elements in stellar processes and the absorption of matter by black holes and their subsequent evaporation as Hawking radiation.
From the time of the Big Bang through the present day, matter and dark matter in the universe are thought to have been concentrated in stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters, and are presumed to continue to be so well into the future. Therefore, the universe is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and objects can do physical work. The decay time for a supermassive black hole of roughly 1 galaxy mass (1011 solar masses) due to Hawking radiation is on the order of 10100 years, so entropy can be produced until at least that time. Some large size black holes in the universe are predicted to continue to grow up to perhaps 1014 M☉ (he astronomical system of units, formally called the IAU (1976) System of Astronomical. The symbol M ☉ is often used to refer to this unit. The astronomical unit of mass is the solar mass. The solar mass (M☉), 1.98892×1030 kg, is a standard way to express mass in astronomy, used to describe the masses of other stars and galaxies. It is equal to the mass of the Sun, about 333000 times the mass of the Earth or 1 048 times the mass of Jupiter.) during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over a timescale of up to 10106 years. After that time, the universe enters the so-called Dark Era (After all the black holes have evaporated and after all the ordinary matter made of protons has disintegrated, if protons are unstable, the universe will be nearly empty. Photons, neutrinos, electrons, and positrons will fly from place to place, hardly ever encountering each other. Gravitationally, the universe will be dominated by dark matter, electrons, and positrons, but no protons.) and is expected to consist chiefly of a dilute gas of photons and leptons. With only very diffuse matter remaining, activity in the universe will have tailed off dramatically, with extremely low energy levels and extremely long timescales. Speculatively, it is possible that the universe may enter a second inflationary epoch, or assuming that the current vacuum state is a false vacuum, the vacuum may decay into a lower-energy state.
The entropy of a general gravitational field is still not known because gravitational entropy is difficult to quantify. The analysis considers several possible assumptions that would be needed for estimates and suggests that the observable universe has more entropy than previously thought. This is because the analysis concludes that supermassive black holes are the largest contributor. It has long been known that gravity is important for keeping the universe out of thermal equilibrium. Gravitationally bound systems have negative specific heat—that is, the velocities of their components increase when energy is removed. Such a system does not evolve toward a homogeneous equilibrium state. Instead it becomes increasingly structured and heterogeneous as it fragments into subsystems.
The idea of entropy comes from a principle of thermodynamics dealing with energy. It usually refers to the idea that everything in the universe eventually moves from order to disorder, and entropy is the measurement of that change. In Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models of the universe, it can easily be shown that the total entropy density (in comoving coordinates) in photons is conserved. It is very easy to understand why: there are basically no irreversible processes in the universe, so that the entropy per unit mass must be conserved. Basically, this means that General Relativity has nothing meaningful to say about entropy: GR-models of the whole universe could have been built with twice as much, or half as much entropy density than observed, and the models would have been perfectly legitimate. In other words: something, very early in the history of the universe determines the total entropy content of the universe, and GR's only task is that of keeping this value a constant.
So this beckons the question: what determined this initial value? Until 1980, the basic answer that could be given was shock waves, which are the most powerful generators of entropy known on cosmological scale.
But since perhaps the late seventies-early eighties, the à la mode answer is that this is a consequence of the fact that very large number of both baryons and antibaryons are produced in the early phases of the Big-Bang, to annihilate later into many photons (among other particles) leaving behind a small left-over which constitutes the present population of baryons in the universe. While no one can compute with any reliability the entropy per baryon which derives from these processes, they are generally thought to be inescapable, and much more effective than shock waves in producing entropy.
So, while this is still a highly speculative and unsettled chapter of cosmology, it is true that phase transitions provide the greates hope in explaining this otherwise mysterious number.
When two objects orbiting a centre of mass have lower entropy than when said objects eventually crash into each other and form a new one. So let's say that a typical galaxy spirals around its centre of mass and eventually objects within it will fall into the center thus increasing its entropy. But if the entropy of the universe was somehow to be constant, then maybe that's why space is expanding? As each galaxy becomes more chaotic while objects are going closer and closer together these galaxies are at the same time becoming more and more spread apart thanks to expansion of space. Also gravity is increasing in intesity when the distance between objects is shorter, so the longer two masses are gravitating, the shorter the distance between them and then the more intensive gravity becomes over time. This might correspond then to the increasing speed of expansion of universe, as it has to compensate faster to keep entropy constant.
Moreover, the expansion of the universe contributes into creating more and more microstates. This is almost equivalent to saying that entropy increases (because 𝑆=𝑘𝐵S=kBln(Ω). We cannot be sure that the law of entropy applies to the whole universe (There is debate if the universe is a closed system or not, if its infinite or finite, etc..) but from what we know the disorder of the universe is increasing due to this large number of microstates increasing with time, leading to the disorder of the universe increasing.
Whenever there is a decrease or release of energy, the entropy increases. This means that entropy is also a measurement of how much usable energy there is. The entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium, the maximum entropy. Change in entropy is defined asΔS=∫dQT where T is the uniform thermodynamic temperature of the system and dQ is the incremental reversible transfer of heat into that system.
As was mentioned earlier in this paper, the Sun, and every other star, is radiating heat into the universe. But they can’t do it forever. Eventually the heat will have spread out so much that there won’t be warmer objects and cooler objects. Everything will be the same temperature. As all of this happens, the entropy of the universe keeps increasing. Thus, it was speculated that the universe is fated to a heat death in which all the energy ends up as a homogeneous distribution of thermal energy, so that no more work can be extracted from any source. Thus the expansion leads to the universe getting colder faster. When this heat death is reached, the universe will attain a thermodynamic equilibrium and will have maximum entropy (which will essentially be constant).
How long will it take for the universe to die? The universe will cease to exist around the same time our sun is slated to die, according to new predictions based on the multiverse theory. Our universe has existed for 13.8 billion years, and as far as most people are concerned, the universe should continue to exist for billions of years more. Will the universe last forever? In a closed universe, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the universe, after which it starts to contract until all matter in the universe collapses to a point, a final singularity termed the "Big Crunch", the opposite of the Big Bang.
Is universe open or closed? Curvature: open or closed. In cosmology, we speak of the universe as being "open" or "closed", and we are most commonly are eferring to whether the curvature is negative or positive. A "closed universe" is necessarily a closed manifold. An "open universe" can be either a closed or open manifold.
How long until the heat of the universe dies? This is the timeline of the universe from Big Bang to Heat Death scenario. The heat death will occur in 10100 years, if protons decay.
Is the universe ever expanding? The expansion of the universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. The universe does not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" it. Why is the universe expanding? The accelerating expansion of the universe is the observation that the expansion of the universe is such that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.
What is pulling the universe apart? In physical cosmology, the Big Rip is a hypothetical cosmological model concerning the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, and even spacetime itself, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time.
Is the energy in the universe constant? The zero-energy universe hypothesis proposes that the total amount of energy in the universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.
What will happen to our universe in the future? Observations suggest that the expansion of the universe will continue forever. If so, then a popular theory is that the universe will cool as it expands, eventually becoming too cold to sustain life. For this reason, this future scenario once popularly called "heat death" is now known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze.
When observing distant galaxies, we observe they were fleeing outwards. Or to be more precise, all the galaxies are moving away from each other. So up until about 15 years ago, the only answer was momentum. The idea was that the universe received all the energy it needed for its expansion in the first few moments after the Big Bang.
The Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner regions of the lensing cluster Abell 1689 that is 2.2 billion light years away. Light from distant background galaxies is bent by the concentrated dark matter in the cluster to produce the plethora of arcs and arclets that were in turn used to constrain dark energy. Now it appears that the universe will not only expand forever, but the speed of its expansion will continue to accelerate faster and faster. So what’s causing this expansion? Currently, we believe it’s mostly momentum left over from the Big Bang, and the force of dark energy will be accelerating this expansion, forever.
The 'heat-death' of the universe is when the universe has reached a state of maximum entropy. This happens when all available energy (such as from a hot source) has moved to places of less energy (such as a colder source). Once this has happened, no more work can be extracted from the universe. The heat death of the universe, also known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze, is an idea of an ultimate fate of the universe in which the universe has evolved to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy. Heat death does not imply any particular absolute temperature; it only requires that temperature differences or other processes may no longer be exploited to perform work. In the language of physics, this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). After the heat death of the universe will anything ever happen again? The spreading out of energy can be described using entropy. When energy is completely and evenly spread out and the temperatures are the same everywhere, then the system is in a “maximal entropy state” and there is no remaining useable energy.
The “heat death of the universe” is what you get when you starting talking about the repercussions from ever-increasing entropy and never stop asking “and then what?”. Eventually every form of useable energy gets exhausted; every kind of energy ends up more-or-less evenly distributed and without an imbalance there’s no reason for it to flow anywhere or do work. “Heat death” doesn’t necessarily mean that there’s no heat, just no concentrations of heat.
So now, our expanding universe will eventually lead to heat death via entropy. Energy levels everywhere are equal. But what drives that expansion? If it were only the laws of motion the centre of the universe could be identified – the origin point. But as everything is moving away from everything else, that implies that other forces are at work as well. Pressures from stars and the like. But once those are gone, the one active force left in the universe will start having a greater effect. Gravity! While negligible in the current greater universe, its very nature is contrary to expansion. Eventually, over a similar timeframe as the life of the universe, super gravitational forces will have a greater effect, first on their surroundings, then on each other. This will continue until all that exists once again is at a single point, recreating the conditions of our Big Bang.
Once all the energy is turned into heat, gravity comes into play, and all the heat is brought back to the center and get more and more intense. Eventually, there is too much and it results in another big bang. Matter is spread out once again and forms into the universe again. This is a neverending cycle of big bangs. The universe is pretty much refreshing itsself. In order for us to survive, we must find a way to somehow shield one part of the universe from this big bang. After the big bang happens again, we will be roaming around in the dark universe forever. Also, if it is impossible to escape the forces of the universe and avoid being destroyed in the big bang, we will all die and our whole existance, everything everyone has ever done, erased. This cycle has always been happening, so it is highly likely there was another form of life as advanced as us in the universe, and was wiped out by the heat death and then the big bang.
Religious or mythological cosmology is a body of beliefs based on mythological, religious, and esoteric literature and traditions of creation myths and eschatology. Physical cosmology is studied by scientists, such as astronomers and physicists, as well as philosophers, such as metaphysicians, philosophers of physics, and philosophers of space and time. Because of this shared scope with philosophy, theories in physical cosmology may include both scientific and non-scientific propositions, and may depend upon assumptions that cannot be tested.
Religious cosmology is a way of explaining the dynamic structure and order of the cosmos or universe as a process, from a religious perspective. This may include beliefs on origin in the form of a creation myth, subsequent evolution, current organizational form and nature, and eventual fate or destiny. There are various traditions in religion or religious mythology asserting how and why everything is the way it is and the significance of it all. Religious cosmologies describe the spatial lay-out of the universe in terms of the world in which people typically dwell as well as other dimensions, such as the seven dimensions of religion; these are ritual, experience and emotional, narrative and mythical, doctrinal, ethical, social, and material. Religious mythologies may include descriptions of an act or process of creation by a creator deity or a larger pantheon of deities, explanations of the transformation of chaos into order, or the assertion that existence is a matter of endless cyclical transformations. Religious cosmology differs from a strictly scientific cosmology informed by the results of the study of astronomy and similar fields, and may differ in conceptualizations of the world's physical structure and place in the universe, its creation, and forecasts or predictions on its future. The scope of religious cosmology is more inclusive than a strictly scientific cosmology (physical cosmology) in that religious cosmology is not limited to experiential observation, testing of hypotheses, and proposals of theories; for example, religious cosmology may explain why everything is the way it is or seems to be the way it is and prescribing what humans should do in context. Variations in religious cosmology include those of Indian origin, such as Buddhism, Hindu, and Jain; the religious beliefs of China; and, the beliefs of the Abrahamic faiths, such as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Religious cosmologies have often developed into the formal logics of metaphysical systems, such as Platonism, Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Daoism, Kabbalah, or the great chain of being.
Earth has already been visited by extraterrestrial life.
If God created the universe, then who created God? A number of skeptics ask this question. But God by definition is the uncreated creator of the universe, so the question ‘Who created God?’ is illogical.
If the universe needs a cause, then why doesn’t God need a cause? And if God doesn’t need a cause, why should the universe need a cause? Everything which has a beginning has a cause. The universe has a beginning. Therefore the universe has a cause. Since God, by definition, is the creator of the whole universe, he is the creator of time.
It’s important to stress the words in bold type. The universe requires a cause because it had a beginning, as will be shown below. God, unlike the universe, had no beginning, so doesn’t need a cause. In addition, Einstein’s general relativity, which has much experimental support, shows that time is linked to matter and space. So time itself would have begun along with matter and space.
In contrast, there is good evidence that the universe had a beginning. This can be shown from the Laws of Thermodynamics, the most fundamental laws of the physical sciences.
1st Law: The total amount of mass-energy in the universe is constant.
2nd Law: The amount of energy available for work is running out, or entropy is increasing to a maximum.
If the total amount of mass-energy is limited, and the amount of usable energy is decreasing, then the universe cannot have existed forever, otherwise it would already have exhausted all usable energy—the ‘heat death’ of the universe. For example, all radioactive atoms would have decayed, every part of the universe would be the same temperature, and no further work would be possible. So the obvious corollary is that the universe began a finite time ago with a lot of usable energy, and is now running down.
Now, what if we accept that the universe had a beginning, but not that it needs a cause? But it is self-evident that things that begin have a cause—no-one really denies it in his heart. All science and history would collapse if this law of cause and effect were denied. So would all law enforcement, if the police didn’t think they needed to find a cause for a stabbed body or a burgled house. Also, the universe cannot be self-caused—nothing can create itself, because that would mean that it existed before it came into existence, which is a logical absurdity.
God, as creator of time, is outside of time. Since therefore God has no beginning in time, God has always existed, so doesn’t need a cause.
Oscillating universe ideas were popularized by atheists like the late Carl Sagan and Isaac Asimov solely to avoid the notion of a beginning, with its implications of a Creator. But as shown above, the Laws of Thermodynamics undercut that argument. Even an oscillating universe cannot overcome those laws. Each one of the hypothetical cycles would exhaust more and more usable energy. This means every cycle would be larger and longer than the previous one, so looking back in time there would be smaller and smaller cycles. So the multicycle model could have an infinite future, but can only have a finite past.
Also, there are many lines of evidence showing that there is far too little mass for gravity to stop expansion and allow cycling in the first place, i.e., the universe is ‘open’. According to the best estimates (even granting old-earth assumptions), the universe still has only about half the mass needed for re-contraction. This includes the combined total of both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos), as well as any possible contribution of neutrinos to total mass. Some recent evidence for an ‘open’ universe comes from the number of light-bending ‘gravitational lenses’ in the sky. Also, analysis of Type Ia supernovae shows that the universe’s expansion rate is not slowing enough for a closed universe. It seems like there is only 40-80% of the required matter to cause a ‘big crunch’. Incidentally, this low mass is also a major problem for the currently fashionable ‘inflationary’ version of the ‘big bang’ theory, as this predicts a mass density just on the threshold of collapse—a ‘flat’ universe.
If there is no cause, there is no explanation why this particular universe appeared at a particular time, nor why it was a universe and not something else. This universe can’t have any properties to explain its preferential coming into existence, because it wouldn’t have any properties until it actually came into existence.
Is creation by God rational?
A last desperate tactic by skeptics to avoid a theistic conclusion is to assert that creation in time is incoherent. Since time itself began with the beginning of the universe, it is meaningless to talk about what happened ‘before’ the universe began. Causes must precede their effects. So if nothing happened ‘before’ the universe began, then it is meaningless to discuss the cause of the universe’s beginning. So this can’t be used to prove creation by God. Of course, skeptics can’t have it both ways: saying that the Bible is wrong because science has proved it so, but if science appears consistent with the Bible, then well, science is tentative anyway. If there is no time before the creation of the universe then how can God create the universe.
Now the concept of God is from the beginning, when early man see the lightning in the sky then they pray the God due to fear. The concept of God is come from the fear, example you will remember God when you are in trouble. And you will thank God when you are happy. Now take an example of a small kid. If he watch Thor, Spiderman, or Ironman, they all are his heroes, but he believe they exist. They are wrong but when they grew up when they get such a mental level then they come to know the reality. Otherwise this Superheroes is everything for them. And the same case is with us we are following God cause once we make a wish to the God and he fulfill that, and our belief system is going for the existence of god In the same way when a good writer writes a superhero novel, and child believes it. And in such a way good floss for good writers write the book for the existence of god. And we believe it.
God is simply an imaginary part of all human being. It may be anything your role model, your ideal, all one who helps you.
In several holy books, it is written that the universe, Earth, nature, human beings, and other life forms, all are created by God. Because most people dont know where and how we came from, they created an imaginary concept, and related it with god. All the holy books of all the religions, correlate themselves with science because all the sharp mind or genius mind of that particular time in human history came together and wrote a book and give the favour of "God".
God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things. Christians believe God to be both transcendent (wholly independent of, and removed from, the material universe) and immanent (involved in the world). Christian teachings of the immanence and involvement of God and his love for humanity exclude the belief that God is of the same substance as the created universe but accept that God's divine Nature was hypostatically united to human nature in the person of Jesus Christ, in an event known as the Incarnation.
Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jesus, almost in the same breath as in 1 Corinthians (8K5- 6): "For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as indeed there are many 'gods' and many 'lords'), yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we live." "Although the Judeo-Christian sect of the Ebionites protested against this apotheosis of Jesus, the great mass of Gentile Christians accepted it." This began to differentiate the Gentile Christian views of God from traditional Jewish teachings of the time.
Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of "the one God", used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries. What is God's name in Hebrew?YHWH יהוה, the name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH יהוה). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the Lord" owing to the Jewish tradition increasingly viewing the divine name as too sacred to be uttered.
According to the original book of the Bible, the Hebrew Bible, the names Elohim and YHWH were translated wrongly by later, succeeding, religious leaders. The original book was 'the Torah' written by the Jewish people. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion, philosophy, and culture of the Jewish people. The name Elohim truly means "those who came from the sky" but was translated wrongly or purposely by le name 'God', or other similar names, depending of the faith of those writers of future religions who wrote the Holy Books.
According to a famous researcher and writer in the subject of extraterrestrial Elohim beings, the universe has already been populated by advanced intelligent life and there exist a universal civilization in several galaxies. Read about her last publicationLise Lippé
L'épreuve de la Survie.
Published in 2019
Edition du Centre Lise Lippé
An active member of the Madé organization who help in the editing of the book, and also very concerned about its success worldwide, is
Previous communications with the Elohim:
Élohim - Dans la Bible de l’édition La Pléaide notamment (traduction Édouard D’Horme), on lit en Genèse I, 1 : « Au commencement Élohim créa les cieux et la terre. » ÉLOHIM, mot hébreu au pluriel, signifie "Ceux qui sont venus du ciel". Ce ne sont pas des dieux, mais des extraterrestres créateurs de toute la vie sur la terre, très évolués scientifiquement et spirituellement. ÉLOHA, mot hébreu au singulier, signifie Celui qui vient du ciel. Mais la plupart des traductions de la Bible traduisent ÉLOHIM par le mot DIEU, du sanscrit DOS qui signifie lumière. On peut imaginer les gens des temps anciens qui, voyant venir du ciel une lumière, ont exprimé leur croyance par ce mot DOS, DIEU. Cette lumière n’était que les lumières de position d’un engin volant, telle une soucoupe volante.
Ce nom Élohim est un mot hébreu qui, dans la Bible, désigne 'ceux qui sont venus du ciel'.« La religion des hommes deviendra la même que celle des Élohim : l’infini... La religion de l’infini, c’est la religion de l’absolu, et elle est forcément éternelle. Le fait que des êtres qui ont vingt-cinq mille ans d’avance sur nous soient fidèles à cette religion est la preuve qu’elle est la religion absolue et éternelle de toute espèce vivante ayant acquis un niveau de conscience universel, c’est-à-dire infini. »
UNE RÉVÉLATION RÉVOLUTIONNAIRE
Le mot ÉLOHIM est clarifié. Ce sont des êtres venus du ciel pour accomplir l’œuvre de la création de la vie sur terre, y compris l’humanité qu’ils ont créée à leur image comme à leur ressemblance.
L’humanité présente est à l’âge où notre évolution nous fait accéder à une communion intergalactique. Nous sommes rendus à comprendre que, dans l’univers infini, il n’y a pas une conscience au-dessus des autres. Autrement dit, Dieu n’existe pas et n’a jamais existé, sinon dans la pensée des êtres humains de notre planète qui l’ont créé de toutes pièces dans leur tête.
La personne humaine revêt une grande importance par rapport à tout ce qui est. La conscience de l’être humain à l’état brut devient le joyau de l’ univers.
Pour que la conscience, ce joyau à l’état brut, devienne diamant au niveau de l’infini, l’humanité doit orienter sa science et sa spiritualité vers l’épanouissement et l’élévation du niveau de conscience individuel et collectif. Une telle élévation du niveau de conscience doit viser le bonheur absolu. Il faut reconnaître que la conscience de l’être humain est en lien avec toutes les consciences qui existent dans l’univers, car tout est relié dans l’univers infini.
Pour se situer dans l’univers, l’être humain doit juger le bien et le mal par rapport aux quatre plans de la réalité – l’individu, l’humanité, les Élohim et l’infini – avec la constante de l’amour, en tenant compte que le plan de l’infini est le plan le plus important.
Pour faire exister ce qui sera, la science renforcée par la spiritualité ou la sagesse doit encourager l’humanité à poursuivre l’expérience fantastique d’aller créer la vie ailleurs dans l’univers.
La vie éternelle existe grâce à la science de nos créateurs. Mais très peu de personnes y ont accès car, pour la mériter, il faut réaliser son code génétique en visant son plein épanouissement et son ouverture sur l’infini. Or, pour bénéficier de la vie éternelle, les Élohim précisent dans leurs messages quelles en sont les conditions. Quelles sont ces conditions ?
Conditions pour bénéficier de la vie éternelle
7.1 Notre fraternité doit être caractérisée par le respect absolu des autres, c’est-à-dire le respect de leur vision ou de leur perception par rapport à tout ce qui existe ou peut exister dans l’univers. Un tel respect nécessite une ouverture en regard de la recherche de la vérité en lien avec la réalité passée, présente et future.
7.2 Pour assurer consciemment notre survie, nous devons, dans nos pensées, paroles et actions, protéger l’existence non seulement de tout être humain, mais également de tout ce qui représente la vie présente dans les espèces végétales, animales et même minérales.
7.3 Nous devons avoir le souci constant d’élever notre niveau de conscience individuel grâce à notre ennoblissement.
7.4 Nous devons contribuer à l’élévation du niveau de conscience planétaire grâce à notre science et notre spiritualité qui, toutes deux, sont axées sur le mieux-être et l’épanouissement de chaque personne et visent l’harmonie individuelle et collective dans le respect du vivant.
7.5 Nos pensées, paroles et actions doivent contribuer à l’élévation constante de notre niveau de conscience, touchant par le fait même la conscience planétaire et cosmique.
7.6 Nous devons travailler à tout ce qui peut représenter le bien, la vérité et la justice envers chaque personne de notre monde afin de faire exister ce qui est et ce qui sera pour l’éternité. Le nombre de nos actions positives déterminera notre accès à la vie éternelle après notre mort.
Présentement, l’humanité s’achemine vers son autodestruction. Les Élohim viendront sauver les descendants de leurs races sur terre ainsi que les êtres bons qui, non seulement, auront contribué à aider leurs semblables, mais qui auront reconnu les Élohim comme créateurs de notre humanité.
À condition d’établir entre nous la paix sur terre et de contribuer à édifier pour les Élohim un lieu de rencontre officiel, une ambassade terrestre, ces derniers sont désireux de venir sur terre rencontrer les représentants de notre humanité pour nous donner leur héritage scientifique.
10. Dans cette perspective, nous assumons plusieurs rôles dans le Mouvement d’accueil des Élohim que nous formons dont voici les plus importants :
10.1 Préparer l’humanité à la venue des Élohim dans une ambassade grâce à la connaissance et à la compréhension juste de leurs messages.
10.2 Affirmer l’importance primordiale de l’être humain qui mérite fondamentalement le respect de toute l’humanité.
10.3 Amener l’être humain à la religion de l’infini basée sur l’épanouissement de l’être humain en harmonie avec lui-même et les gens de sa planète.
Chaque personne devient donc sa propre religion face à sa perception et sa compréhension personnelle en lien avec l’univers, sans pour autant l’imposer aux autres, toujours dans le respect des autres. Dans cette démarche de compréhension de la religion de l’infini, c’est toute l’humanité qui collabore au mieux-être de chaque personne visant l’élévation de son niveau de conscience vers l’atteinte de son bonheur absolu.
L’humanité entrée depuis peu dans l’ère de la personne, la religion de l’infini trouve son fondement dans la personne humaine qui est en communication avec tout ce qui existe dans l’univers connu. C’est une recherche constante de la communication harmonieuse avec soi et les autres et d’une communion intergalactique avec les êtres les plus conscients de l’univers, tentant par-là même d’ atteindre la conscience cosmique de tout ce qui représente le vivant à l’infini, car tout est relié dans l’univers. C’est une recherche à l’infini, grâce à la science et à la spiritualité, basée sur la vérité, le bien (le bonheur individuel et collectif) et la justice envers tout ce qui existe et peut exister dans l’univers.
This clearly show that extra-terrestrial beings came from the sky with their spacecrafts. Elohim beings were re-visiting planet Earth to help once more the human species they had previously created and engineered along with other life forms thousands of years ago. Those human beings were created very much like the Elohim beings themselves.
A number of traditions have lists of many names of God, many of which enumerate the various qualities of a Supreme Being. The English word "God" (and its equivalent in other languages) is used by multiple religions as a noun or name to refer to different deities, or specifically to the Supreme Being, as denoted in English by the capitalized and uncapitalized terms "god" and "God". Ancient cognate equivalents for the biblical Hebrew Elohim, one of the most common names of God in the Bible, include proto-Semitic El, biblical Aramaic Elah, and Arabic 'ilah. The personal or proper name for God in many of these languages may either be distinguished from such attributes, or homonymic. For example, in Judaism the tetragrammaton is sometimes related to the ancient Hebrew ehyeh ("I will be").
In the Hebrew Bible (Exodus 3V15 ), the personal name of God is revealed directly to Moses, namely: "Yahweh". The Hebrew theonyms Elohim and YHWH are mostly rendered as "God" and "the LORD" respectively, although in the Protestant tradition the personal names Yahweh and Jehovah are also used. "Jehovah" appears in the Tyndale Bible, the King James Version, and other translations from that time period and later.
Many English translations of the Bible translate the tetragrammaton as LORD, thus removing any form of YHWH from the written text and going well beyond the Jewish oral practice of substituting Adonai for YHWH when reading aloud. Some Quakers refer to God as The Light. Another term used is King of Kings or Lord of Lords and Lord of the Hosts. Other names used by Christians include Ancient of Days, Father/Abba which is Hebrew, "Most High" and the Hebrew names Elohim, El-Shaddai, Yahweh, Jehovah and Adonai. Abba (Father in Hebrew) is a common term used for the creator within Christianity because it was a title Jesus used to refer to God the Father. In Mormonism the name of God the Father is Elohim and the name of Jesus in his pre- incarnate state was Jehovah. Together, with the Holy Ghost they form the Godhead; God the Father, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit.
Mormons typically refer to God as "Heavenly Father" or "Father in Heaven". Although Mormonism views the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit as three distinct beings, they are one in purpose and God the Father (Elohim) is worshiped and given all glory through his Son, Jesus Christ (Jehovah). Despite the Godhead doctrine, which teaches that God the Father, Jesus Christ and the Holy Ghost are three separate, divine beings, many Mormons (mainstream Latter- day Saints and otherwise, such as the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) view their beliefs as monotheist since Christ is the conduit through which humanity comes to the God the Father. The Book of Mormon ends with "to meet you before the pleasing bar of the great Jehovah, the eternal Judge of both the quick and dead. Amen." Elohim, singular Eloah, (Hebrew: God), the God of Israel in the Old Testament. A plural of majesty, the term Elohim—though sometimes used for other deities, such as the Moabite god Chemosh, the Sidonian goddess Astarte, and also for other majestic beings such as angels, kings, judges (the Old Testament shofeṭim), and the Messiah—is usually employed in the Old Testament for the one and only God of Israel, whose personal name was revealed to Moses as YHWH, or Yahweh (q.v.). When referring to Yahweh, elohim very often is accompanied by the article ha-, to mean, in combination, “the God,” and sometimes with a further identification Elohim ḥayyim, meaning “the living God.” Though Elohim is plural in form, it is understood in the singular sense. Thus, in Genesis the words, “In the beginning God (Elohim) created the heavens and the earth,” Elohim is monotheistic in connotation, though its grammatical structure seems polytheistic. The Israelites probably borrowed the Canaanite plural noun Elohim and made it singular in meaning in their cultic practices and theological reflections.
The word most often used for God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim. The word is a topic of frequent theological discussion and defining. But what is often lacking is accurate and detailed information based on the biblical contexts in which the word is found. Extensive detailed information is found in the separate file: "Elohim" in Context: Part 2 (Details). Word surveys are based on: Avraham Even Shoshan, Qonqorkantzyah Hadashah (Jerusalem: 1981) and J.R. Kohlenberger and J.A. Swanson, Hebrew English Concordance to the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: 1998). "Elohim" is found 2602 times in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh, Old Testament). (It is not used in the Greek New Testament.) The word is used for: the true God, false gods, supernatural spirits (angels), and human leaders (kings, judges, the messiah). The "–im" ending denotes a plural masculine noun. Most of the time, however, when the noun is used for the true God it has singular masculine verbs. This is contrary to rules of Hebrew grammar. When used of the true God, "Elohim" denotes what is called by linguists a plural of majesty, honor, or fullness. That is, he is GOD in the fullest sense of the word. He is "GOD of gods" or literally, "ELOHIM of elohim" (Deut 10:17; Ps 136:2).
In the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Septuagint), where elohim refers to the true God, the singular theos is used.
Genesis 1:1 Hebrew — "In the beginning, Elohim created the heavens and the earth."
Genesis 1:1 Greek — "In the beginning, Theos made the heavens and the earth.
The New Testament (which is in the same Koiné Greek as the Septuagint) does not have different words for or spellings of "God." That is, no singular or plural forms of theos. When the NT quotes passages from the Hebrew Bible or the Greek Septuagint that contain the word "God," it always has the singular noun.
In the Hebrew Bible there are four words translated "God": El, Elah, Elo'ah, Elohim.
The oldest Semitic word meaning "God" is El. Linguists believe its base meaning is strength or power. "El" is the Strong One, or the Deity (God).
It occurs 238x in the Bible, and is first used in Genesis 14:18 in the phrase "God Most High".
The Canaanites called their chief deity El, the Mighty Bull. After the Israelites entered Canaan, they adopted this generic word "El" for their God, though "Elohim" took precedence. In some Canaanite myths, one of El's sons was the notorious Ba'al, the nemesis of the true God throughout much of Israel's history.
In the Bible, El is often combined in proper names: Isra-El; Shmu-El (Samuel); El-ijah; Immanu-El; Jo-El; Dani-El; Beth-El. It's also found in compounds: El Shaddai, El Elyon, El Roi, El Olam.
Elah is the Aramaic word for "God" used in the Aramaic portions of Daniel and Ezra and one verse in Jeremiah (10:11). Its plural form Elahin is used at least once for the true God (Dan 5:23).
The word Elo'ah is used some 57 times, mostly in the book of Job. It is likely the singular form behind Elohim.
The generic term Elohim refers to the true "God" (2507x), as well as to "gods," "goddesses," and things divine or mighty. In total, it occurs 2602 times in the HB.
With a Hebrew Bible and Hebrew concordance in hand, we can discover several patterns that explain the unusual nature of this key word. The first thing to note is that the phenomenon of pluralizing certain nouns is common in the Bible. Thus, the plural Elohim should be interpreted in light of these language patterns. Here is a summary of what these patterns and realities reveal.
Pattern 1 — The Only or True Elohim
Biblical usage suggests that Elohim reflects a "plural of honor" or "plural of fulness." The plural ending gives greater honor to God. It's like capitalizing the word, instead of printing "god." Or it's analogous to printing GOD or GOD, though Hebrew has no capital and small letters. The Hebrews believed theirs was the only deity who embodied all definitions of the title God, Deity, Supreme Power. So they amplified the noun. Elohim doesn't mean "Gods" but something like "the Greatest God of all." Older Hebrew grammars called this a "plural of majesty or excellence," "plural of greatness, or fullness of power and might," or "plural of intensification."
Bible usage suggests the plural form of Elohim indicates honor and respect. It's like saying, "God of gods."
Pattern 2 — Other Elohim
About 250 times elohim designates angels (non-human servants of the one God) or foreign, pagan deities. The Bible affirms that many beings exist in the same "elohim class" as the one supreme Elohim. That is, there are supranatural, semi-divine beings other than God. So "elohim" seems to mean simply "Deity" or "deity(ies)." And the term does not, inherently, tell us if they are good or evil.
Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of "the one God", used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries. In Christian theology the word must be a personal and a proper name of God; hence it cannot be dismissed as mere metaphor. On the other hand, the names of God in a different tradition are sometimes referred to by symbols. The question whether divine names used by different religions are equivalent has been raised and analyzed.
Exchange of names held sacred between different religious traditions is typically limited. Other elements of religious practice may be shared, especially when communities of different faiths are living in close proximity (for example, the use of Om and Gayatri within the Indian Christian community) but usage of the names themselves mostly remains within the domain of a particular religion, or even may help define one's religious belief according to practice, as in the case of the recitation of names of God (such as the japa). Guru Gobind Singh's Jaap Sahib, which contains 950 names of God. The Divine Names, the classic treatise by Pseudo-Dionysius, defines the scope of traditional understandings in Western traditions such as Hellenic, Christian, Jewish and Islamic theology on the nature and significance of the names of God. Further historical lists such as The 72 Names of the Lord show parallels in the history and interpretation of the name of God amongst Kabbalah, Christianity, and Hebrew scholarship in various parts of the Mediterranean world.
The attitude as to the transmission of the name in many cultures was surrounded by secrecy. In Judaism, the pronunciation of the name of God has always been guarded with great care. It is believed that, in ancient times, the sages communicated the pronunciation only once every seven years; this system was challenged by more recent movements. The nature of a holy name can be described as either personal or attributive. In many cultures it is often difficult to distinguish between the personal and the attributive names of God, the two divisions necessarily shading into each other. I Am that I Am, Yahweh, Tetragrammaton, Elohim, El Shaddai, and Elyon, where￼'El' comes from a root word meaning might, strength, power . Sometimes referring to God and sometimes the mighty when used to refer to the God of Israel, El is almost always qualified by additional words that further define the meaning that distinguishes him from false gods. A common title of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: אלהים). The root Eloah (אלה) is used in poetry and late prose (e.g., the Book of Job) and ending with the masculine plural suffix "-im" creating a word like ba`alim ("owner(s)" and adonim ("lord(s), master(s)") that may also ים indicate a singular identity.
The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: "His greatness lacks nothing, but contains all things". In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes which remain widely accepted. As time passed, theologians developed systematic lists of these attributes, some based on statements in the Bible (e.g., the Lord's Prayer, stating that the Father is in Heaven), others based on theological reasoning. The Kingdom of God is a prominent phrase in the Synoptic Gospels and while there is near unanimous agreement among scholars that it represents a key element of the teachings of Jesus, there is little scholarly agreement on its exact interpretation. Although the New Testament does not have a formal doctrine of the Trinity as such, "it does repeatedly speak of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit... in such a way as to compel a Trinitarian understanding of God." This never becomes a tritheism, i.e. this does not imply three Gods. Around the year 200, Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of 381. The doctrine of the Trinity can be summed up as: "The One God exists in Three Persons and One Substance, as God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit." Trinitarians, who form the large majority of Christians, hold it as a core tenet of their faith. Nontrinitarian denominations define the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit in a number of different ways.
For a century evolutionists have challenged creationists with a large amount of scientific experiments and theories. Was life on Earth created by God six thousand years ago as described in the Christian Bible or was it a slow and natural evolution spreading over several billion years? Most scientists dont want a supernatural being to affect Nature and rather like a Darwinian evolution which provides a mechanism for the formation of life. Unfortunately, Darwinian evolution encounters significant problems in explaining many biochemical systems which cannot be built up by natural selection alone. There seems to be no direct mutations, no gradual routes to some very large biochemical systems.
For a while the theory of Intelligent Design satisfied the creationists as it implied the inadequacy of the theory of Evolution in explaining the gradual steps of life to its complex making. The only logical explanation was to believe in the theory of Creation as presented by the Bible. So it seems!
The theory of Intelligent Design postulates that the ordering of separate components to achieve an identifiable function depends sharply on the components. The basis of life is the cell. The big molecules that do the work in the cell are proteins and nucleic acids. They are polymers. The building blocks of proteins are amino acids, and the building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides. For instance, the DNA is a nucleic acid made up of four different kinds of nucleotides: A, C, G, and T. Amino acids and nucleotides tend to associate together in almost an infinite variety of different molecules. The complexity of the problem faced by the Darwinian scheme of evolution is that evolution cannot explain the step-by-step pathways in a cell. No one can explain the origin of the complex biochemical systems in a cell. There were no biochemists on Earth several billion years ago. No laboratories either! The origin of life appears to require an Intelligent Design to direct the complex biochemical processes. For instance today a biochemist can easily synthesize the components of nucleotides by first purifying and then allowing them to recombine through chemical reactions. Several billion years ago undirected chemical reactions most often produced useless products. The proponents of the theory of Intelligent Design concluded that it was becoming more obvious that the complex biochemical systems of life were not put together gradually but rather quickly. The designer knew what the complex biochemical systems would look like. The systems were designed by an intelligent agent. Life was purposely arranged.
The laws of nature can organize matter to build complex biochemical systems that are at the origin of lifeforms such as a complex human being. The most relevant laws are: biological reproduction, natural selection and mutation. Each particle of matter has a Soul.
All biological structures can be explained in terms of those natural laws: biological reproduction, natural selection and mutation.
All biological structures on Earth can be explained in terms of those natural laws. The universe may have never had a beginning and probably never did. Observations of the universe show the stars in our galaxy, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, super clusters of galaxies, and many other special objects. A theory of the observable universe that has stood out over the past decades is the Big Bang theory. Different types of data point at the Big Bang theory. We may never be a 100% certain which theory of the universe is correct. Our cosmological and cosmogonical studies of the universe have shown that the Big Bang theory is very much compatible with experimental data. Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the universe place the Big Bang beginning at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered by many astronomers as the age of the universe we 'observed' today.
Furtheremore, several different types of measurements have shown that the age of the Earth is 4.54 ± 0.05 billion years (4.54 × 109 years ± 1%). This age may represent the age of the Earth's accretion, of core formation, or of the material from which the Earth formed. Now, our species on Earth as well as all other biological structures may have actually evolved over the past billion years and life on our planet today can be explained in terms of those natural laws: biological reproduction, natural selection and mutation.
Another scenario, which is more likely, is that life on a planet in the Milky Way galaxy or on any other galaxy in the universe, may have evolved to allow very intelligent species (such as a human species) to succeed in creating life of any form including their own. Their civilization may have evolved further in all aspects of sciences and attained a much greater understanding of life and its precious qualities. This advanced species may have help propagating life all over the universe, including on our planet thousands of years ago. This hypothesis or theory of human life appearance on Earth makes more sense than any other scenario explaining the presence of human beings on Earth.