Politics and Justice Without Borders
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Volume 20 Issue 9 May 2022

Theme of May 2022 Newsletter

This is a second addendum to the paper published for the month of May, 2022. This is an addition to the document I, Germain Joseph Dufour, published for this month of May, 2022.

Odesa, a global civilizational community, and a multicivilizational community of Ukraine in grave peril.

Germain Joseph Dufour
Global Parliament
Global Civilizational State

Global Community, Global Parliament, Federation of Global Governments, Global Civilizational State vv


As of May 2022, the area in blue on this picture shows the land of the Russian Federation. ( see enlargement European States)

Back to May 2022 Newsletter Global Civilizational State, Global Parliament recognised that the Donbas includes Luhansk and Donetsk republics, and are now a part of the Russian Federation.

Back to May 2022 Newsletter Global Civilizational State, Global Parliament recognised that the Donbas includes Luhansk and Donetsk republics, and their independence and sovereignty as independent states.

Back to April 2022 Newsletter Global Civilizational State, Global Parliament recognised that the Donbas includes Luhansk and Donetsk republics, and their independence and sovereignty as independent states.

Back to March 2022 Newsletter Global Civilizational State, the multicivilizational State.

Back to February 2022 Newsletter SoulLife guiding the formation, evolution and protection of Life in the world.

Back to January 2022 Newsletter SoulLife guiding the formation, evolution and protection of Life throughout the Universe.

Back to October 2022 Newsletter Global Ministry of Essential Services.

From WW II, Syria and now the Ukraine: Global Community perspective

Artwork by Germain Dufour
mp4 (21 MB) From WW II, Syria and now the Ukraine: Global Community perspective

President Putin saving the EU nations.

Putin saving the EU nations.

( see enlargement European States)
Putin saving the EU States
Artwork by Germain Dufour

January Newsletter 2022.
( see enlargement Global Civilizational State reporting on issues. )

January Newsletter 2022
( see enlargement Global Civilizational State reporting on issues. )

From WW II, Syria and now the Ukraine: Global Community perspective.Volume 12 Issue 10 June 2014.

Odesa, a global civilizational community, and a multicivilizational community of Ukraine in grave peril.

On 24 February 2022, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, the president of Russia, told the Russian people his goal was to demilitarise and de-Nazify Ukraine Government, to protect people subjected to what he called eight years of bullying and genocide by Ukraine's Government. Moscow also made allegations that Ukraine was building a plutonium-based dirty bomb to attack Russia. NATO maybe helping Ukraining scientists carrying out this project. At this time, the United States, the European Union and several other countries and entities expanded their economic sanctions against Russia and supplying arms shipments to Ukraine. Despite overwhelming and demoralizing pressure and bullying by the Ukraine's government, Odesa managed to stand its ground. It had always been a Russian city and home to many languages and cultures, a multicivilizational community, a global civilizational community, so the new policies of the Nazify Ukraine that always promoted only one identity and one language ran counter to everything that Odesa represented. Odesa multicivilizational community was being challenged and attacked, push backward to an (earlier) inferior condition characteristic of a past historical time, opposing political or social progress or reform. The new regime Nazify Ukraine Government was put in place by the West with the only goal of wrongfully engaging Russia to take action for its own defence, to defend itself from attack from the West. Such a project so close to Russia is truly harmful, catastrophic and dreadful.

On September 13, 1962, USA President Kennedy wrote: "If at any time the Communist build-up in Cuba were to endanger or interfere with our security in any way, or if Cuba should ever become an offensive military base of significant capacity for the Soviet Union, then this country, the USA, will do whatever must be done to protect its own". Today, the USA military is doing a similar attack onto Russia to destroy Russia and grab its resources including its land, and killing the Russian people. Russia has the right to protect its own land and people. The USA, NATO, the European nations, the EU, the West, have no right to deliberately behaves controversially in order to provoke argument or other strong reactions from Russia, intending to invade Russia, bullying the Russian people with sanctions, and through repeated verbal, physical and/or social behaviour that intends to cause physical, social and/or psychological harm to the Russian people, and also intending to invade Russia by using Ukraine and other nations near Russia'political boundaries and physical boundaries as a stepping place to invade Russia.

They all refused the diplomatic solution of making Ukraine a neutral nation not threatening and menacing Russia with NATO and USA military bases in the Ukraine. Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, the president of Russia, offered the Ukraine Government and the "West" a peaceful solution, instead they chose to send major military personnel and mercenaries with the most destructive and deadly equipment to the Ukraine and other EU nations. They refuse to make Ukraine a neutral nation and would rather provoke and create a war-like state with Ukraine against Russia, and with the West against Russia.

The tragedy that occurred in Odesa on May 2, 2014, no doubt gave impetus to the escalating political crisis in Ukraine 2022. Many in fact consider it a point of no return that opened the door to a full-out civil war. But the Odesa tragedy did not only make many in southeastern Ukraine take up arms. It also made those among Ukraine’s own population supportive of Russia aware of the fact that Ukrainian nationalists were prepared to kill their adversaries.

What was Odesa to the ethnic Russians in Ukraine until May 2, 2014? History shows that after the northern shores of the Black Sea became Russian territory in the late 18th century, the empire launched a massive development project there. Russia founded and built all of the major cities in the area, including Kherson, Nikolaev and Odesa. Kherson was to function as an outpost, Nikolaev as a shipyard, and Odesa a port. Odesa became a very special place. It was given the privileges of a free port, which meant it attracted a lot of merchants and drove the development of the entire region. The city became so important that it was dubbed the Palmyra of the South. It was second only to the imperial capital of St. Petersburg, known as the Palmyra of the North.

Cultural diversity thrived in Odesa. It became home to Jewish, Armenian, Greek, Bulgarian communities, as well as Ukrainians and Russians. It was a city worthy of a great empire. Such a rich mix of nations gave Odesa its special flavor. It became the stuff of so many legends that were captured by many a great writer, including Isaac Babel, whose stories were full of those picturesque southerners you could only find here. At the same time, Odesa always remained a Russian city, and Russia’s two-headed eagle had under its wings all of this diversity.

During the Soviet times, Odesa was part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, a circumstance that determined some of the administrative procedures but had no influence on Odesa’s culture. That started to change only after Ukraine declared itself an independent state in 1991. But even as part of an independent Ukraine, Odesa stayed true to its unique multicultural status. Odesa was truly a global civilizational region and becoming a part of the Global Civilizational State, and Global Parliament.

Although most of the people of Odesa hated the idea of forced Ukrainization, by the Nazify Ukraine Government regime, there were also those who supported it. That’s what the city of Odesa was like during and before 24 February 2022, – torn and conflicted – when the political crisis started to engulf Ukraine, and what forced the president of Russia, Vladimir Putin, to intervene and stoped the genocide. 

Earth governance is about the rights of states to self-determination in the global context of Global Civilization rather than the traditional context of a world of separate states. The European Union (EU) is a unique economic and political union between 27 European countries. But they could not even agree on a Global Consitution to govern themselves. How can they add more pressure to the people of Odesa? What give them the right to supply Ukraine with armaments to destroy and kill people from the community of Odesa?

A Global Constitution contains the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it. It is a written instrument embodying the rules of a political or social organization, not just an economic union such as the EU or the United Nations. They basically are like the G7 and G20 but somewhat larger in scope. Both the EU and the UN have project Goals & Objectives but no Global Constituion to govern themselves. All about business and market! U.S. market and world market charts are all what make them do things in the world. As far as they are concern, Odesa is no different. All about business! They supply armaments to the Nazify Ukraine Government so that the government will "win" the war. They hope that when Russia is destroyed the West will be stealing the resources from the Russian Global Community.

That is exactly and precisely what Hitler and his European army has tried to do during Worl War II. In some ways, all European nations were hoping Hitler would succeed because they never helped the Soviets destroyed Hitler's army. They waited until after the Soviets destroyed Hitler's army to have their D-Day operation of June 6, 1944. But then why? Hitler's army was already finished, destroyed, so why the West not just used diplomacy, a skill in handling affairs without arousing hostility, and ask the remaining Germans in Europe to surrender? Even now today, the West has never been educated about diplomacy, which could have been used for the conflict between Russia and the Nazify Ukraine Government.

To explain what truly happened during WW II, it was not just Hitler wanting to invade the Soviet Union and acquire its formidable natural resources, it was also all of Europe with the same desire of enriching itself. Europeans also thought that the people from the Soviet Union were communists and, therefore, should not be allowed to have all those resources. Right from the start, on June 22, 1941, Germany, Italy and Romania invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa. They were joined shortly after by Finland and Hungary. All the other European nations never stopped Hitler from invading the Soviet Union. They gave up quickly to Hitler's plan. And that alone makes them on Hitler side for the invasion of the Soviet Union.

Now British and American Generals would have thought ahead concerning the consequences of Hitler invading the Soviet Union. That is very human to think ahead! Those same Generals would have like nothing better than to see the Soviet Union defeated by Hitler. Afterward, a weakened German Army could be easily defeated by the USA. And of course British and Americans would have got all they wanted: the Soviet Union formidable natural resources.

And that is the reason why D-Day happened so late during WW II. After Churchill and Roosevelt saw that Stalin was winning WW II, they decided to have their D-Day thing to save face for history and so make believe to the world they had something to do with winning WW II. It was only years later, after Stalin had defeated Hitler that the so called Allies decided to have their D-Day in France. In France!? At the time, most Germans in France were so depressed of losing the war that it would have been no big deal about putting down their arms, and they would have glady surrendered if only Churchill had knew anything about diplomacy. In WW I, Churchill sent 200,000 soldiers to their deaths because his little finger told him he had the right strategy. Churchill cooked his own books explaining what happened during both wars, WW I and WW II.

Again in WW II, after the Soviet Union defeated the German Army, instead of asking the USA to gas Germany, Churchill could have easily asked German soldiers in France to surrender. If Churchill had got any training whatsoever in diplomacy he could have avoided the killing of thousands of British, French, Canadian and German soldiers, and, of course, countless civilians and refugees including Jews and Christians.

Throughout WW II, the United States behaved like a nation of mercenaries. They would help only if they were getting pay from Britain. Later on D-Day, the USA decided it was in their own national interests to gas bomb Germany. And they did just that. Mercenaries dont fight for freedom, justice and democracy. They get pay to do a job, and that is all. But bombing Germany when the German Army had already been defeated is a crime against humanity. Roosevelt never had a single drop of diplomacy in his blood, and neither did the US Congress officials. The prospect of Americans getting their hands on Russia' formidable natural resources, had Hitler defeated the Soviet Army, was to great to let pass away this opportunity. Americans were opportunists at best, and committed crimes against humanity at worst.

Attempts to portray NATO as a defender of world order and international law are transparent frauds. Even leaving aside the fact that the NATO powers operate global torture and drone murder operations, they have time and again in the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, sought to wage aggressive war despite opposition at the UN Security Council, in violation of international law. As for the current crisis in Ukraine, it exploded after the NATO powers brazenly backed a putsch in Kiev, led by fascist groups like the Right Sector and the Svoboda party, to topple a pro-Russian Ukrainian regime and install a regime militarily aligned on NATO directly on Russia’s borders. NATO’s aggressive escalation, carried out over the Kremlin’s warnings that it is tearing up all the legal foundations of the highly fragile peace in Europe, threatens a war between NATO and Russia—a major military power with a massive arsenal of nuclear weapons. This reflects the intensifying international contradictions tearing at European and world capitalism, which can be fought only by unifying the international working class against the danger of imperialist war.

The Soviet Union defeated Hitler and his army in WWII. The so called "allied" never got over that and had to create the "Cold War" against Russia for decades following WWII. A similar situation is happening all over again today. And again Russia formidable natural resources are what the EU 27 member states and the USA mercenaries from the White House want to take away from Russia. They are jealous, poor and hungry, and economically bankrupted. And again we see EU, UN and the USA White House trying to re-write the history books for the generations to come, much like Churchill has done in his life. Telling the truth was not a part of his upbringings and education. Today, concerning Syria and the Ukraine, the media industry is producing countless lies to the population in the so called Allied nations.

Over time Russians showed the world they were better people then any of the people in the so called Allied nations. During WW II, Russian soldiers, all Russian people, were all heroes and ought to be thank for saving the world from Hitler's invasion. Thank you Russia! You are the best of all Peoples on Earth. Global Community approves of what you are doing to protect Russians outside Russia. Dont trust the UN to do it for you. Protect your formidable natural resources and the global life-support systems. You are the only nation left capable of doing so. Global Community is proud of what you have become and achieved. The Soviet Union defeated Hitler and his army in WWII. The so called "allied" never got over that and had to create the "Cold War" against Russia for decades following WWII.

The more than a half billion people from the EU 27 member states behave much like piranhas. Piranhas have a reputation as ferocious predators that hunt their prey in schools as a means of cooperative hunting. That is why the 27 member states are re-uniting themselves as the EU, a new Union of predators badly needing of a new prey, a fresh body to eat, and Russians and Russia will do just fine they say. After the feeding frenzy of the piranhas is done, only bones are left afterward. Once all of Russia has been 'done' with to the bones and falling apart, guess what happens next! Russians and Russia will be divided. Not even a Soul left! The Russia we know today will become much like the 27 member states: divided, hungry, scared of not having a future for themselves, and the Russian brand gone forever.

Over the past decades, global warming of the planet and climate change were problems mostly created in Britain and in the USA. They created the global warming of our planet. Now by invading Russia, the people of the EU member states and the USA would destroy Russia's natural resources and practically burn the Oxygen left in our air making it impossible for all life forms to breath and, yes, that would also mean the end of all civilizations on Earth.

With climate change and the melting of the North ice, Russia will enjoy a new land to appreciate for the generations to come. Their future as Russians is good. They should not lose it to the EU. Russians are a responsible people. Russia is a wonderful place to be born in and with a great future ahead of Russians for many generations to come. They should not lose it all to the EU member states desperate and hungry to invade them militarily and economically.

The so called Allied nations of WW II tried to invade the Soviet Union militarily. They failed. Now they are trying again but this time they are more vocal and forceful. They have caused an illegal "coup d'etat" in the Ukraine and trying the same in Syria for the purpose of pushing Russia to react forcefully. We all know the USA mercenaries from the White House are behind the coup d'etat in the Ukraine. We all know Russia resources are again the target of the half billion people from the EU 27 member states and the USA mercenaries.

Let us hope a better world is ahead of us.

Global Civilizational State, Global Parliament recognised that the Donbas includes Luhansk and Donetsk republics, and their independence and sovereignty as independent states.

Global Community, Global Parliament, Federation of Global Governments, Global Civilizational State vv.

Launching the invasion on 24 February, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin, the president of Russia, told the Russian people his goal was to demilitarise and de-Nazify Ukraine, to protect people subjected to what he called eight years of bullying and genocide by Ukraine's government. Moscow also made allegations that Ukraine was building a plutonium-based dirty bomb.

The Battle of Donbas is an ongoing military engagement which began on 18 April 2022 between the armed forces of Russia and Ukraine for control of the Donetsk, Luhansk and Kharkiv regions. The word Donbas is an abbreviation of "Donets Coal Basin". The Donbas formed the historical border between the Zaporizhian Sich and the Don Cossack Host. It has been an important coal mining area since the late 19th century, when it became a heavily industrialised territory. Parts of the Donbas itself are controlled by separatist groups as a result of the Russo-Ukrainian War: the Donetsk People's Republic and the Luhansk People's Republic. Russia's offensive is annexing the entire Donetsk and Luhansk regions to the Russian-backed quasi-states of Donetsk People's Republic (DPR) and Luhansk People's Republic (LPR).

In March 2014, following the Euromaidan protest movement and the resulting Revolution of Dignity, large swaths of the Donbas became obsessed by pro-Russian and anti-government unrest. This unrest later grew into a war between Ukrainian government forces and Russian and pro-Russian separatists affiliated with the self-proclaimed Donetsk and Luhansk "People's Republics", who were supported by Russia as part of the broader Russo-Ukrainian War, which is still ongoing as of 2022. Both republics went internationally unrecognised until their recognition by Russia in 2022. The conflict rendered the Donbas split between Ukrainian-held territory, constituting about two-thirds of the region, and Russian-held territory, constituting about one-third. Russia went on to launch a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, including the Ukrainian-government controlled part of the Donbas in February 2022.

Before the war, the city of Donetsk (then the fifth largest city in Ukraine) had been considered the unofficial capital of the Donbas. At the end of the 18th century, many Russians, Serbs and Greeks migrated to the region. Tsarist Russia named the conquered territories "New Russia" and the citizens "Little Russians". As the Industrial Revolution took hold across Europe, the vast coal resources of the region, discovered in 1721, began to be exploited in the mid-late 19th century. It was at this point that the name Donbas came into use, derived from the term "Donets Coal Basin" referring the area along the river Donets where most of the coal reserves were found. The rise of the coal industry led to a population boom in the region, largely driven by Russian settlers. With development of cities in this region, large amounts of landless peasants from peripheral governorates of the Russian Empire came looking for work.

According to the Russian Imperial Census of 1897, "Little Russians" accounted for 52.4% of the population of the region, whilst ethnic Russians constituted 28.7%. Ethnic Greeks, Germans, Jews and Tatars also had a significant presence in the Donbas, particularly in the district of Mariupol, where they constituted 36.7% of the population. Despite this, Russians constituted the majority of the industrial workforce. Cities were often inhabited solely by Russians who had come seeking work in the region's heavy industries.  Ukrainians who did move to the cities for work were quickly assimilated into the Russian-speaking worker class.

The Donbas was greatly affected by the Second World War. In the lead-up to the war, the region was racked by poverty and food shortages. War preparations resulted in an extension of the working day for factory labourers, whilst those who deviated from the heightened standards were arrested. Nazi Germany's leader Adolf Hitler viewed the resources of the Donbas as critical to Operation Barbarossa. As such, the Donbas suffered under Nazi occupation during 1941 and 1942. Thousands of industrial labourers were deported to Germany for use in factories. In what was then called Stalino Oblast, now Donetsk Oblast, 279,000 civilians were killed over the course of the occupation. In Voroshilovgrad Oblast, now Luhansk Oblast, 45,649 were killed.

 The 1943 Donbas strategic offensive by the Red Army (the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.) resulted in the return of Donbas to Soviet control. The war had taken its toll, leaving the region both destroyed and depopulated. During the reconstruction of the Donbas after the end of the Second World War, large numbers of Russian workers arrived to repopulate the region, further altering the population balance. In 1926, 639,000 ethnic Russians resided in the Donbas. By 1959, the ethnic Russian population was 2.55 million. Russification was further advanced by the 1958–59 Soviet educational reforms, which led to the near elimination of all Ukrainian-language schooling in the Donbas. By the time of the Soviet Census of 1989, more than 45% of the population of the Donbas reported their ethnicity as Russian. In 1990, the Interfront of the Donbass was founded as a movement against Ukrainian independence.

 In October 1991, a congress of South-Eastern deputies from all levels of government took place in Donetsk, where delegates demanded federalisation. The region's economy deteriorated severely in the ensuing years. By 1993, industrial production had collapsed, and average wages had fallen by 80% since 1990. The Donbas fell into crisis, with many accusing the new central government in Kyiv of mismanagement and neglect. Donbas coal miners went on strike in 1993, causing a conflict that was described by historian Lewis Siegelbaum as "a struggle between the Donbas region and the rest of the country". This strike was followed by a 1994 consultative referendum on various constitutional questions in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts. These questions included whether Russian should be declared an official language of Ukraine, whether Russian should be the language of administration in Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts, whether Ukraine should federalise. None of the propositions were adopted. Nevertheless, the Donbas strikers gained many economic concessions from Kyiv, allowing for an alleviation of the economic crisis in the region. Small strikes continued throughout the 1990s. Some subsidies to Donbas heavy industries were eliminated, and many mines were closed by the Ukrainian government because of liberalising reforms pushed for by the World Bank. Leonid Danylovych Kuchma is a Ukrainian politician who was the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994 to 23 January 2005. President Kuchma gave economic aid to the Donbas, using development money to gain political support in the region. He won the presidential election with support from the Donbas and other areas in eastern Ukraine. During the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election, most people in Donbas voted for Viktor Yanukovych.

Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych  served as the fourth president of Ukraine from 2010 until he was removed from office in the Maidan Revolution in 2014, after a long series of protests in support of the European Union by diverse civil-society groups. From 2006 to 2007 he was the prime minister of Ukraine; he also served in this post from November 2002 to January 2005, with a short interruption in December 2004.

After rejecting the Ukrainian-European Association Agreement, Yanukovych was ousted from office in the Revolution of Dignity. He lived in exile in Russia. However, the election was fraught with allegations of electoral fraud and voter intimidation. This caused widespread citizen protests and Kyiv's Independence Square was occupied in what became known as the Orange Revolution. The Ukrainian Supreme Court nullified the runoff election and ordered a second runoff. Yanukovych served as Prime Minister for a second time from 4 August 2006 to 18 December 2007. After the Orange Revolution demonstrations going on at the time in Kyiv to negotiate a compromise. After the Orange Revolution's victory, some of the organisers of the congress were charged with "encroachment upon the territorial integrity and inviolability of Ukraine", but no convictions were made.

Yanukovych was elected president in 2010, defeating Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko. The election was judged free and fair by international observers. November 2013 saw the beginning of a series of events that led to his ousting as president. Yanukovych rejected a pending EU association agreement, choosing instead to pursue a Russian loan bailout and closer ties with Russia. This led to protests and the occupation of Kyiv's Independence Square, a series of events dubbed the Euromaidan by proponents of aligning Ukraine toward the European Union. In January 2014, this developed into deadly clashes in Independence Square and in other areas across Ukraine, as Ukrainian citizens confronted the special police force Berkut and other special police units. In February 2014, Ukraine appeared to be on the brink of civil war, as violent clashes between protesters and special police forces led to many deaths and injuries. On 21 February 2014, Yanukovych claimed that, after lengthy discussions, he had reached an agreement with the opposition. Later that day, however, he left the capital for Kharkiv, saying his car was shot at as he left Kyiv, and travelling next to Crimea, and eventually to exile in southern Russia.

Yanukovych conducted several press conferences. In one of these, he declared himself to remain "the legitimate head of the Ukrainian state elected in a free vote by Ukrainian citizens". On 18 June 2015, Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of president by the parliament. On 24 January 2019, he was sentenced in absentia to thirteen years' imprisonment for high treason by a Ukrainian court.

A brief attempt at gaining autonomy by pro-Viktor Yanukovych politicians and officials was made in 2004 during the Orange Revolution. The  South-East Ukrainian Autonomous Republic was intended to consist out of nine South Eastern regions of Ukraine. The project was initiated on 26 November 2004 by the Luhansk Oblast Council, and was discontinued the next month by the Donetsk Oblast Council. On 28 November 2004, in Sievierodonetsk, the so-called First All-Ukraine Congress Of People's Deputies And Local-Council's Deputies took place, organised by the supporters of Viktor Yanukovych. A total of 3,576 delegates from 16 oblasts of Ukraine, Crimea and Sevastopol took part in the congress, claiming to represent over 35 million citizens. Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov and an advisor from the Russian Embassy were present in the presidium. There were calls for the appointment of Viktor Yanukovych as president of Ukraine or prime minister, for declaring of martial law in Ukraine, dissolution of the Verkhovna Rada, creation of self-defence forces, and for the creation of a federative South-Eastern state with its capital in Kharkiv.

In other parts of Ukraine during the 2000s, the Donbas was often perceived as having a "thug culture", as being a "Soviet cesspool", and as "backward". Writing in the Narodne slovo newspaper in 2005, commentator Viktor Tkachenko said that the Donbas was home to "fifth columns", and that speaking Ukrainian in the region was "not safe for one's health and life". It was also portrayed as being home to pro-Russian separatism. The Donbas is home to a significantly higher number of cities and villages that were named after Communist figures compared to the rest of Ukraine. Despite this portrayal, surveys taken across that decade and during the 1990s showed strong support for remaining within Ukraine and insignificant support for separatism.

From the beginning of March 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in the Donbas, as part of the aftermath of the Revolution of Dignity and the Euromaidan movement. These demonstrations, which followed the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, and which were part of a wider group of concurrent pro-Russian protests across southern and eastern Ukraine, escalated in April 2014 into a war between the Russian-backed separatist forces of the self-declared Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics (DPR and LPR respectively), and the Ukrainian government.

Amid that conflict, the self-proclaimed republics held referendums on the status of Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts on 11 May 2014. In the referendums, viewed as illegal by Ukraine and undemocratic by the international community, about 90% voted for the independence of the DPR and LPR.

The initial protests in the Donbas were largely native expressions of discontent with the new Ukrainian government. Russian involvement at this stage was limited to its voicing of support for the demonstrations. The emergence of the separatists in Donetsk and Luhansk began as a small fringe group of the protesters, independent of Russian control. This unrest, however, only evolved into an armed conflict because of Russian military backing for what had been a marginal group as part of the Russo-Ukrainian War. The conflict was thus, in the words of historian Hiroaki Kuromiya, "secretly engineered and cleverly camouflaged by outsiders".

There was limited support for separatism in the Donbas before the outbreak of the war, and little evidence of support for an armed uprising. Russian claims that Russian speakers in the Donbas were being persecuted or even subjected to " genocide" by the Ukrainian government, forcing its hand to intervene. Ukrainian troops in the Donbas, March 2015. Fighting continued through the summer of 2014, and by August 2014, the Ukrainian "Anti-Terrorist Operation" was able to vastly shrink the territory under the control of the pro-Russian forces, and came close to regaining control of the Russo-Ukrainian border. In response to the deteriorating situation in the Donbas, Russia abandoned what has been called its " hybrid war" approach, and began a conventional invasion of the region. As a result of the Russian invasion, DPR and LPR insurgents regained much of the territory they had lost during the Ukrainian government's preceding military offensive.

Only this Russian intervention prevented an immediate Ukrainian resolution to the conflict. This forced the Ukrainian side to seek the signing of a ceasefire agreement. Called the Minsk Protocol, this was signed on 5 September 2014. As this failed to stop the fighting, another agreement, called Minsk II was signed on 12 February 2015. This agreement called for the eventual reintegration of the Donbas republics into Ukraine, with a level of autonomy. The aim of the Russian intervention in the Donbas was to establish pro-Russian governments that, upon reincorporation into Ukraine, would facilitate Russian interference in Ukrainian politics. The Minsk agreements were thus highly favourable to the Russian side, as their implementation would accomplish these goals.

The conflict led to a vast exodus from the Donbas: half the region's population were forced to flee their homes. A UN OHCHR report released on 3 March 2016 stated that, since the conflict broke out in 2014, the Ukrainian government registered 1.6 million internally displaced people who had fled the Donbas to other parts of Ukraine. Over 1 million were said to have fled elsewhere, mostly to Russia. At the time of the report, 2.7 million people were said to continue to live in areas under DPR and LPR control, comprising about one-third of the Donbas.

Despite the Minsk agreements, low-intensity fighting along the line of contact between Ukrainian government and Russian-controlled areas continued until 2022. Since the start of the conflict there have been 29 ceasefires, each intended to remain in force indefinitely, but none of them stopped the violence. This led the war to be referred to as a "frozen conflict". On 11 January 2017, the Ukrainian government approved a plan to reintegrate the occupied part of the Donbas and its population into Ukraine. The plan would give Russian-backed political entities partial control of the electorate and has been described by Zerkalo Nedeli as "implanting a cancerous cell into Ukraine's body." This was never implemented, and was subject to public protest.

A 2018 survey by Sociological Group "Rating" of residents of the Ukrainian-controlled parts of the Donbas found that 82% of respondents believed there was no discrimination against Russian-speaking people in Ukraine. Only 11% saw some evidence of discrimination. The same survey also found that 71% of respondents did not support Russia's military intervention to "protect" the Russian-speaking population, with only 9% offering support for that action. Another survey by Rating, conducted in 2019, found that only 23% of those Ukrainians polled supported granting the Donbas autonomous status, whilst 34% supported a ceasefire and "freezing" the conflict, 23% supported military action to recover the occupied Donbas territories, and 6% supported separating these territories from Ukraine.

Russia officially recognised the independence of the Donetsk and Luhansk republics on 21 February 2022, effectively killing the Minsk agreements. Russia subsequently launched a new, full-scale invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, which Russian president Vladimir Putin said was intended to "protect" the people of the Donbas from the "abuse" and "genocide" of the Ukrainian government. The DPR and LPR joined Russia's operation; the separatists stated that an operation to capture the entirety of Donetsk Oblast and Luhansk Oblast had begun.

Russian President Vladimir Putin chairs a Security Council meeting via videoconference at the Novo-Ogaryovo residence outside Moscow, Russia, Thursday, April 7, 2022. He made clear that the Donbas includes Luhansk and Donetsk, two ethnically Russian-speaking regions that Putin declared independent before launching a full-scale military assault on his neighboring country.The Russian leader has accused Ukraine of “Russophobia” and said ethnic Russians are specifically being killed in the Donbas, where Russian-backed separatists have been fighting a rebellion against Ukrainian troops since Russia annexed the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine in 2014. Putin’s claims of genocide in the Donbas are being contested at the International Court of Justice, with Ukrainian officials arguing it was used as a false pretext to invade their country.

The recognition of the separatists is born of the Kremlin’s frustration with the Ukrainian leadership and President Volodymyr Zelenskyy’s failure to carry out the terms of the Minsk agreements, which ended the heaviest fighting in eastern Ukraine in 2015 and would have entailed compromise with the rebels; as well as the shutdowns of Russian-language TV stations and the arrest of Viktor Medvedchuk, an oligarch and politician widely seen as friendly to Russia.

Putin hoped for the Minsk accords’ implementation. He lost his hope starting with Zelenskyy’s repression against Medvedchuk a year ago, and ending with the dissatisfying reactions of the West and Ukraine to Russian coercive diplomacy recently. It’s a part of the strategy of gradual destabilisation of Ukraine, a much smarter strategy for Putin than the all-out ‘imminent invasion’.”

While Russia says it is ready to return to the Minsk accords’ framework, Ukraine “is shortsightedly relieved to proclaim it’s dead”.

The tense standoff between Russia, and Ukraine and Western governments sharply escalated on Monday night as Russian President Vladimir Putin recognised two breakaway regions held in eastern Ukraine by pro-Russian rebels as independent states and ordered troops into the territories.

“I deem it necessary to make a decision that should have been made a long time ago – to immediately recognise the independence and sovereignty of the Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) and the Luhansk People’s Republic (LNR),” he said in a televised speech.

Aside from Russia, the DPR and LNR have also been recognised by Abkhazia and South Ossetia, while on Tuesday the Syrian government said it supported Putin’s move to recognise them and would cooperate with them.

Putin’s announcement comes after a meeting of the presidential Security Council and paves the way for Russia to openly send troops and weapons to the long-running conflict pitting Ukrainian forces against Moscow-backed rebels.

Putin on Wednesday said the “tragedy” of life for people in the Donbas region of eastern Ukraine prompted his decision to invade that country, and he vowed to return life there to “normal.”

A 2015 peace deal ended large-scale fighting, but violence has simmered and has seen a spike in recent weeks amid the wider crisis. In a lengthy televised address, Putin described Ukraine as an integral part of Russia’s history and said eastern Ukraine was ancient Russian lands and that he was confident that the Russian people would support his decision.

He said that Ukraine never had a tradition of genuine statehood and complained that post-Soviet Ukraine had wanted everything it could from Moscow without doing anything in Putin announced his decision in phone calls to the leaders of Germany and France, who voiced disappointment, the Kremlin said, and was later shown on state television signing the decree. Moscow’s move could torpedo a last-minute bid for a summit with US President Joe Biden to prevent Russia from invading Ukraine. Russia denies any plan to attack its neighbour, but it has threatened unspecified “military-technical” action unless it receives sweeping security guarantees, including a promise that Ukraine will never join NATO.

Today, year 2022, the world is again witnessing a major war against Russia security by refusing to make Ukraine a neutral nation. The USA and NATO want to pack up Ukraine with a military base capable of destroying Russia. More than one-third of the 90,000 U.S. troops in Europe are stationed in Germany. But the Pentagon shifted some of those personnel to shore up NATO's eastern flank and would plan to invade Russia in some no so distant future. Once more! NATO, European nations, the USA, the West, threatening to eventually invade Russia.

As the war in Ukraine keeps going on and never ending, President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has realized that his decision of going to war with his closest neighbors, the Russian people, has caused the destruction of a large part of the land of Ukraine, killed many Ukrainians, and over 2 million Ukraine hungry refugees moving to Poland and other EU nations. Than Zelenskyy asked NATO, the EU, and the USA, why are you not attacking Russia?!? I put my faith in you to save me. What do you mean, we didn't?" the West replied. We proposed a diplomatic solution to you. You wanted us to fight your local domestic problems for you. Could you not get along with your closest neighbors, your resource providers, Russians? Why?

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