Earth Government for Earth Community
A grassroots process
Earth Government Newsletter
Newsletter Volume 1 Issue 9, December 2003
Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA)
Table of Contents
1.0 President's Message
2.0 Research and development papers
Let us now fit the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the key rights of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms onto the six sections of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights
3.0 General articles
A) The last hundred years of oil worldwide is ours, give it to us or else we will destroy you and all life on the planet, say the United States of America
This is the last of Earth Government Newsletters for now. In January 2004 you will be receiving Newsletters from the Office of Global Dialogue 2004. The Final Program of Global Dialogue 2004 will be made available in the January 2004 Newsletter. All new ideas, issues and proposals found in all of our Newsletters are issues included in the Final Program. Again, you will be invited to participate in Global Dialogue 2004.
As a continued effort of The Global Community to make humanity's value system to evolve we have now fit the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the key rights of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms onto the six sections of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. It is made clear how little importance was given to Sections 1,2,3, and 4 of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. And it is made clear how urgent it is to replace both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Charters from all nations by the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. How amazing we can still live a life without the scale of social values to guide humanity on the path.
President Bush, his Administration and the Republican Congress must be communists disguise as republicans. They have passed legislation to make it easy for American multinationals to invest their capitals outside the U.S.A., especially in China and all over Asia. Barriers to globalization were knocked down and now globalization is the norm. The effect of such a legislation has been a movement of capitals out of the U.S.A. and now America is bankrupted. To the Republicans globalization means letting the American multi-nationals taking their capitals elsewhere out of America instead of investing in America. Surely, the 34 member nations of the Americas do not need of such model as a leader of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The American leadership has shown to be a disaster at home and abroad. Following President Bush legislation American multinationals become even more richer at the expenses of everyone in America. Not a good scenario! In 2004, watch yourself Brazil as you got a ticket on the Titanic with America as Captain.
Memberships in the WTO and the FTAA are not needed and nations should instead seek relationships with fewer other nations only if needed. Certainly it is better to seek an economic relationship with another nation we can trust than with a hundred nations we have no control on and everyone of those nations has a say in the governing of our nation, its environment and social structure. The WTO only offers illusions to profit the few wealthiest people on Earth. They say "become an industrialized nation as we are". But that is the biggest illusion of all. To become an industrialized nation is far from being the best solution. The best way and solution for any nation is to follow the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. Right on top of the scale are the ecological rights, the global life-support systems, and the primordial human rights of this generation and of the next generation. Economic and social rights come next and are not the most important. That makes a lot of sense!
Instead of partnerships what nations should agree upon are symbiotical relationships.
A global symbiotical relationship between nations is more than just a partnership, or an economical agreement such as the WTO and the FTAA. The WTO and FTAA are about trade partnerships between nations. On the other hand, a global symbiotical relationship between two or more nations can have trade as the major aspect of the relationship or it can have as many other aspects as agreed by the nations involved. The fundamental criteria is that a relationship is created for the good of all nations participating in the relationship and for the good of humanity, all life on Earth. The relationship allows a global equitable and peaceful development.
The emphasis of a global symbiotical relationship is not so much on how much money a nation should have or how high a GDP should be although money can be made a part of the relationship. We all know developed countries live off developing countries so the emphasis has no need to stress out the profit a rich nation is making off a poor nation. The emphasis of the relationship should give more importance to the other aspects such as quality of life, protection of the environment and of the global life-support systems, the entrenchment of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights and the Charter of the Earth Community into our ways of life, justice, peace, spiritual freedom, security, and many other important aspects as described in the global ministries (health, agriculture, security, energy, trade, resources, etc.).
The total estimated resources of oil, coal, and natural gas will run out in less than a hundred years. And oil is the reason why Americans have invaded the Middle East. They need badly the oil to support their economic survival. Who does not? They dont need to trade with the Moslems and Arabs as they can steal the oil by invading the Middle East. And they did! The American concept of free trade is a backward concept based on muscles, guns and weapons of mass destruction they have plenty in stock. Now they have their eyes on the resources of the Americas. The FTAA is their new pet project to subdue the 34 member nations of the Americas. Americans will get what they want one way or the other, the other being militarily. The United States are financially bankrup, and they have to keep the illusion that their economy is healthy and doing well. It is a good military thinking. Why tell the truth when a lie workd well?!
The deterioration in the US government's finances has been blamed on a number of factors. The Bush administration has cited higher spending on anti-terrorism measures following September 11. But Democrats have said President Bush made matters worst by pushing through tax cuts worth $1.35 trillion last year.
The United States government is in serious financial trouble.
Another fact is that the annual deficit for US government spending this year is expected to be more than $100,000,000,000. That's right; one hundred billion dollars will be missing. Where will they get it? They will borrow. Consider what would happen if Americans pay on one hundred billion dollars only one percent interest. How much will that be? One percent of a hundred is one; so one percent of a hundred billion is one billion. This means, that Americans must pay, for one percent interest, one billion dollars, just for the new deficit! However, who will lend them a hundred billion dollars at a mere one percent interest? Surely, a higher interest rate is called for. This is not for the US Federal deficit, which is already higher than six trillion dollars, but only for the new annual deficit, of a "mere" hundred billion dollars.
America has about six trillion dollars in actual debt. It has potential debt of ten trillion dollars, to retirees. These old people are going to retire, meaning that America's debt will be about sixteen trillion dollars on a good day. When we realize that their deficits are exploding even without retirees, and the debt limit was very recently raised by 750 billion dollars, we realize that their debt may be incredible. What does it mean to owe six trillion plus ten trillion dollars? It means they must pay interest on sixteen trillion dollars, and every penny paid on interest in down the tube, lost, wasted.
Americans now live by borrowing money they have no way to repay. The national debt is not only increasing but ballooning, and with social security, stands to explode by ten trillion dollars.
The value of the American dollars is not worth the paper used to print it. America is bankrupt. The United States Government keeps making money but the reality is that the US national debt and annual deficit are out of control and no more no less than a time-tomb ready to explode.
Canada is trying to help the American old people by selling them less expensive drugs (same drugs as in the US but Canadian taxes on drugs are much less than in the US) but the big rich pharmaceutical US corporations have lobbied the Bush Administration to pass a bill to maintain high cost and punish Canada for helping the American elderly.
Then, for four years, when the economy was very good in money, an attempt was made to pay down the debt. For four years the annual deficit dropped, so that it went from 363 billion dollars in 1998 to 359 billion dollars in 2001. This is a drop of only about four billion dollars out of over three hundred billion. That is all that was done at the best of times. This is not paying down the debt; it is not even getting ride of the annual deficit (as Canada as done under the leadership of Prime Minister Jean Chretien); it is a joke. Americans should look North to see how getting ride of the annual deficit and the debt can be achieve.
Again, to sharpen Mr. Greenspan's warning about the incoming ten trillion dollar debt for retirees, recent statistics have shown that each year weakens the working base and expands the taking base for Social Security largesse. Americans are so harried with working and so worried about divorce, so afraid to have children or disinterested in them, that they cannot have large families (and that is good as the world is already overpopulated) , and therefore, the coming generations will be a small amount of people supporting a huge among of retirees. This is economically impossible. Americans are just sitting here waiting for the End, and nobody is really doing anything about it. Invading the Middle East to get access to free oil seemed to be an option but is not likely to succeed. They have another Vietnam on their hands. And in doing so Americans have given to trade the worst ever name.
Americans need a "buy America" campaign, to revive the industries on their shores so badly undercut by the slaves in China, supported by global capitalism. If their economy is hemorrhaging, their strength is reduced. They dont need the FTAA. If they owe six trillion plus dollars and pay interest, those who lend them and own their bonds control their destiny. Anytime they call in their debts America can stagger and even collapse, or declare bankruptcy. Americans will be slaves to global economics, just like the banana republics.
Now America is talking about the FTAA to get more free resources by subduing the 34 member nations of the Americas. But developing countries know better then to get taken by a bankrupt United States. They know America is bankrupt. America is also the worst nation on the planet in creating global warming and thus forcing the climate to change. They know America would do the same to them. America would bankrupt their economies, pollute their environment and accelerate the global warming of the planet.
To my fellow Americans I say:
a) upgrade your values by accepting the Scale of Human and Earth Rights, the Charter of the Earth Community, and become Gobal Community Citizens;
Happy New Year America!
The Earth Community Organization believes that the introduction of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been a great step in humanity's evolution to better itself. But now is time to leave it behind and reach to our next step, that is, the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights resides in the fact that it gives equal emphasis to cultural rights, economic and social rights, and civil and political rights. The Earth Community Organization asks how meaningful is the right to life or to participation in political life if the ecological base (the base of life) and the global life-support systems are seriously threatened:
* wilderness is vastly disappearing; species of the fauna and flora becoming extinct
The Earth Community Organization found evident that the ecological base is the essential prerequisite for the effectiveness and exercise of all rights recognized for human beings. The stewardship of the ecological base has to be given priority before the fulfilment of various economic and social wishes. Demands resulting from the socio-economic system of a particular country have to find their limits in the protection of the global ecosystem. Vital interests of future generations have to be considered as having priority before less vital interests of the present generation. Supply chains have to be designed in a way, that the goods can enter after usage or consumption into natural or industrial recycling processes. If serious damages to persons, animals, plants and the ecosystem cannot be excluded, an action or pattern of behaviour should be refrained from. A measure for supplying goods or services should choose a path which entails the least possible impact on the ecological and social system concerned. This way functioning proven systems will not be disturbed, and unnecessary risks will not be taken. Supply strategies consuming less resources should have preference before those enhancing more resource consumption. When there is a need to find a solution to a problem or a concern, a sound solution would be to choose a measure or conduct an action, if possible, which causes reversible damage as opposed to a measure or an action causing an irreversible loss.
Following the development of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, nations throughout the world developed their own version in line with the Universal Declaration. As an example, in 1982, Prime Minister Trudeau brought Canada's Constitution home, and with it, the new Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Charter rights are divided into a number of categories: Fundamental Freedoms, Democratic Rights, Legal Rights, Equality Rights, Official Languages, and Minority Language Educational Rights. A copy of the Canadian Charter is included here at the end.
Let us now fit the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the key rights of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms onto the six sections of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights
Scale of Human and Earth Rights
Section 2. Primordial human rights
Section 3. The ecological rights, the protection of the global life-support systems and the primordial
human rights of future generations
The following table illustrates the importance of both the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
It is made clear how little importance was given to Sections 1,2,3, and 4 of the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. And it is made clear how urgent
it is to replace both the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Charters from all nations by the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.
Here is how the degree of importance was obtained. For instance in Section 1 it was found that parts of Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (see description below)was included as promoting very softly the protection of human life but was not promoting at all the protection of the global life-support systems. Section 1 on the Scale of Human and Earth Rights promotes both the protection of human life and the global life-support systems. No key rights were found in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms that would promote in any way the protection of human life and that of the global life-support systems. It is a failure of the Canadian Charter to be in line with the Universal Declaration. And it is a failure of both the Universal Declaration and the Canadian Charter to be in line with the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. As a result of this failure, a 1% combine importance was recorded in the table. What this means? It means that neither the Universal Declaration or the Canadian Charter gives any importance to human life and the protection of the global life-support systems. These results are consistent and in agreement with the fact that democracy hardly survive an overpopulation such as is seen in the United States. What happens to the idea of the dignity of the human species if this population growth continues at its present rate? It will be completely destroyed. Democracy cannot survive overpopulation. Human dignity cannot survive overpopulation. Convenience and decency cannot survive overpopulation. As you put more and more people onto the world, the value of life not only declines, it disappears. It doesn't matter if someone dies, the more people there are, the less one person matters. It would be preferable to split a large population into smaller populations.
To determine rights requires an understanding of needs and reponsibilities and their importance. The Scale of Human and Earth Rights and the Charter of Earth Government are the best guidance for continuing this process. The Scale shows social values in order of importance and so will help us understand the rights of a community. What are the universal needs of a person, family, and that of a global community?
Primordial human rights are separate categories from those of ecological rights, community rights, the right of the greatest number of people, economic rights, social rights, cultural rights and religious rights. Ecological and primordial human rights are the only rights that have existed unchanged throughout the evolutionary origin of our species. Any major change would have threatened our very existence. All other human rights listed here are rights created by human beings and can be changed depending of new circumstances; they are not stagnant but are rather flexible and adaptive, and they can evolve. Ecological and primordial human rights of this generation and of future generations are therefore much more important than any other human rights existing now and in the future.
Primordial human rights are those human rights that individuals have by virtue of their very existence as human beings. Primordial human rights are necessarily human needs but not all human needs are primordial human rights. Nevertheless there are very specific primordial human needs. First there are the material needs, the requisites for a dignified life:
Morally right actions or policies are those actions that result in the greatest number of people. The Earth Community Organization asks how meaningful is the right of the greatest number of people if they agree to the challenge or damage the ecological base of the Earth. The greatest number of people cannot and will not be allowed to supersede the rights of the ecological base of Earth.
The Earth Community Organization asks how meaningful is the right to life or to participation in political life if poverty, gender inequality, destitution and epidemics prevent individuals from enjoying freedom of movement, freedom to vote, to marry and so on? The Earth Community Organization found evident that economic and social rights are the essential prerequisite for the effectiveness and exercise of all other rights (other than ecological and primordial human rights now and in the future) recognized for human beings. The developing countries are having a harder time than others to achieve the exercise of these rights on a lasting basis, with the problems of economic globalization presenting new challenges. We must therefore beware of enforcing economic rights alone to the detriment of individual civil rights and the rights of all individuals to decide their own fate and the future of their country, their political rights. The universality of human rights recognizes the right of all individuals to participate in the cultural life of their community and of other country, to receive education and training, and to be informed. The Earth Community Organization is aware that traditional customs and standards could burden the sustainability of all life on Earth. They could burden Earth society or any society forever, and holds individuals in a straitjacket. We cannot accept that. No one can! There are choices to be made and you must make them. Cultures can develop and can go on developing. Even religious beliefs may evolve. We are living now and we are able to create these changes. We are at least as bright, most certainly brighter, than the people who were living thousand of years ago. As far as the Earth Community Organization is concerned, cultural and religious differences cannot be a reason or an excuse or a pretext for not respecting human rights including and most importantly the ecological rights. Quite the contrary, all kinds of cultures may promote human rights and especially cultural rights. They are different in their achievements, but they are equal in dignity where they are expressions of freedom. At any time or in any given place, men, women and children use their culture to invent new ways of making human rights a living reality. Diversity enriches us if it respects the dignity of each individual, and if it takes account of human rights as a whole.
Security is a primordial human and Earth right. The Earth Community Organization has broadened the traditional focus of the security of nations to include both the security of people as well as that of the planet. Global security policies include:
* every person on Earth has a right to a secure existence, and all states have an obligation to protect those rights
Another major source of global unsecurity for people is
the culture of violence in everyday life as it is shown on television screens
and cinemas. The American Way of Life is creating this culture of violence.
An american child at age six year old has seen more violence on television
than any other child of the Middle East over a life span. This culture
of violence infects both industrial and developing countries, rich and
poor. This trend of culture of violence must end. The movie and TV industry
is a threat to global security. The media is responsible for the propagation
of violence through communications. Why has government not done anyhting
to regulate the media industry? Surely everyone understood that on the
Scale of Human and Earth Rights security of the people of any nation is
more important than the human rights related to the freedom of expression
of the media industry. Security of the people and the state is on top of
the Scale. It is part of the primordial human rights. While freedom of
expression is a right found lower on the Scale and is classified partly
* Community rights and the right that the greatest number of people has by virtue of its number (50% plus one) and after voting representatives democratically (these rights can be and are usually a part of the constitution of a country)
So the freedom of expression of a person is not as important as the security of that person and the security of the state.
Consumers' rights impinge on the rights of other humans living in Earth Community. The right to choice is the consumer right that refers to the right to have a range and variety of goods and services at competitive, fair prices and variable, satisfactory quality. In order to assure choice in the developed country markets, governments have implemented trade laws to facilitate cross border transactions and transnational corporations (TNCs) have set up business off shore so they can lessen the cost of the production process. The goods that are available in the developed country markets are provided by slave labour, child labour, sweatshops or in countries that allow the TNCs to forego adhering to pollution or ecological concerns and human rights in pursuit of profit. Labour rights are abused in efforts to earn more profits. This leads to abhorrent working conditions, job insecurity and low living standards (all human rights). Consumers in developed countries have been socialized to want more and more things to consume but have not been socialized to appreciate the impact of their consumption choices on the human rights of other people; that is, they are not being responsible for their decisions.
The Earth Community Organization has now at hand the method and framework to conduct societal checks and balances of a global sustainable development. A more balance world economy will result of annual checks and balances. Corporations will take their social responsibilities and become involved in designing, monitoring, and implementing these checks and balances. Several corporations have already done so. Results will be taken into account in the evaluation of sustainable development. Corporations are required to expand their responsibilities to include human and Earth rights, the environment, community and family aspects, safe working conditions, fair wages and sustainable consumption aspects.
Let us now categorized the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the key rights of the Canadian Charter of Rights Freedoms as they would fit on the Scale of Human and Earth Rights. Of course this is by no mean written in stone. Furthermore, several new Articles (not shown in here) developed by the Earth Community Organization have been added to the Sections. For instance, Section 3 is not included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Section 1 is also not really included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Yet Section 1 is the most important of all. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (CCRF) was also included here as another example of how a Charter can be analyzed with respect to the Scale.
Fundamental Freedoms (Section 2)
conscience and religionDemocratic Rights (sections 3, 4 and 5)
right to voteMobility Rights (section 6)
the right to move to and live in any provinceLegal Rights (sections 7-14)
life, liberty, and security of the personEquality Rights (section 15)
equal treatment before and under the lawLanguage Rights
English and French are the official languages of Canada
Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 2 (III) of 10 December 1948
On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights the full text of which appears in the following pages. Following this historic act the Assembly called upon all Member countries to publicize the text of the Declaration and "to cause it to be disseminated, displayed, read and expounded principally in schools and other educational institutions, without distinction based on the political status of countries or territories."
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.
Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
(1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
(2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and
residence within the borders of each state.
(1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other
countries asylum from persecution.
(1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation
due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found
a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage
and at its dissolution.
(1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well
as in association with others.
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.
(1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly
(1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government
of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.
(1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of
employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate
for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food,
clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the
right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood,
old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall
be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary
education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall
be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible
to all on the basis of merit.
(1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the
cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific
advancement and its benefits.
Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
(1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone
the free and full development of his personality is possible.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying
for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to
perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms
set forth herein.
President Bush, his Administration and the Republican Congress must be communists disguise as republicans. They have passed legislation to make it easy for American multinationals to invest their capitals outside the U.S.A. especially in China and all over Asia. Barriers to globalization were knocked down (see Article on the FTAA of this Newsletter) and now globalization is the norm. The effect of such a legislation has been a movement of capitals out of the U.S.A. and now America is bankrupted (see Article "America is financially bankrup..."). Surely, the 34 member nations of the Americas do not need of such model as a leader of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The American leadership has shown to be a disaster at home and abroad. Following President Bush legislation American multinationals become even more richer at the expenses of everyone in America. Not a good scenario! In 2004, watch yourself Brazil as you got yourself a ticket on the Titanic with America as Captain.
partnership between nations, or an economical agreement is about the control
of a nation by the other. Rich countries manipulate trade agreements in
order to ensure profitability. What is trade when the US military is taken
over a nation's resources? Trade has no meaning except when the US is getting
richer at the expenses of all other nations, including Canada, and at the
expenses of the global life-support systems. The military is used against
domestic dissidents, like a police force. It is also used to expand markets
and keep international dissidents in line. Governments of poor countries
that try to take control of their own resources and develop their own economies
(instead of remaining areas of cheap labour and raw materials for rich
countries) are declared enemies, terrorists, and attacked, officially or
otherwise. Nicaragua, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and the Middle East
are examples. U.S. military is "to protect U.S. interests and investments"
and that includes making other nations safe for U.S multinational corporations.
And that is exactly what is happening in the Middle East where the U.S.
military is protecting its strategic economic interests especially the
continue flow of oil at the cheapest price, thus making global warming
worst by ten-fold. We have estimated that there is, worldwide, one hundred years left of oil and most of it is found in the Middle East. The U.S. has
taken over the oil for its citizens back home.
The argument for 'free trade' states that countries should specialize
in certain products that they are good at producing and buy from other
countries what they are not good at producing, so that the economy is more
efficient. What kind of efficiency is it when the pieces of a product are
sent half way around the world to be assembled in a country with cheap
labour, then shipped back to be sold? It may be profitable, but it is a
waste of time and energy as well as resources, and moving products this
way is not environmentally friendly and is a threat to the global life-support
systems. What kind of efficiency is that? Huge amounts of money are spent
on marketing to get people to buy things that they don't need. Where is
the efficiency in that?
A global symbiotical relationship between nations is more than just a partnership, or an economical agreement such as the WTO. The WTO is about a trade partnership between nations. On the other hand, a global symbiotical relationship between two or more nations can have trade as the major aspect of the relationship or it can have as many other aspects as agreed by the nations involved. The fundamental criteria is that a relationship is created for the good of all nations participating in the relationship and for the good of humanity, all life on Earth. The relationship allows a global equitable and peaceful development.
The emphasis of a global symbiotical relationship is not so much on
how much money a nation should have or how high a GDP should be although
money can be made a part of the relationship. We all know developed countries
live off developing countries so the emphasis has no need to stress out
the profit a rich nation is making off a poor nation. The emphasis
of the relationship should give more importance to the other
aspects such as quality of life, protection of the environment and of the
global life-support systems, the entrenchment of the Scale of Human and
Earth Rights and the Charter of Earth Government into our ways of life,
justice, peace, spiritual freedom, security, and many other important aspects
as described in the global ministries (health, agriculture, energy, trade,
The WTO tribunal is illegal and arbitrary. It is not a Higher Court such as the Earth Court of Justice. It has no base for Justice.
The effects of globalization and the creation of planetary trade blocks give rise to global problems such as:
* unemployment in industrial nations
Earth Government is requesting all members of the Free Trade Area of the Americas(FTAA) and of the World Trade Organization(WTO) to change their ways by:
1. building social and environmental concerns into their trade rules;
Earth Government has begun to establish the existence of the New Age Civilization of the 3rd Millennium, the age of symbiotical relationships and global cooperation. An economically base symbiotical relationship exists between nations of the European Union. Other types (geographical, economical, social, business-like, political, religious, and personal) may be created all over the world between communities, nations, and between people themselves. There has always been symbiotical relationships in Nature, and between Souls and the matter of the universe to help creating Earth and life on Earth to better serve God.
Earth Government is inviting you to participate in the formation of global symbiotical relationships between communities, nations, businesses, or a combination of them. This can be accomplished through the formation of global ministries. We are also proposing the formation of a political symbiotical relationship between state and the global civil society. A similar relationship already exists between the Earth Government and every member of the Earth Community, also known as the human family, the global civil society.
Any symbiotical relationship is for the good of all, for the good of the 'other'. It is based on a genuine group concern and unconditional support for the individual's well-being ~ a giant leap in human behaviour. The question is how can we improve the political symbiotical relationship to fulfill its goals? The Charter of Earth Government promotes the values to achieve its goals. These goals require the promoting and establishment of: global community ethics, mutual respect, respect for life, basic liberties, justice and equity, caring for the 'other', integrity, responsibility and accountability.
Other symbiotical relationships may be based on common concerns and issues such as: the environment, peace, women's rights, human and Earth rights, and many more. There is a whole spectrum of possible symbiotical relationships.
Global 2000 and Global Dialogue 2002 were the first world conferences on sustainable development and Earth management that brought forward sound solutions to humanity's problems. Symbiotical relationships are needed today and for the long term future of humanity.
Today the watchdog, the 'enforcer' for 'free trade', and also the bedfellow of both the IMF and the World Bank, is the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO is responsible for monitoring national trading policies, handling trade disputes, and enforcing the GATT agreements. The World Trade Organization (WTO), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) encourage the privatization of public services and the settling of international disputes their own way. Any government, acting on behalf of a corporation, can challenge the acts of another government if they "interfere with trade." Complaints are taken to a WTO dispute resolution body which then make a binding decision. The WTO has forced governments to lower their environmental standards in favour of a corporation to allow more pollution into the environment (there are thousands of cases but let just mention the waste oil let go in ocean waters by oil tankers), and that is a form of anti-government gone bad with absolute no respect or care for life and the global-life support systems. Corporations can sue governments if they harm their profits through any unfair barriers to trade. NAFTA and WTO tribunals usually rule in favor of corporations. So now we really have a new definition for the word 'property' to mean both what is currently owned and profits that could potentially be made. To compensate, we propose a new definition for 'pollution' and 'human destruction' to mean the pollution and human destruction that the policies of the IMF, World Bank and WTO are causing now in the world plus the pollution and human destruction that they will cause in the future to the next generations. By providing corporations with a mean to override governmental decisions, NAFTA and the WTO (and the proposed FTAA) shift power even more into the hands of the elite. And that is also a form of anti-government.
The global economy can be affected by the deregulation in the movement of capital and thus by speculation. Money is made off tiny fluctuations in the relative prices of currencies. Speculation makes it possible for huge amounts of money to be transferred half-way around the world in a matter of seconds. Whereas world trade associated with actual goods and services is estimated at $7 trillion a year, speculation is estimated at $1.5 trillion a day. If a country's economy starts to slow, billions of dollars can be transferred out of the country instantaneously, which can significantly affect its economy and the people. This has been the case in 1997 of a number of East Asia countries. They were bankrupted by speculation. The people were enormously affected for the worst. Speculation can exert tremendous pressure on the internal politics of a country. It can bankrupt a country's economy. Speculation should be de-institutionalized. Humanity has no real need for speculation, and it does way more damage than good.
'Free trade' now means the removal of:
a) tariffs and similar restrictions on the easy flow of capital (and that includes no global tax on transactions stemming from speculation), and
That is how America was bankrupted. Capitals are flowing out of America. American multinationals invest in China and all over Asia instead of America. The few wealthiest mega-corporations are getting richer at the expenses of all Americans.
Rich countries manipulate trade agreements in order to ensure profitability. Their governments insist on tariffs and protectionism in areas in which they are weak. For instance, Canada and the USA are now going through the process of an economic war in the softwood industry. The imposition of a 29 percent tariff on softwood lumber by the U.S. Commerce Department shows that Canadians were duped by the Free Trade Agreement(FTA) and NAFTA. The U.S. Government protectionism is itself aimed at reducing the value of the Canadian companies just long enough for American competitors to acquire them. Many Canadian industries have already been bought by US competitors. The energy sector is one of them. Free trade opens up a poor country's economy to competition with strong, developed, well-financed, multinational corporations. In consequence, most of the local producers and manufacturers go out of business thus leaving a poor country's economy entirely in the hands of the transnational elite. It is a form of colonization and of world anti-government. Rich countries force poorer countries to open up their markets, and then take them over.
There is no such thing an honest 'free trade' with the U.S. It is only free for oil, gas and electricity, which they desperately need and not free for products where American voters demand protection. U.S. protectionist policies are applied at the very moment when President George W. Bush is bullying the world to open its borders to American products and investment. The U.S. Government protectionism is itself aimed at reducing the value of the Canadian companies just long enough for American competitors to acquire them. Canada must abrogate NAFTA and replace it with a fair trade treaty which would restore the bargaining chips we gave away to the Americans.
The US government and the American corporate people are protecting their own people at the cost of deteriorating significantly the Canadina-USA relationship. We, as Canadians, certainly have the right to take the problem to the WTO and to retaliate in other commercial and industrial sectors. This creates the illusion that the trade body and its tribunal are protecting a fair trade. But it is just that an illusion.
What to do about this situation? Here in the Americas, we are planning to do just the opposite of a democracy: choosing an economic model totally based on profit making. The Summit of the Americas (see Article The Summit of the Americas, the FTAA and Earth Management) in Quebec city gave green light to the corporate sector with no checks. If the corporate sector was truly willing to honestly do such checks and balances then it should not matter to them to have the system put in place before they sign such an agreement. The Earth Community Organization (ECO) is proposing to oversee such a system be put in place to the satisfaction of Earth Community.
The Summit of the Americas was a meeting of the 34 National Governments of every country in North, Central, South America and the Caribbean (except Cuba). The meeting was held April 20-22, 2001, in Quebec City. There was a discussion to extend the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) throughout the Americas to form the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) by 2005. The FTAA will follow the World Trade Organization (WTO) guidelines for settling disputes. The Organization of American States (OAS) manages implementation of this process. Member countries are encouraged to change their economic infrastructures to be in line with the free trade policies of the FTAA. Many member countries have already prioritised economic growth over social aspects and human rights.
The FTAA has been shown to be:
A) heavily supportive of privatization of health care and education
The Earth Community Organization (ECO) is aware of what the 34 National Governments are trying to achieve
and decided to help them designing an agreement between themselves in line with the Earth Charter of our organization. Several articles
in our Newsletters were written especially to help you find sound solutions.
Global Community citizens believe all citizens have the right to share the wealth in the world. Foreign investment and the trade agreement must protect and improve social and environmental rights, not just the economy. A sustainable development in the hemisphere would mean finding a sound balance among the interactions designed to create a healthy economic growth, preserve environmental quality, make a wise use of our resources, and enhance social benefits. Free trade cannot proceed at the expense of the environment, labour rights, human rights and the sovereignty of a nation. The FTAA will lead to an increase in poverty by giving investor rights priority over government decision-making. Employers will be looking for more concessions from workers. Small businesses will find it more difficult to grow and compete against large corporations.
People are concerned about the lack of public consultation in free trade negotiations. The agreement is being negotiated without public scrutiny. The actual process of developing the FTAA is itself undemocratic as it excludes anyone but government officials and business interests. Civil society groups were left outside the gates during the conference. The decisions by trade bodies must not be allowed to take away the rights and responsibilities of local communities. A local community will find it impossible to make decisions about planning, public health, local control over water, waste, zoning, or environmental issues because the rights of corporations to profits would be deemed to take precedence.
The process of the Summit of the Americas had several other wrongdoings: decisions were made in secrecy; misappropriation of taxpayers’ money; violent suppression of free speech; and the sacrifice of Canadian interests for the profit of big corporations. None of the national governments had a referendum on the free trade issue. There were no discussions at home and in communities. People were not asked for their opinions and recommendations. Freedom of speech is a major aspect of democracy. So where is democracy? Citizens were not told what is at stake in the trade deal. The process of developing an agreement must include all citizens in order for democracy to expand freely across the Americas and Caribbean.
Other implications of the FTAA:
a) Services offered to the public can be managed by private, foreign providers; these providers are allowed to bid for contracts in all sectors such as energy, transportation, agriculture, forestry, fishery, health, education, sewer and water services. Truly, all sectors of life are affected.
b) Resources are opened for trade and may no longer be controlled by a national government; energy, rain forests and water are affected. In effect, business leaders of large corporations become the real owners of our resources.
c) Environmental decisions, education initiatives, health policies and cultural programs will be affected if they represent a threat to a corporation’s potential profit.
d) Canadians will have to accept continental economic and social policies and the U.S. dollars as our currency. The U.S. dollars will eventually become the currency of all 34 member nations. What it means to be a Canadian will be gradually diluted to fulfill the desires of business leaders. What it means to be a citizen in any country will be diluted to nothing.
e) Government will no longer have an independent financial policy.
f) Labour rights will be subjected to the primary goal of making profit.
g) Viability of social programs in a community will be subjected to scrutiny and control by the FTAA.
h) Operation of government will be restrained and dependent on economic goals.
i) The sovereignty of a nation will be chipped away. Government will give away sovereign and constitutional powers to secret FTAA tribunals whose only goals and objectives are to protect investments and investors.
j) The quality of life of every nation in the hemisphere will be diminished and subjected to economic goals.
k) Environmental degradation: lowering of plant and biomass diversity, increase of air pollution, natural resource depletion and pollution, deforestation, soil erosion, endangerment and extinction of life species. The legacy to our children and to the future generations thereafter will be a wasteland.
l) U.S. military is "to protect U.S. interests and investments" and that includes making other nations safe for U.S multinational corporations. When will the military issue be discussed? How will the military be part of the FTAA? Are we seeing here in the Americas a scenario that has occurred in Europe before the Second World War? The FTAA should entrench a strong statement that says that military should not be an option as a solution to any situation arising in the hemisphere. The Earth Court of Justice was created to deal with any situation and, therefore, the military is not needed. The military should also be subjected to the Earth Court of Justice for any violation of human and Earth rights including environmental rights as defined by the Scale of Human and Earth Rights.
n) Degradation and disrespect of national standards (engineering, health, environmental, etc.).
o) If U.S. interest rates go up what will be the impacts of the cost of debt servicing of the 32 (out of 34) poor countries? Investments in those nations have to be serviced through any export surplus.
p) Future generations will be affected by entering into an agreement that obligates the present generation to irrevocable conditions. The FTAA would violate the basic principle of a sustainable development in the hemisphere and endanger the survival of Life on Earth.
q) If Canada and the U.S. were serious about the FTAA and a sustainable development in the poorest nations would they not accept removing now all tariffs for the very poorest members?
NAFTA has led to the loss of thousands of manufacturing jobs in Canadian plants as companies relocated to Mexico to take advantage of the cheaper and weaker environmental and safety standards. Thus we are now seing a flow of capitals out of Canada to Asian countries. Rich Canadians mega-corporations are taking their profit elsewhere at the expenses of Canadians and the Canadian economy. The same thing will happen with the new agreement. The FTAA will have the effect of lowering down wages and working conditions in Canada and in the U.S. thereby adding more profits to business leaders.
The human rights abuse and environmental degradation are two of the many unresolved social issues in countries that want the trade agreement. Human rights violations would constitute unfair trade subsidies.
The process of designing the FTAA is obviously undemocratic and will lead to an "unsustainable development". Earth Communityhas worked hard to find sound solutions and better ways to improve the quality of our lives and that of the future generations. We are not going to let go the "Belief, Values, Principles and Aspirations of the New Age". We will form our own ways to manage the Americas and the Caribbean. We will form the Earth Government. The people of the Americas and Caribbean will be first in forming Earth Government to manage the hemisphere.
Earth Community has initiated a global dialogue to discuss a sustainable development as a widely-discussed alternative to currently unsustainable economic development patterns. It is all the more attractive because it may be cast in terms compatible with the market economy. However, there must be a social dimension to the concept, a vision, for it to become a viable alternative to unrestrained economic growth. The Earth is no longer a self-regulating planetary system. Its future will depend on human action and the continuation of natural ecosystems will be achieved because people want them to be preserved. Acceptance of sustainable development by society may depend on cultural values and even spiritual notions about the relationship of humankind to the Earth.
People will not accept a view of sustainable development that recreates a technologically more advanced version of a basic peasant society, especially if they have only recently developed economically. For societies to accept a sustainable development and to continue to grow within, the new way of living must accept cultural diversity, encourage individual expression, allow social change, offer opportunity, and examine values. There must be ways to permit opportunity and growth without ecological compromise. Achieving sustainable development may therefore be linked with policies emphasizing community, the value of information, originality in ideas, and the arts.
Humanity embarks on a new path in history, the inevitability of World societies living, sharing, and creating global economic symbiotical relationships interactively is, beyond doubt, that which we must confront and making sure these relationships are for the good of all humanity. Our creativity today may influence tomorrow's socio-economic strategies and contribute to the evolution of human societies - an evolution directed towards a global partnership with each other, and, most importantly, with our natural environment. Many socio-political infrastructures created for global industries neglect the environment and do not promote environmental sustainability. It is proposed the restructuring of knowledge that governs society, a strategy aimed to change the focus of the capitalist economy and considered Indigenous peoples and their nurturing of spiritual and environmental partnership with nature - a valuable and integral part of their socio-economic structure.
A corporation will now be required to operate its business as per global ehtics:
* Be concerned with issues such as climate change, bio-diversity, pollution prevention and adopt high standards
* Minimize environmental degradation and health impacts
* Be responsible for the environmental impact of its products and services throughout their cycle
* Adopt a wide environmental code, and policies, health and safety practices and procedures aimed at reducing resource and energy use in each stage of a product or service life-cycle
* Set up appropriate management systems to implement policies
* Conduct annual checks and balances and provide reports to the community
* Respect the political jurisdiction of national communities
* Respect human rights, social and cultural rights
* Recognize its political and economic impact on local communities
* Contribute to the long-term social, cultural, environmental and economic sustainability of the local communities
* Respect the rights of indigenous peoples, their culture and land, and their religious and social customs; provide employment and training opportunities
* Ensure that each employee is treated with respect and dignity and is not subjected to any physical, sexual, psychological or verbal harassment or abuse
* Respect employees' right to freedom of association, labour organization, and free collective bargaining
* Provide equal pay for work of equal value
* Recognize the responsibilities of all workers to their families, and provide for maternity leave, and paternity leave
* Ensure that their be no barriers to the full participation of women within the company
* Participate in the creation of child care centres and centres for the elderly and persons with disabilities where appropriate
* Ensure no discrimination on grounds of race, ethnicity, or culture
* Ensure that persons with disabilities who apply for jobs with the company receive fair treatment and are considered solely on their ability to do the job; provide resources and facilities which enable them to achieve progression in employment in the company
* Provide training to all employees to conduct their activities in an environmentally responsible manner
* Work with organizations concerned with children's rights, human rights and labour rights to ensure that young workers are not exploited
* Ensure that a mechanism is in place to address ethical issues of concern raised by employees
* Make sure that the company's policies balance the interests of managers, shareholders, employees, and other affected parties
* Adhere to international standards and protocols relevant to its products and services
* Adopt marketing practices which protect consumers and ensure the safety of all products
* Conduct or support research on the environmental impacts of raw materials, products, processes, emissions and wastes associates with the company and on the means of minimizing such adverse impacts
* Make a sustainable use of renewable natural resources such as water, soils and forests
* Conserve non-renewable natural resources through efficient use and careful planning
* Conserve energy and improve energy efficiency of internal operations and of the goods and services being sold
Earth Government will do everything possible to give free trade the proper guidance for humanity. Free trade will become a global co-operation between all nations. The kind of behaviour that happened in the Middle East and in many other parts of the world will not be allowed again.
The Earth Community has made clear that globalization and planetary trading blocks should be serving the Earth Community and not the other way around, the people around the world serving the very few rich people. The September 11 event was the result of bad trading of arms and oil in the Middle East. By applying proper moral safeguards and accepting responsibility and accountability of all products (arms and oil in this case), we would make free trade and globalization serving the Human Family.
Over its long past history trade has never evolved to require from the
trading partners to become legally and morally responsible and accountable
for their products from beginning to end. At the end the product becomes
a waste and it needs to be properly dispose of. Now trade must be given
a new impetus to be in line with the global concepts of the New Age Civilization.You
manufacture, produce, mine, farm or create a product, you become legally
and morally responsible and accountable of your product from beginning
to end (to the point where it actually becomes a waste; you are also
responsible for the proper disposable of the waste). This product may be
anything and everything from oil & gas, weapons, war products,
to genetically engineered food products. All consumer products. All medicinal
products! All pharmaceutical products! In order words, a person becomes
responsible and accountable for anything and everything in his or her life.
The concept of a community being the street where we live in and surrounded by a definite geographical and political boundary has originated during the Roman Empire period. An entire new system of values was then created to make things work for the Roman Empire. Humanity has lived with this concept over two thousand years. Peoples from all over the world are ready to kill anyone challenging their border. They say that this is their land, their property, their 'things'. This archaic concept is endangering humanity and its survival. The Roman Empire has gone but its culture is still affecting us today. We need to let go the old way of thinking. We need to learn of the new concept, and how it can make things work in the world.
Earth Government is inviting Palestinians and Jews of Israel to a dialogue for the purpose of creating sustainable global communities and a permanent peace movement in the land through the process of the Earth Court of Justice. In 1947, the United States found it easy to coerce the United Nations in creating the State of Israel. The effect of creating a new nation in this way was to promote once again the Roman Empire concept which says that land is all that counts and a border around the land is all that is needed to create a community. That's the wrong way of thinking. A global community is not about a piece of land you acquired by force or otherwise. A typical community of a million people does not have to be bounded by a geographical or political border. It can be a million people living in many different locations all over the world. The Global Community is thus more fluid and dynamic. We need to let go the archaic ways of seeing a community as the street where we live and contained by a border. Many conflicts and wars will be avoided by seeing ourselves as people with a heart, a mind and a Soul, and as part of a global community with the same.
The UN had no right to create the State of Israel. They forced their way into a one billion Moslems and have done ever since. The UN along with the United States and Israel, are an invading force, a colonization drive in the same way as the British have done after World War I. The UN committed an illegal and arbitrary act by creating the State of Israel.
The Earth Court of Justice will be created for the purpose of deciding on the legality of the State of Israel and the creation of the State of Palestine. Members of this higher Court will be chosen to reflect the Peoples involved here.
The effect of such change in our ways will be acceptance of being a
part of the global community and that each one of us is doing things for
the good of all. In this way, the heart, mind and spirit of the Global
Community will be in the forefront of positive actions to ensure
The Court will also be asked to decide on
* the formation of a new nation in the world,
The Court decides in accordance with:
* the Scale of Human and Earth Rights,
A study made by Earth Government of the ecological accounting and balance sheet for mining has shown that minerals are obtained in a way that:
* uses too much energy
It would be much less costly to recycle discarded materials. It makes no sense to spend so much energy trying to find new mines when there is an enormous amount of useful metal in cities and landfills. For instance, why do we need to keep gold in safety deposit boxes, bank vaults, and jewelry boxes? There is more gold in boxes than in underground mines.
Mines have transformed landscapes and the lives of local people who live near mineral deposits. Entire communities have been uprooted in order to make way for mine projects. People had to forsake traditional occupations and suffer the effects of living beside a mine that poisons their water supplies or pollutes the air they breathe. Local people who got jobs in a mine had to trade health problems for an income. Prostitution and drug use are serious problems at mining sites.
In fact, mineral dependence reduces economic growth in developing countries. Extracting raw materials for export is far less lucrative than processing the materials or manufacturing finished goods. By extracting minerals, countries are essentially running down their stocks of nonrenewable resources.
Mineral exporting-countries become heavily indebted to international lenders and much of what they earn from minerals and other exports never enters the national economy but is used instead to service the external debt. These countries have typically invested little in social services, such as education and health care, and are beleaguered by conflicts over resources and political instabilities.
If all the gold was laid around the world, how far would it stretch? If we make all the gold ever produced into a thin wire of 5 microns (millionths of a metre) diameter - the finest one can draw a gold wire, then all the gold would stretch around the circumference of the planet an astounding 72 million times approximately!
In 2001, mine production amounted to 2,604 tonnes, or 67% of total gold demand in that year. Gold production has been growing for years, but the real acceleration took place after the late 1970s, when output was in the region of 1,500tpa. This year’s output will fall short of production levels in 2001. This is partly for specific operational reasons at some of the larger mines (Grasberg and Porgera), along with lower grades at some of the operations in Nevada. The reduction in exploration and development expenditure over the past five years is leading a number of analysts to suggest that, with other operations nearing the end of their lives, global production is likely to drop slightly over the next two to three years – subject always of course to price.
Gold mining is very capital intensive, particularly in the deep mines of South Africa where mining is carried out at depths of 3000 meters and proposals to mine even deeper at 4,500 meters are being pursued. Typical mining costs are US $238/troy ounce gold average but these can vary widely depending on mining type and ore quality. Richer ores mined at the surface (open cast mining) is considerably cheaper to mine than underground mining at depth. Such mining requires expensive sinking of shafts deep into the ground.
The gold-containing ore has to be dug from the surface or blasted from the rock face underground. This is then hauled to the surface and milled to release the gold. The gold is then separated from the rock (gangue) by techniques such as flotation, smelted to a gold-rich doré and cast into bars. These are then refined to gold bars by the Miller chlorination process to a purity of 99.5%. If higher purity is needed or platinum group metal contaminants are present, this gold is further refined by the Wohlwill electrlytic process to 99.9% purity. Mine tailings containing low amounts of gold may be treated with cyanide to dissolve the gold and this is then extracted by the carbon in pulp technique before smelting and refining.
The total estimated resources of oil, coal, and natural gas will run out in less than a hundred years. And oil is the reason why Americans are invading the Middle East. They need badly the oil to support their economic survival. Who does not? They dont need to trade with the Moslems and Arabs they can steal the oil by invading the Middle East. And they did! The American concept of free trade is a backward concept based on muscles, guns and weapons of mass destruction they have plenty in stock. Now they have their eyes on the resources of the Americas. The Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) is their new pet project to subdue the member nations of the Americas. They will get them one way or the other, the other being militarily. The United States are financially bankrup, and they have to keep the illusion that their economy is healthy and doing well.
It has been estimated that the planet contains over 6.4 x 10^15 tonnes of organic carbon that is cycled through two major cycles, but only about 18% of that contributes to petroleum production. The primary cycle ( turnover of 2.7-3.0 x 10^12 tonnes of organic carbon ) has a half-life of days to decades, whereas the large secondary cycle ( turnover 6.4 x 10^15 tonnes of organic carbon ) has a half-life of several million years. Much of this organic carbon is too dilute or inaccessible for current technology to recover, however the estimates represent centuries to millennia of fossil fuels, even with continued consumption at current or increased rates.
The concern about "running out of oil" arises from misunderstanding the significance of a petroleum industry measure called the Reserves/Production ratio (R/P). This monitors the production and exploration interactions. The R/P is based on the concept of "proved" reserves of fossil fuels. Proved reserves are those quantities of fossil fuels that geological and engineering information indicate with reasonable certainty can be recovered in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions. The Reserves/Production ratio is the proved reserves quantity divided by the production in the last year, and the result will be the length of time that those remaining proved reserves would last if production were to continue at the current level. It is important to note the economic and technology component of the definitions, as the price of oil increases ( or new technology becomes available ), marginal fields become "proved reserves". We are unlikely to "run out" of oil, as more fields become economic. Note that investment in exploration is also linked to the R/P ratio, and the world crude oil R/P ratio typically moves between 20-40 years, however specific national incentives to discover oil can extend that range upward.
Concerned people often refer to the " Hubbert curves" that predict fossil fuel discovery rates would peak and decline rapidly. M. King Hubbert calculated in 1982 that the ultimate resource base of the lower 48 states of the USA was 163+-2 billion barrels of oil, and the ultimate production of natural gas to be 24.6+-0.8 trillion cubic metres, with some additional qualifiers. As production and proved resources were 147 billion barrels of oil and 22.5 trillion cubic metres of gas, Hubbert was implying that volumes yet to be developed could only be 16-49 billion barrels of oil and 2.1-4.5 trillion cubic metres. Technology has confounded those predictions for natural gas.
The US Geological Survey has also just increased their assessment of US ( not just the lower 48 states ), inferred reserves crude oil by 60 billion barrels, and doubled the size of gas reserves to 9.1 trillion cubic metres. When combined with the estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, the totals reach 110 billion barrels of oil and 30 trillion cubic metres of gas. When the 1995 USGS estimates of undiscovered and inferred crude oil are calculated for just the lower 48 states, they totalled ( in 1995 ) 68.9 billion barrels of oil, well above Hubbert's highest estimate made in 1982.
The current price for Brent Crude is approx. $22/bbl. The world R/P ratio has increased from 27 years (1979) to 43.1 years (1993). The 1995 BP Statistical Review of World Energy provides the following data.
About 77% of crude oil has already been discovered, and 30% of it has been used so far. From 1859-1968 200 billion barels of oil have been used, and since then oil production has stabilized to 22 billion barels per year. It is estimated that oil reserves will become scarce by 2050s.
Most of oil is concentrated in the Near East - around 41%. North America, Russia, and Antartic are also rich in crude oil.
According to the U.S. Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration (U.S. DOE/EIA) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) oil production will increase far into the future. These organizations project a significant expansion of world oil production in the future due to the application of advanced oil production technology. The North Sea has been a major oil production province since its first significant production in the middle 1970s. In 1998, North Sea oil production represented nearly 9% of world oil production. Norway and the United Kingdom (U.K.) are the main oil producing countries in the North Sea and major oil fields within these two countries will be analyzed. In this paper, a major field is considered one with an estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of greater than 100 million barrels oil (mbo). There are approximately 35 major Norwegian oil fields and 55 major U.K. oil fields in the North Sea. Masters et al. (1994) assessed the total EUR (all fields) for Norway at approximately 30 billion barrels oil (bbo) and the U. K. at approximately 36 bbo. U.K. field data from 1976 through 1997 were obtained from Oil & Gas Journal. Field data for Norway from 1978 through 1997 are from Oil & Gas Journal and 1998 field data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD).
The US government recorded another large budget deficit last month. July's shortfall was $29.16bn, and was the sixth monthly deficit to have been recorded in the current financial year. This latest shortfall means the cumulative deficit this financial year has reached $147.2bn.
Individual income tax receipts - which make up the largest portion of government income - have continued to fall, and have dropped 17.8% to $707.88bn for the financial year to date.
Last month the White House said it expected the deficit for the fiscal year ending in September to reach a total of $165bn.
Who's to blame?
The deterioration in the government's finances has been blamed on a number of factors. The Bush administration has cited higher spending on anti-terrorism measures following September 11 and the slowdown in the US economy as being responsible for the shortfall.
But Democrats have said President Bush made matters worse by pushing through tax cuts worth $1.35 trillion last year.
Let us take a good look at the US debt. First let us define some technical terms.
The deficit is the fiscal year difference between what the Government takes in from taxes and other revenues, called receipts, and the amount of money the Government spends, called outlays. The items included in the deficit are considered either on-budget or off-budget. (The off-budget items are typically comprised of the two Social Security trust funds, old-age and survivors insurance and disability insurance, and the Postal-Service fund.) Generally, on-budget outlays tend to exceed on-budget receipts, while off-budget receipts tend to exceed off-budget outlays.
You can think of the total debt as accumulated deficits plus accumulated off-budget surpluses. The on-budget deficits require the Treasury to borrow money to raise cash needed to keep the Government operating. We borrow the money by selling Treasury securities like T-bills, notes, bonds and savings bonds to the public. Additionally, the Government Trust Funds are required by law to invest accumulated surpluses in Treasury securities. The Treasury securities issued to the public and to the Government Trust Funds (Intragovernmental Holdings) then become part of the total debt. For information concerning the deficit, visit the Financial Management Service website to view the Monthly Statement of Receipts and Outlays of the United States Government.
The Total Public Debt Outstanding represents the total face amount or principal amount of marketable and nonmarketable securities currently outstanding.
The Total Public Debt Subject to Limit is the maximum amount of money the Government is allowed to borrow without receiving additional authority from Congress. Furthermore, the Total Public Debt Subject to Limit is the Total Public Debt Outstanding adjusted for Unamortized Discount on Treasury Bills and Zero-Coupon Treasury Bonds, Miscellaneous debt (very old debt), Debt held by the Federal Financing Bank and Guaranteed Debt.
Debt Held by the Public -- Is all Federal debt held by individuals, corporations, state or local governments, foreign governments, and other entities outside of the United States Government less Federal Financing Bank securities. Types of securities held by the public include, but are not limited to, Treasury Bills, Treasury Notes, Treasury Bonds, United States Savings Bonds, State and Local Government Series, Foreign Series, and Domestic Series.
MONTHLY STATEMENT OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OF THE UNITED STATES
OCTOBER 31, 2003
(Details may not add to totals)
TABLE I -- SUMMARY OF TREASURY SECURITIES OUTSTANDING, OCTOBER 31, 2003 (Millions of dollars) Amount Outstanding Title Debt Held Intragovernmental Totals By the Public Holdings Marketable: Bills....................................... 943,890 30 943,921 Notes....................................... 1,822,640 47 1,822,687 Bonds....................................... 576,586 310 576,896 Inflation-Indexed Notes..................... 129,528 0 129,528 Inflation-Indexed Bonds..................... 46,256 0 46,256 Total Marketable a........................... 3,518,901 1 387 3,519,288 Nonmarketable: Depositary Compensation Securities.......... 20,662 0 20,662 Domestic Series............................. 29,995 0 29,995 Foreign Series.............................. 11,007 0 11,007 R.E.A. Series............................... 1 0 1 State and Local Government Series........... 149,094 0 149,094 United States Savings Securities............ 203,010 0 203,010 Government Account Series................... 53,446 2,881,780 2,935,227 Other....................................... 4,392 0 4,392 Total Nonmarketable b........................ 471,607 2,881,780 3,353,388 Total Public Debt Outstanding................. 3,990,508 2,882,168 6,872,676The United States government is in serious financial trouble. What is amazing is that the news has just floated away, and is not being trumpeted by the media. Comparing the first seven months of year 2002, with year 2001, we see an enormous change. US Government spending has risen by 8.7 percent, while total revenues are down by 10.9 percent.
What does this mean? If government spending is up by 8.7 percent while earnings are down by 10.9 percent, this means that they have a total decline from the year before of 19.6 percent. In other words, the US government is going backwards financially by about one fifth in only one year. If you or I would have a decline of one fifth in one year in our business or income, we would panic. The US government simply states the facts, and prints more money.
If you or I had such a problem, we would balance our loss of income by cutting expenditures. Why doesn't the US Federal government do that?
Therefore, the process that cut government's financial base by one fifth in one year is likely to continue. Nobody will call "halt."
Another fact is that the annual deficit for US government spending this year is expected to be $100,000,000,000. That's right; one hundred billion dollars will be missing. Where will they get it? They will borrow. Consider what would happen if Americans pay on one hundred billion dollars only one percent interest. How much will that be? One percent of a hundred is one; so one percent of a hundred billion is one billion. This means, that Americans must pay, for one percent interest, one billion dollars, just for the new deficit! However, who will lend them a hundred billion dollars at a mere one percent interest? Surely, a higher interest rate is called for. This, again, is not for the Federal deficit, which is about six trillion dollars, only for the new annual deficit, of a "mere" hundred billion dollars.
Another statistic is that tax revenues from individuals and corporations were down about one fifth. Americans are obviously earning much less money, a fifth less. How then can they spend 8.7 percent more?
The biggest spending category was Social Security, which cannot be changed without violating government promises when it received Social Security monies from contributors. Therefore, 280.4 billion dollars cannot be touched. Health and Human Services Department Programs cost $266.3 billion. Already, states have rebelled at the cuts the Federal Government is making in Medicare and Medicaid, and in many states, old people are just hanging without help. There is nothing to cut there. Things are so bad with the poor and the elderly that a Federal court has just allowed the indigent to sue the states for Medicare and Medicaid. The United States are staggering under their own burdens, and cannot help the elderly and the poor.
That leaves the military, with expenditures of $187.2 billion dollars. Should they cut out the Navy or the Air Force? Or shall they surrender to terrorists? The final category is paying the interest on the public debt, which is a whopping $181.2 billion, only six billion dollars less than the entire military budget! Very soon, the debt payments will overcome the military budget. In other words, Americans could have a free military if they had no national debt. Paying interest on the national debt is the major problem, because the debt just grows by leaps and bounds. It is now about six trillion dollars (recently increased by 750 billion because the government was broke.) SIX TRILLION DOLLARS---It looks like this: $6,000,000,000,000!
Gone are the days when Americans could just scrape off some fat and maintain themselves. Now, they are scraping off old people who have nobody to help them and who need very expensive medications. Some new medicines cost hundreds of dollars per week.
Speaking of old people, Alan Greenspan, on April 27, 2001, said that, "Were we fully accruing the benefit liabilities inferable from existing law, these retirement programs would currently be in deficit, and contingent liabilities amounting to about $10 trillion for social security alone would have been added to the current debt to the public. When the baby boom generation retires, and as the population subsequently ages further, these contingent liabilities will come due (our emphasis)..."
Translated, this means that America has about six trillion dollars in actual debt. It has potential debt of ten trillion dollars, to retirees. These old people are going to retire, meaning that their deficit will be about sixteen trillion dollars on a good day. When they realize that their deficits are exploding even without retirees, and the debt limit was very recently raised by 750 billion dollars, we realize that their debt may be incredible. What does it mean to owe six trillion plus ten trillion dollars? It means they must pay interest on sixteen trillion dollars, and every penny paid on interest in down the tube, lost, wasted.
Again, to sharpen Mr. Greenspan's warning about the incoming ten trillion dollar debt for retirees, recent statistics have shown that each year weakens the working base and expands the taking base for Social Security largesse. Americans are so harried with working and so worried about divorce, so afraid to have children or disinterested in them, that they cannot have large families(and that is good as the world is already overpopulated) , and therefore, the coming generations will be a small amount of people supporting a huge among of retirees. This is economically impossible. Americans are just sitting here waiting for the End, and nobody is really doing anything about it. Invading the Middle East to get access to free oil seemed to be an option but is not likely to succeed. They have another Vietnam on their hands. And in doing so Americans have given to trade a bad name.
A trade partnership between nations, or an economical agreement is about the control of a nation by the other. Rich countries manipulate trade agreements in order to ensure profitability. What is trade when the US military is taken over a nation's resources? Trade has no meaning except when the US is getting richer at the expenses of all other nations, including Canada, and at the expenses of the global life-support systems. The military is used against domestic dissidents, like a police force. It is also used to expand markets and keep international dissidents in line. Governments of poor countries that try to take control of their own resources and develop their own economies (instead of remaining areas of cheap labour and raw materials for rich countries) are declared enemies, terrorists, and attacked, officially or otherwise. Nicaragua, Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and the Middle East are examples. U.S. military is "to protect U.S. interests and investments" and that includes making other nations safe for U.S multinational corporations. And that is exactly what is happening in the Middle East where the U.S. military is protecting its strategic economic interests especially the continue flow of oil at the cheapest price, thus making global warming worst by ten-fold. We have estimated that there is, worldwide, less than one hundred years left of oil and most of it is found in the Middle East. The U.S. has taken over the oil for its citizens back home. But this action is 'backfiring' on them.
Americans now live by borrowing money they have no way to repay. The national debt is not only increasing but ballooning, and with social security, stands to explode by ten trillion dollars as Mr. Greenspan avers.
In 1973, US President R. Nixon decided to take America off the gold standard to devalue the US dollar. This US policy destroyed the system of fixed currency exchange rate. After this action, the effect on the global economy was felt positively by the rich nations of the world, currencies could no longer 'float' relative to each other and the debt of the poor nations increased as they were all created in US dollars. Now the American dollar is about to be devalued and Americans will feel the pinch of what they have done to the poor nations back in 1973.
'Free trade' now means the removal of:
a) tariffs and similar restrictions on the easy flow of capital out of the U.S.A. (and that includes no global tax on transactions stemming from speculation), and
The government tells them (www.publicdebt.treas.gov/opd/opdint.htm) that Interest expense for Fiscal year 2001 was $359 with nine zeros, which means, 369 billion dollars. The money paid was for interest on a debt of about six trillion dollars. If the debt increases with social security and the present rate of debt increases for general upkeep of the government, it is entirely likely that the national debt will be not six but eighteen trillion dollars in the near future. The debt will triple, and so will the interest, making the figure for annual interest not 359 billion dollars but over a trillion dollars. This, again, is just for the interest! If something is not done, these gloomy figures will be realized, and they are the trend.
Indeed, from 1988 to 1998, the annual cost of paying for the interest on the Federal Debt constantly rose to an incredible seventy percent, from 214 billion dollars in 1988 to 363 billion dollars in 1998. Then, for four years, when the economy was awash in money, an attempt was made to pay down the debt. For four years the debt dropped, so that it went from 363 billion dollars in 1998 to 359 billion dollars in 2001. This is a drop of only about four billion dollars out of over three hundred billion. That is all that was done at the best of times. This is not paying down the debt; it is a joke. Why are people not foaming at the mouth about this instead of all of the stupidities we read about every day?
The liberals are not talking about it because they realize it means the end of government programs and the entitlements they espouse. The rich Republicans are not talking about it because they are the ones destroying the economy by leaving America and making blood money off of the slaves in China and elsewhere.
They need a "buy America" campaign, to revive the industries on their shores so badly undercut by the slaves in China, supported by global capitalism. If their economy is hemorrhaging, their strength is reduced. If they owe six trillion plus dollars and pay interest, those who lend them and own their bonds control their destiny. Anytime they call in their debts America can stagger and even collapse, or declare bankruptcy. Americans will be slaves to global economics, just like the banana republics.
Now America is talking about the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) to get more free resources by subduing the 34 member nations of the Americas. But developing countries know better then to get taken by a bankrupt United States. They know America is bankrupt. America is also the worst nation on the planet in creating global warming and thus forcing the climate to change (see report on Climate Change in November 2003 Newsletter). They know America would do the same to them. America would bankrupt their economies, pollute their environment and accelerate the global warming of the planet.
President Bush, his Administration and the Republican Congress must be communists disguise as republicans. They have passed lesgislation to make it easy for American multinationals to invest their capitals outside the U.S.A. especially in China and all over Asia. Barriers to globalization were knocked down (see Article on the FTAA in this Newsletter) and now globalization is the norm. The effect of such a legislation has been a movement of capitals out of the U.S.A. and now America is bankrupted (see Article "America is financially bankrup..."). Surely, the 34 member nations of the Americas do not need of such model as a leader of the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The American leadership has shown to be a disaster at home and abroad. Following President Bush legislation American multinationals would become even more richer at the expenses of everyone in America. Not a good scenario!