1. reducing the rate and magnitudes of change through mitigating the causes, and
Mitigating the causes of global warming implies limiting the rates and magnitudes of increase in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, either by reducing emissions or by increasing sinks for atmospheric CO2. We know that stabilizing emissions of greenhouse gases will not stabilize concentrations. While slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric concentrations, such actions will still likely lead to a doubled CO2-type environment within the next century. Considering the residence time of various greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, a reduction of 10% in methane emissions would be required to stabilize methane concentrations, reductions in excess of 50% would be required to stabilize CO2 and N2O emissions, and virtual elimination of emissions would be needed to stabilize concentrations of very long-lived gases such as fully fluorinated compounds.
Scientists will also need to become more involved in assessing the viability of response options aimed at storing excess carbon in terrestrial or ocean systems. Land use changes from agricultural to forest ecosystems can help to remove carbon from the atmosphere at rates of 2 to 20 tonnes of carbon per hectare per year for periods of 50 years or more, until a new ecosystem equilibrium is reached. Similarly, soil conservation practices can help build up carbon reservoirs in forest and agricultural soils. Proposals to extract CO2 from smoke stacks and dispose of it in liquid form in underground reservoirs or deep oceans also need careful evaluation in terms of long-term feedbacks, effectiveness and environmental acceptability. However, much remains to be learned about the biological and physical processes by which terrestial and ocean systems can act as sinks and permanent reservoirs for carbon.
The Global Community can contribute in evaluating options and strategies for adapting to climate change as it occurs, and in identifying human activities that are even now maladapted to climate. For example, identification of tree species that can grow well under current as well as projected future climates will help develop reforestation programs that are less vulnerable to both climate variability and change. Genetically improved species can be developed to replace the weakess species. Assessment of the role of agricultural subsidies and disaster relief programs in actually encouraging farmers to cultivate lands which are highly susceptible to droughts or floods can improve the adaptability of the agricultural sector. Alternatively, developing socio-economic activities that can thrive under anticipated climate changes can help realize some of the benefits of climate change. Collectively, such actions will help reduce human vulnerability to climate change, and hence raise the threshold at which such change becomes dangerous.
We need to improve on our ability to:
* predict future anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases. While demographic, technological and economic factors are in many respects inherently speculative, better observations and understanding of the processes by which human activities directly or indirectly contribute to emissions are clearly required. These in particular include emissions from deforestation and agricultural activities;
The Global Community has created a global ministry to help humanity be prepared to fight the harmful consequences of a global warming through anticipatory adaptation. The global ministries on climate change and emergencies have now been developed and are operating.
The ministries have developed:
1. policy response to the consequences of the global warming, and
It is a priority for businesses to apply for one ECO, your Certified Corporate Global Community Citizenship, a unique way to show the world your ways of doing business are best for the Global Community. You can obtain the citizenship after accepting the Criteria of the Global Community Citizenship and following an assessment of your business.The process shown here is now standardized to all applicants. You are then asked to operate your business as per the values of the citizenship.
There are approaches to limit and regulate the pollution emissions of industrial activities. These are standards, taxes and pollution permits. The choice among these alternatives depends on the administrative structure of a nation.
In an urban community site, air usually contains materials such as nitric oxide, sulfur oxide, carbon monoxide, aldehydes, dust and many others.
A city would have a department measuring indicators and indices in order to:
a) Provide a daily report to the public
The Global Community makes the following recommendations to alleviate the effects of climate change in the world:
* Introduction of appropriate sustainable agricultural system with balanced use of chemical fertilizers incorporated organic minerals and green manure's.
The Global Community has introduced measures in the following areas to reduce GHG emissions.
Government leadership – set aggressive GHG reduction targets for provincial facilities and vehicle fleets, enforce standards for major building projects;
In the light of the U.S.A., Japan, Australia and Russia refusal of taking actions to avert certain global calamity in regard to global warming, and the lack of a strong commitment from India, China and Indonesia, the Global Community has decided to pleade the people of these countries to reason and good sense. We are asking them to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and to plan for strong actions to stop greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are accumulating in the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities, and temperatures are rising globally due to these activities.
Canada is willing to reach the Kyoto target of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6 per cent below the 1990 level.
The European Union leaders have agreed to ratify the 1997 Kyoto Protocol by the end of this year. Let us hope that the action plan they will offer to the world will be real and honest.
The Global Community has created the Climate Change Ministry and offer national governments to coordinate efforts in implementing the Global Community Action Plan with regard to climate change. There are thousands of actions everyone in the Global Community could take right now. Several more of these actions were listed in the Proceedings of the World Congress on Managing and Measuring Sustainable Development - Global Community Action 1 held on August 1-22, 2000.
A) By increasing vegetation in urban areas will reduce the urban heat, and the impacts of other urban environmental problems, which will be exacerbated under climate change. Reducing the urban heat will also reduce the energy demand for space conditioning, and hence greenhouse gas emissions. Plants directly reduce the urban heat through evaporative cooling but further reduce energy consumption through shading. The most common strategy to increase urban vegetation is to plant trees at ground level. However, where space is not available for trees, vegetation can be grown on building roofs, but walls offer far more space, hence vertical gardening is a viable alternative.
B) Aboriginal Peoples as well as everyone else in the world have noticed that the climate has changed over the past years.
They came forward (actions) and said that they too had observed climate changes over the past years and generations. In some countries the temperature has increased
by one or two degrees and natural catastrophes are becoming more and more frequent. Flooding or freshwater scarcity as well as
water pollution are harming the environment of the Third World and developing countries and water and air pollution characterizes the
industrialized regions. Therefore, poor and rich regions are facing a common problem which is linked to climate change, that's why
we should negotiate honestly and find a compromise as quickly as possible. If no
solution is suggested, developing countries like China will
repeat the same mistakes as the developed world. In fact, the latter can expect a higher salary, which will close the gap between rich
and poor regions.
The most devastating effects of contamination of the atmosphere on a
global scale include:
* An increase in greenhouse gas concentrations brought the warming of the climate;
The most sophisticated climate models take into account factors such as:
* The changes in the radiation balance of the Earth;
A consequence of a warmer climate is a rise in global mean sea-level. Several countries will be more susceptible to inundations. We will see hundreds of millions of environmental refugees searching for land.
The mid-latitude wheat belts of the planet will dry; forest fires will wipe out most of the forests; world food markets will have to adjust to help a starving population.
Tourism and wildlife in the tropics will be seriously affected by a temperature that is just too hot.
Tropical diseases will cause epidemics.
Major changes in evaporation and precipitation patterns will not adjust quickly enough to supply the population with water it needs to survive; agriculture will become a dying industry either because of too much water or not enough of it.
Sub-Arctic communities will disappear because of the melting of the permafrost.
It is well known that biological communities of the waters and of the
land absorb and bio-accumulate toxic contaminants through the food webs.
Trace concentrations deposited by the atmosphere have become harmful.
They are chemicals carried through the atmosphere to seas, rivers, lakes
and other streams, and subsequently into sediments and soils. Metals and
chemical contaminants can be absorbed for a long time, and are in fact
chemical 'time bombs'.
Urban air pollution is a mixture of several pollutants emitted from different energy and industrial processes, and of secondary pollutants in the atmosphere. Some air pollutants are more important than others. At a given concentration some pollutants are more toxic or more unpleasant. Pollutants have different effects related to health, ecosystems, economics and aesthetic.
C) Tropical tree plantations may be an important component of the global carbon cycle because they represent a carbon sink that can be
manipulated by humans and they ca mitigate the effects of tropical deforestation, which is the main biotic source of atmospheric
Most forest plantations in the tropics are planted with fast growing trees that culminate in volume and biomass production earlier than
natural forests. These high biomass production forests have a high capacity to sequester atmospheric CO2 and hence assist in
mitigating global warming. Sequestration of CO2 in plantations occurs in tree biomass (stems, branch, foliage and roots), forest floor
and as storage in the soil. Young growing forests are one of the best means to removing CO2 (the gas partially responsible for the
greenhouse effect) from the air. Thus planting forests help to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the air (by the action of sunlight
on the green chlorophyll organic compound, CO2 is absorbed by trees through the small fissures in the leaves or needless, these gases
are fixed as biomass).
D) Ever-increasing anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases are driving the United Nations Climate Change effort. As the atmosphere's concentrations of "greenhouse gases" increase, so too does the atmosphere's ability to retain heat radiated from the earth's surface. This phenomenon, known as the greenhouse effect, is linked by many scientists to a long-term rise in global temperatures.