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Global Civilizational State: the application of the Scale of Global Rights to the most important global issues   threatening humanity's survival worldwide.
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Theme for this month January 2021:
Global Civilizational State: the application of the Scale of Global Rights to the most important global issues threatening humanity's survival worldwide.

In a cause and effect relationship, one event causes another to happen. The cause is why it happened, and the effect is what happened or is a consequence of the cause. In scientific research, cause and effect refers to a relationship between two phenomena in which one phenomenon is the reason behind the other. Let us apply a cause and effect relationship between God and the Universe. If God created the Universe, then who created God? A number of skeptics ask this question. But God by definition is the uncreated creator of the Universe, so the question ‘Who created God?’ is illogical.

If the Universe needs a cause, then why doesn’t God need a cause? And if God doesn’t need a cause, why should the Universe need a cause? Everything which has a beginning has a cause. The Universe has a beginning. Therefore the Universe has a cause. Since God, by definition, is the creator of the whole Universe, he is the creator of time. It’s important to stress the words in bold type. The Universe requires a cause because it had a beginning, as will be shown below. God, unlike the Universe, had no beginning, so doesn’t need a cause. In addition, Einstein’s general relativity, which has much experimental support, shows that time is linked to matter and space. So time itself would have begun along with matter and space. Now, what if we accept that the Universe had a beginning, but not that it needs a cause? But it is self-evident that things that begin have a cause. All science and history would collapse if this law of cause and effect were denied. So would all law enforcement, if the police didn’t think they needed to find a cause for a stabbed body or a burgled house. Also, the Universe cannot have created itself because that would mean that it existed before it came into existence, which is a logical absurdity.

God, as creator of time, is outside of time. Since therefore God has no beginning in time, God has always existed, so doesn’t need a cause. If there is no cause, there is no explanation why this particular Universe appeared at a particular time, nor why it was a Universe and not something else. This Universe can’t have any properties to explain its preferential coming into existence, because it wouldn’t have any properties until it actually came into existence.

Is creation by God rational?

Correlation between various theories and interpretation of the name of "the one God" used to signify a monotheistic or ultimate Supreme Being from which all other divine attributes derive, has been a subject of ecumenical discourse between Eastern and Western scholars for over two centuries. What is God's name in Hebrew?YHWH יהוה, the name of God most often used in the Hebrew Bible is the Tetragrammaton (YHWH יהוה). It is frequently anglicized as Jehovah and Yahweh and written in most English editions of the Bible as "the Lord" owing to the Jewish tradition increasingly viewing the divine name as too sacred to be uttered. According to the original book of the Bible, the Hebrew Bible, the names Elohim and YHWH were translated wrongly by later, succeeding, religious leaders. The original book was 'the Torah' written by the Jewish people. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. It is an ancient, monotheistic, Abrahamic religion with the Torah as its foundational text. It encompasses the religion, philosophy, and culture of the Jewish people. The name Elohim truly means "those who came from the sky" but was translated wrongly or purposely by le name 'God', or other similar names, depending of the faith of those writers of future religions who wrote the Holy Books. According to a famous researcher and writer in the subject of extraterrestrial Elohim beings, the Universe has already been populated by advanced intelligent life and there exist a universal civilization in several galaxies.

At long last, desperate tactic by skeptics to avoid a theistic conclusion is to assert that creation in time is incoherent. Since time itself began with the beginning of the Universe, it is meaningless to talk about what happened ‘before’ the Universe began. Causes must precede their effects. So if nothing happened ‘before’ the Universe began, then it is meaningless to discuss the cause of the Universe’s beginning. So this can’t be used to prove creation by God. Of course, skeptics can’t have it both ways: saying that the Bible is wrong because science has proved it so, but if science appears consistent with the Bible, then well, science is tentative anyway. If there is no time before the creation of the Universe then how can God create the Universe.

God in Christianity is the eternal being who created and preserves all things. Christians believe God to be both transcendent (wholly independent of, and removed from, the material Universe ) and immanent (involved in the world). Christian teachings of the immanence and involvement of God and his love for humanity exclude the belief that God is of the same substance as the created Universe but accept that God's divine Nature was hypostatically united to human nature in the person of Jesus Christ, in an event known as the Incarnation.

Early Christian views of God were expressed in the Pauline Epistles and the early creeds, which proclaimed one God and the divinity of Jesus, almost in the same breath as in 1 Corinthians (8K5- 6): "For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as indeed there are many 'gods' and many 'lords'), yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom all things came and for whom we live; and there is but one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things came and through whom we live." "Although the Judeo-Christian sect of the Ebionites protested against this apotheosis of Jesus, the great mass of Gentile Christians accepted it." This began to differentiate the Gentile Christian views of God from traditional Jewish teachings of the time.

On the other hand, there is good evidence that the observable Universe had a beginning. This can be shown from the Laws of Thermodynamics, the most fundamental laws of the physical sciences.

1st Law: The total amount of mass-energy in the Universe is constant.

2nd Law: The amount of energy available for work is running out, or entropy is increasing to a maximum.

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the Universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution. The energy and matter initially present have become less dense as the Universe expanded. The model describes how the Universe expanded from a very high-density and high-temperature state, and offers a comprehensive explanation for a broad range of phenomena, including the abundance of light elements, the cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure and Hubble's law (the farther away galaxies are, the faster they are moving away from Earth). If the observed conditions are extrapolated backwards in time using the known laws of physics, the prediction is that just before a period of very high density there was a singularity which is typically associated with the Big Bang. Detailed measurements of the expansion rate of the Universe place the Big Bang at around 13.8 billion years ago, which is thus considered the age of the Universe. Physicists are undecided whether this means the Universe began from a singularity, or that current knowledge is insufficient to describe the Universe at that time.

If the total amount of mass-energy is limited, and the amount of usable energy is decreasing, then the Universe cannot have existed forever, otherwise it would already have exhausted all usable energy—the ‘heat death’ of the Universe. For example, all radioactive atoms would have decayed, every part of the Universe would be the same temperature, and no further work would be possible. So the obvious corollary is that the Universe began a finite time ago with a lot of usable energy, and is now running down. Giant clouds of primordial elements (mostly hydrogen, with some helium and lithium) later coalesced through gravity, eventually forming early stars and galaxies, the descendants of which are visible today. Astronomers also observe the gravitational effects of dark matter surrounding galaxies. Though most of the mass in the Universe seems to be in the form of dark matter, Big Bang theory and various observations seem to indicate that it is not made out of conventional baryonic matter (protons, neutrons, and electrons) but it is unclear exactly what it is made out of.

The observable Universe is a spherical region of the Universe comprising all matter that can be observed from Earth or its space-based telescopes and exploratory probes at the present time, because electromagnetic radiation from these objects has had time to reach the Solar System and Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion. There are at least 2 trillion galaxies in the observable Universe. Assuming the Universe is isotropic, the distance to the edge of the observable Universe is roughly the same in every direction. That is, the observable Universe has a spherical volume (a ball) centered on the observer. Every location in the Universe has its own observable Universe, which may or may not overlap with the one centered on Earth.

Also, there are many lines of evidence showing that there is far too little mass for gravity to stop expansion and allow cycling in the first place, i.e., the Universe is ‘open’. According to the best estimates, the Universe still has only about half the mass needed for re-contraction. This includes the combined total of both luminous matter and non-luminous matter (found in galactic halos), as well as any possible contribution of neutrinos to total mass. Some recent evidence for an ‘open’ Universe comes from the number of light-bending ‘gravitational lenses’ in the sky. Also, analysis of Type Ia supernovae shows that the Universe’s expansion rate is not slowing enough for a closed Universe.

The accelerated expansion of the Universe is thought to have begun since the Universe entered its dark-energy-dominated era roughly 5 billion years ago. Within the framework of general relativity, an accelerated expansion can be accounted for by a positive value of the cosmological constant Λ, equivalent to the presence of a positive vacuum energy, dubbed "dark energy". While there are alternative possible explanations, the description assuming dark energy (positive Λ) is used in the current standard model of cosmology, which also includes cold dark matter (CDM) and is known as the Lambda-CDM model. The ΛCDM is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the Universe contains three major components: first, a cosmological constant Λ, and associated with dark energy; second, the postulated cold dark matter CDM; and third, ordinary matter. It is frequently referred to as the standard model of Big Bang cosmology because it is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of the following properties of the cosmos:

The model assumes that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity on cosmological scales. It emerged in the late 1990s as a concordance cosmology, after a period of time when disparate observed properties of the Universe appeared mutually inconsistent, and there was no consensus on the makeup of the energy density of the Universe. The ΛCDM model can be extended by adding cosmological inflation, quintessence and other elements that are current areas of speculation and research in cosmology. Some alternative models challenge the assumptions of the ΛCDM model. Examples of these are modified Newtonian dynamics, entropic gravity, modified gravity, theories of large-scale variations in the matter density of the Universe, bimetric gravity, and scale invariance of empty space.

In Physics, the second law of thermodynamics is one of those puzzling laws of nature that simply emerges from the fundamental rules. It says that entropy, a measure of disorder in the Universe, must always increase in any closed system. But how is it possible that our Universe today, which looks to be organized and ordered with solar systems, galaxies and intricate cosmic structure, is somehow in a higher-entropy state than right after the Big Bang? The most commonly held view is that the Universe originates in a gravitational singularity, which expanded extremely rapidly from its hot and dense state. There are two competing types of explanations for the origins of the singularity which is the main disagreement between the scientists who study cosmogony and centers on the question of whether time existed "before" the emergence of our Universe or not. One cosmogonical view sees time as fundamental and even eternal: the Universe could have contained the singularity because the Universe evolved or changed from a prior state (the prior state was "empty space", or maybe a state that could not be called "space" at all). The other view, held by proponents like Stephen Hawking, says that there was no change through time because "time" itself emerged along with this Universe (in other words, there can be no "prior" to the Universe ). Thus, it remains unclear what combination of "stuff", space, or time emerged with the singularity and this Universe. One problem in cosmogony is that there is currently no theoretical model that explains the earliest moments of the Universe's existence (during the Planck time) because of a lack of a testable theory of quantum gravity. Researchers in string theory and its extensions (for example, M theory), and of loop quantum cosmology, have nevertheless proposed solutions of the type just discussed.

The common understanding of entropy and time implies a very low-entropy state just after the Big Bang. Yet, that moment is often described as a "soup" of photons, quarks and electrons, something that, by comparison with everyday textbook examples, seems very high entropy. How is that primal state low-entropy? The thermodynamic arrow of time implies that entropy always goes up, so it better be larger today than it was in the past. Entropy, S, is a state function and is a measure of disorder or randomness. A positive (+) entropy change means an increase in disorder. The Universe tends toward increased entropy. All spontaneous change occurs with an increase in entropy of the Universe. Entropy shows that the directions associated with the second law —heat transfer from hot to cold, for example are related to the tendency in Nature for systems to become disordered and for less energy to be available for use as work. The entropy of a system can in fact be shown to be a measure of its disorder and of the unavailability of energy to do work. With respect to entropy, there are only two possibilities: entropy is constant for a reversible process, and it increases for an irreversible process. There is a fourth version of the second law of thermodynamics stated in terms of entropy: the total entropy of a system either increases or remains constant in any process; it never decreases. For example, heat transfer cannot occur spontaneously from cold to hot, because entropy would decrease. Entropy is very different from energy. Entropy is not conserved but increases in all real processes. Reversible processes (such as in Carnot engines) are the processes in which the most heat transfer to work takes place and are also the ones that keep entropy constant. Thus we are led to make a connection between entropy and the availability of energy to do work. What does a change in entropy mean, and why should we be interested in it? Entropy is directly related to the fact that not all heat transfer can be converted into work. An increase in entropy may result in less heat transfer into work. When entropy increases, a certain amount of energy becomes permanently unavailable to do work. The energy is not lost, but its character has changed, so that some of it can never be converted to doing work, that is, to an organized force acting through a distance.

Entropy is related not only to the unavailability of energy to do work, it is also a measure of disorder. This notion was initially postulated by Ludwig Boltzmann in the 1800s. For example, melting a block of ice means taking a highly structured and orderly system of water molecules and converting it into a disorderly liquid in which molecules have no fixed positions. There is a large increase in entropy in the process. When ice melts, it becomes more disordered and less structured. The systematic arrangement of molecules in a crystal structure is replaced by a more random and less orderly movement of molecules without fixed locations or orientations. Its entropy increases because heat transfer occurs into it. Entropy is a measure of the disorder.

Some people misunderstand the second law of thermodynamics, stated in terms of entropy, to say that the process of the evolution of life violates this law. Over time, complex organisms evolved from much simpler ancestors, representing a large decrease in entropy of the Earth’s biosphere. It is a fact that living organisms have evolved to be highly structured, and much lower in entropy than the substances from which they grow. But it is always possible for the entropy of one part of the Universe to decrease, provided the total change in entropy of the Universe increases.

How is it possible for a system to decrease its entropy? Energy transfer is necessary. If I pick up marbles that are scattered about the room and put them into a cup, my work has decreased the entropy of that system. If I gather iron ore from the ground and convert it into steel and build a bridge, my work has decreased the entropy of that system. Energy coming from the Sun can decrease the entropy of local systems on Earth. But the overall entropy of the rest of the Universe increases by a greater amount that is positive and greater in magnitude. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is not violated.

Every time a plant stores some solar energy in the form of chemical potential energy, or an updraft of warm air lifts a soaring bird, the Earth can be viewed as a heat engine operating between a hot reservoir supplied by the Sun and a cold reservoir supplied by dark outer space, a heat engine of high complexity, causing local decreases in entropy as it uses part of the heat transfer from the Sun into deep space. There is a large total increase in entropy resulting from this massive heat transfer. A small part of this heat transfer is stored in structured systems on Earth, producing much smaller local decreases in entropy.

What is entropy?  It is simply the degree of disorder and randomness in a system. So, what exactly is "order"?  Think of it is "organized".  Solids are more ordered than liquids, which are more ordered than gasses.  Large complex molecules (say, chlorophyll) are more ordered than simple ones (oxygen, water, etc.).  Matter is more ordered than energy.  Atoms themselves have a tremendous amount of order within them: think about how precisely neutrons, electrons, and protons are arranged and balanced within an atom. Any time order is changed to disorder, energy is generated.  Therefore if atoms are destroyed, energy is generated and entropy increases.  If bonds within complex molecules are broken, energy is generated and entropy increases. If the orderly directional flow of atoms is disrupted, energy in generated and entropy increases.

The Universe, without exception, is moving from a state of order to disorder. This statement leads to confusion – our everyday experience with reality shows entropy being reversed. For example, solar energy hits the leaf of a tree, and is used to create complex carbohydrates. Using lower order energy to create greater order in the carbohydrates of a leaf seemingly violates the laws of thermodynamics. Except, that it does not.  To generate that ray of light, inside the sun, 600 million tons of hydrogen per second is converted to energy.  This is a massive flow of order (the atoms) to disorder (energy).  The leaf of a tree converts a tiny percentage of this disordered energy back to order. Combining the two together shows that, overall, there is still a massive flow of order to disorder.

Looking up at the night sky what you see are entropy generating machines: the stars are destroying order on a massive scale. Earth’s entropy may decrease in the process of intercepting a small part of the heat transfer from the Sun into deep space. Entropy for the entire process increases greatly while Earth becomes more structured with living systems and stored energy in various forms.

The ultimate fate of the Universe is likely to be thermodynamic equilibrium, where the universal temperature is constant and no energy is available to do work. Let us take a look at some examples related to the application of entropy.

Second Law of Thermodynamics states that all closed systems tend to maximize entropy. Reversing this ever increasing tendency toward disorder requires the input of energy. That's why housekeeping is so tiresome. Left on its own, a house would get dusty, spiders would move in, and eventually, it would fall apart. However, the energy put into preventing disorder in one place simultaneously increases it somewhere else. Overall, the entropy of the Universe always increases.

Entropy also manifests itself when there is no perfect transfer of energy. Our body (or a cell) cannot perfectly utilize food as an energy source because some of that energy is lost forever to the Universe.

Why is atomic energy so much more powerful than all other forms of energy?  A cubic meter of uranium can generate 3 million times more energy than a cubic meter of coal.  Why?  Well the fission reactor destroys matter by converting it to energy.  It is going in the direction of the entropic flow!

Coal represents fossilized solar energy.  It is part of the eddy toward more order as part of the massive order destroying activities of the sun.  Complex molecules captured a small (1%) of the suns energies, over thousands or millions of years. That is what we are utilizing – the ancient scraps of the leftovers of nuclear fission in the sun.

We can rank all forms of energy based on their change in order to disorder.  Remember, when we use energy we are consuming orderliness, and increasing entropy.  So here they are ranked:

Why is geothermal lumped with fission and fusion? That is because the heat of the earth is largely a byproduct of natural radioactive decay, which is fission.

Now fusion, fission, geothermal, and antimatter are entropically positive – meaning they are deriving their energy from destruction of order in atoms. Fossil fuels, wood, hydropower, and wind power are entropic eddies – energy from entropic positive sources that has been incidentally and accidentally concentrated and can be harvested. Solar represents degraded order at its lowest form – we are converting one form of energy (visible light) to a lower form (infrared light), harvesting the tiny amount of remaining order in the system.

Strangely, the more entropy already in the energy source, the more order must be placed into our energy harvesting mechanisms!  Let us rank these in how easy it is to harvest energy from the energy source?

The list may be hard to understand because fission is difficult to do, while solar is so easy!

 What does it take to turn antimatter into energy?  Nothing – it spontaneously turns into energy in the presence of matter.  It is so destructive that no antimatter remains in our corner of the Universe !  It has all degraded to energy.

Fusion? Hard to do on earth, but look up at the stars – there are trillions of fusion reactors floating around in space. All you need is a great big ball of atoms lighter than lead.  That is it.

Fission? Atoms naturally decay, but to get real energy, you need to collect the right sort of atoms together.  This can and has happened naturally (yes there are natural fission reactors).   Why were old atomic reactors called "atomic piles"?  They were literally piles of uranium atoms! So we have already progressed from doing nothing at all, to getting a big ball of atoms together, to getting just the right kind of atoms together.  Why is nuclear power so expensive?  To protect us from the vast amounts of energy released. What is the primary purpose of out reactor?  To control the energy production rate of the uranium atoms.  If left alone, they would generate too much energy and destroy the reactor.  Why dont we have fusion on earth?  It is an anomaly – we cannot get a big enough ball of atoms together.  If we could, it would happen spontaneously.  So it is expensive to try and replicate those conditions without a giant ball of atoms.

Chemical breakdowns require a bit more finesse – we need to bring just the right atoms together, under the right conditions.  Coal, wood, and oil will not burn without oxygen, and an ignition source, in the right quantities.  Instead of just uranium atoms, we need three kinds of atoms, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Still, the system to harvest the chemical energy is relatively simple.  We just need to combine the right atoms in the right conditions.

Hydropower? Now we need a more complex structure to harvest the energy.  It its simplest form coal can generate energy by creating a big pile and lighting it on fire. In its simplest form, water power requires we construct and maintain a mechanism for extracting the energy (say a water wheel).   The level of order of the extraction system has to increase dramatically because the source of energy is more disordered to begin with.  Wind power is worse than hydropower because air is a gas and is more disordered than water.

Lastly is solar energy.  Solar panels are organized and engineered at the atomic scale.  They are very highly ordered objects designed to harvest the remaining, marginal energy left in sunshine.  Even the simplest solar harvester, a magnifying glass, requires that I refine a very special type of atom (silica), and shape it into a very specific design (a lens).  The energy collection mechanism is highly ordered.  It has to be.

And how does a leaf capture and convert solar energy to chemical energy?  Well, by an exceedingly complex biomolecular design. And even that works at 1% efficiency.

The early Universe was full of matter and radiation ( perhaps 1088 particles, including matter, antimatter, gluons, quarks, neutrinos and photons, in total), and was so hot and dense that the quarks and gluons present didn’t form into individual protons and neutrons, but remained in a quark-gluon plasma. During the very early Universe all those particles were all whizzing around at energies billions of times higher than even the LHC can obtain today. There were so many of them — 1088 in total — all crammed into a volume as small as a soccer ball. Right at the instant of the hot Big Bang, this tiny region with these tremendously energetic particles would grow into our entire observable Universe over the next 13.8 billion years.

Understandably, the Universe, from this hot Big Bang until the present day, underwent a huge amount of growth and evolution, and continues to do so. Clearly, the Universe today is much cooler, larger, more full-of-structure and non-uniform. But we can actually quantify the entropy of the Universe at both times, at the moment of the Big Bang and today, in terms of Boltzmann’s constant, kB

In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann's equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, the number of real microstates corresponding to the gas' macrostate


In short, the Boltzmann formula shows the relationship between entropy and the number of ways the atoms or molecules of a thermodynamic system can be arranged.

At the moment of the Big Bang, almost all of the entropy was due to radiation, and the total entropy of the Universe was S = 1053kB. On the other hand, if we calculate the entropy of the Universe today, it’s about a quadrillion times as large: = 10193kB. While both of these numbers seem large, the former number is most definitely low-entropy compared to the latter: it’s only 0.0000000000001% as large!

Our observable Universe, as we see it today with its 2 trillion galaxies and their 1025 stars and around 1019 potentially Earth-like planets, is far clumpier, more clustered, and generating of starlight than the early Universe was. So why is the entropy so different? There’s an important thing to keep in mind when we talk about these numbers, though. When you hear terms like “a measure of disorder” bandied about, that’s actually a very, very poor description of what entropy actually is. Imagine, instead, that you’ve got whatever system you like: such as matter and radiation. Presumably, there will be some energy encoded in there, whether it’s kinetic, potential, field energy or any other type. What entropy actually measures is the number of possible arrangements of the state of your system.

If a system has, say, a cold part and a hot part, you can arrange it in fewer ways than if the whole thing is the same temperature. One of the systems maybe at a lower-entropy than the other one. Photons in the cosmic microwave background have practically the same entropy today as they did when the Universe was first born. This is why people say the Universe expands adiabatically, which means with a constant entropy. While we might look at galaxies, stars, planets, etc., and marvel at how ordered or disordered they appear to be, their entropy is negligible. So what caused that tremendous entropy increase? The reason is the existence of black holes. Black holes are something the Universe wasn’t born with, but has grown to acquire over time. They now dominate the Universe ’s entropy.

If you think about all the particles that go into making a black hole, it’s a tremendous number. Once you fall into a black hole, you inevitably arrive at a singularity. And the number of states is directly proportional to the masses of the particles in the black hole, so the more black holes you form (or the more massive your black holes get), the more entropy you get in the Universe. The Milky Way’s supermassive black hole, alone, has an entropy that’s S = 1098 kB, about a factor of 1,000 more than the entire Universe at the Big Bang. Given the number of galaxies and the masses of black holes in general, the total entropy today has reached a value of S = 10133 kB.

And this is only going to get worse! In the far future, more and more black holes will form, and the large black holes that exist today will continue to grow for about the next 1029 years. If you were to turn the entire Universe into a black hole, we’d reach a maximal entropy of approximately S = 10123 kB, or a factor of 100 quintillion greater than the entropy today. When these black holes decay on even larger timescales — up to around 10160 years — that entropy will remain almost constant, as the blackbody (Hawking) radiation produced by the decaying black holes will have the same number of possible state arrangements as the formerly-existing black hole itself.

Over long enough timescales, black holes shrink and evaporate thanks to Hawking radiation. That’s where information loss occurs, as the radiation no longer contains the information once encoded on the horizon.

So why was the early Universe so low-entropy? Because it didn’t have any black holes. Hawking showed that black holes emit radiation, known today as Hawking radiation, which may continue until they exhaust their energy and evaporate. An entropy of S = 1053 kB is still a tremendously large value, but it’s the entropy of the entire Universe, which is almost exclusively encoded in the leftover radiation (and, to a slightly lesser extent, neutrinos) from the Big Bang. Because the “stuff” we see when we look out at the Universe like stars, galaxies, etc., has a negligible entropy compared to that leftover background, it’s easy to fool ourselves into thinking that entropy changes significantly as structure forms, but that’s merely a coincidence, not the cause.

At minimum, it took tens of millions of years for the Universe to form its very first star, and its very first black hole. Until that happened, the entropy of the Universe, to more than a 99% accuracy, remained unchanged.

If there were no such things as black holes, the entropy of the Universe would have been almost constant for the past 13.8 billion years! That primal state actually had a considerable amount of entropy; it’s just that black holes have so much more, and are so easy to make from a cosmic perspective.

One implication of the second law is that heat flows spontaneously from a hotter region to a cooler region, but will not flow spontaneously the other way. This applies to anything that flows: it will naturally flow downhill rather than uphill. The second law also predicts the end of the Universe which implies that the Universe will end in a "heat death" in which everything is at the same temperature. This is the ultimate level of disorder; if everything is at the same temperature, no work can be done, and all the energy will end up as the random motion of atoms and molecules.

A measure of the level of disorder of a system is entropy, represented by S. Although it's difficult to measure the total entropy of a system, it's generally fairly easy to measure changes in entropy. For a thermodynamic system involved in a heat transfer of size Q at a temperature T , a change in entropy can be measured by:

ΔS = Q/T

The second law of thermodynamics can be stated in terms of entropy. If a reversible process occurs, there is no net change in entropy. Even if change in entropy is zero, it doesn't mean the entropy of the system is at maximum. If you take an ideal reversible process, the change in Entropy would be zero but the entropy of the system wouldn't be maximum. Maximum Entropy means no macroscopic object: only photons and particles flying around freely. There can be no stars, planets or intelligent life in maximum entropy state. And, this is where the Universe is heading. Entropy always increases in systems when the degree of freedom are increased (adding particles, adding energy, expanding volume, etc ). Concerning the entropy of the whole Universe and forgetting the expansion of the Universe for the moment, since by definition the Universe contain all the particles, and energy is constant, then the entropy will be constant.

In an irreversible process, entropy always increases, so the change in entropy is positive. The total entropy of the Universe is continually increasing.

The same thing happens on a much larger scale. The Sun, and every other star, is radiating heat into the Universe. But they can’t do it forever. Eventually the heat will have spread out so much that there won’t be warmer objects and cooler objects. Everything will be the same temperature. The same, very cold, temperature. The vast majority of the Universe is already screaming cold, so the heat death of the Universe is just about burning what fuel there is and mixing the heat so created into the ever-expansive, cold, and unyielding cosmos. Both the burning of fuel (mostly through fusion in stars) and the distribution of heat are processes which increase entropy.

Once everything is the same temperature, the Universe attains a “steady state”. With no energy differences, there’s no reason for anything to change what it’s doing (all forces can be expressed as an energy imbalance or “potential gradient“). Heat death is the point at which the Universe has finally settled down completely (or almost completely), and nothing interesting ever happens again.

Anything with a beginning is wrapped up in a time-space capsule, carries an expiry date. Since, admittedly, the Universe has a beginning, it is also in a time-frame. The ‘Time’ dimension helps conformity. Doubts, if any, can be only on’What then?’ The major religions differ on this, Indian Faith saying that the Universe is cyclical in existence, it lies submerged in a time-frame only to re-emerge to same old form, and for the cycle to repeat endlessly.

If the Universe is finite and has a beginning and end, then there is something else outside the Universe which is infinite and has no beginning and no end and for which entropy is totally stable, with some Universe s expanding and others contracting. Unfortunately, our poor little brains can’t interpret things that are not finite.

Entropy is defined mathematically as S = dQ/dt. In our solar system heat is generated everywhere including solar fusion and radiated heat from planets. dQ is therefore always a positive number. This is the reason that in our known Universe, entropy S, is always positive. But in another Universe such as black holes, energy as well as mass are swallowed and the energy Q is converted backed to mass to formed a very densed mass in the core of black hole. In this situation, heat Q becomes a negative value, and entropy S will be a negative value. So it is possible to have a negative entropy if your definition of Universe includes black holes or neutron stars.

If the topology of the Universe is open or flat, or if dark energy is a positive cosmological constant (both of which are consistent with current data), the Universe will continue expanding forever, and a heat death is expected to occur, with the Universe cooling to approach equilibrium at a very low temperature after a very long time period. The idea of heat death stems from the second law of thermodynamics, of which one version states that entropy tends to increase in an isolated system. From this, the hypothesis implies that if the Universe lasts for a sufficient time, it will asymptotically approach a state where all energy is evenly distributed. In other words, according to this hypothesis, there is a tendency in nature to the dissipation (energy transformation) of mechanical energy (motion) into thermal energy; hence, by extrapolation, there exists the view that, in time, the mechanical movement of the Universe will run down as work is converted to heat because of the second law.

The conjecture that all bodies in the Universe cool off, eventually becoming too cold to support life. All planets have an internal heat and are now at some particular stage of cooling. Jupiter, for instance, is still too hot for life to arise there for thousands of years, while the Moon is already too cold. The final state, in this view, is described as one of "equilibrium" in which all motion ceases.

The final state of the Universe depend on the assumptions made about its ultimate fate, and these assumptions have varied considerably over the late 20th century and early 21st century. In a hypothesized "open" or "flat" Universe that continues expanding indefinitely, either a heat death or a Big Rip is expected to eventually occur. If the cosmological constant is zero, the Universe will approach absolute zero temperature over a very long timescale. However, if the cosmological constant is positive, as appears to be the case in recent observations, the temperature will asymptote to a non-zero positive value, and the Universe will approach a state of maximum entropy.

If a Big Rip does not happen long before that, the "heat death" situation could be avoided if there is a method or mechanism to regenerate hydrogen atoms from radiation, dark matter, dark energy, zero-point energy, or other sources so that star formation and heat transfer can continue to avoid a gradual running down of the Universe due to the conversion of matter into energy and heavier elements in stellar processes and the absorption of matter by black holes and their subsequent evaporation as Hawking radiation.

From the time of the Big Bang through the present day, matter and dark matter in the Universe are thought to have been concentrated in stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters, and are presumed to continue to be so well into the future. Therefore, the Universe is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and objects can do physical work. The decay time for a supermassive black hole of roughly 1 galaxy mass (1011 solar masses) due to Hawking radiation is on the order of 10100 years, so entropy can be produced until at least that time. Some large size black holes in the Universe are predicted to continue to grow up to perhaps 1014 M☉ (the astronomical system of units, formally called the IAU (1976) System of Astronomical. The symbol M ☉ is often used to refer to this unit. The astronomical unit of mass is the solar mass. The solar mass (M☉), 1.98892×1030 kg, is a standard way to express mass in astronomy, used to describe the masses of other stars and galaxies. It is equal to the mass of the Sun, about 333000 times the mass of the Earth or 1 048 times the mass of Jupiter.) during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over a timescale of up to 10106 years. After that time, the Universe enters the so-called Dark Era (After all the black holes have evaporated and after all the ordinary matter made of protons has disintegrated, if protons are unstable, the Universe will be nearly empty. Photons, neutrinos, electrons, and positrons will fly from place to place, hardly ever encountering each other. Gravitationally, the Universe will be dominated by dark matter, electrons, and positrons, but no protons.) and is expected to consist chiefly of a dilute gas of photons and leptons. With only very diffuse matter remaining, activity in the Universe will have tailed off dramatically, with extremely low energy levels and extremely long timescales. Speculatively, it is possible that the Universe may enter a second inflationary epoch, or assuming that the current vacuum state is a false vacuum, the vacuum may decay into a lower-energy state.

The entropy of a general gravitational field is still not known because gravitational entropy is difficult to quantify. The analysis considers several possible assumptions that would be needed for estimates and suggests that the observable Universe has more entropy than previously thought. This is because the analysis concludes that supermassive black holes are the largest contributor. It has long been known that gravity is important for keeping the Universe out of thermal equilibrium. Gravitationally bound systems have negative specific heat—that is, the velocities of their components increase when energy is removed. Such a system does not evolve toward a homogeneous equilibrium state. Instead it becomes increasingly structured and heterogeneous as it fragments into subsystems.

The idea of entropy comes from a principle of thermodynamics dealing with energy. It usually refers to the idea that everything in the Universe eventually moves from order to disorder, and entropy is the measurement of that change. In Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models of the Universe, it can easily be shown that the total entropy density (in comoving coordinates) in photons is conserved. It is very easy to understand why: there are basically no irreversible processes in the Universe, so that the entropy per unit mass must be conserved. Basically, this means that General Relativity has nothing meaningful to say about entropy: GR-models of the whole Universe could have been built with twice as much, or half as much entropy density than observed, and the models would have been perfectly legitimate. In other words: something, very early in the history of the Universe determines the total entropy content of the Universe, and GR's only task is that of keeping this value a constant.

So this beckons the question: what determined this initial value? Until 1980, the basic answer that could be given was shock waves, which are the most powerful generators of entropy known on cosmological scale.

But since perhaps the late seventies-early eighties, the à la mode answer is that this is a consequence of the fact that very large number of both baryons and antibaryons are produced in the early phases of the Big-Bang, to annihilate later into many photons (among other particles) leaving behind a small left-over which constitutes the present population of baryons in the Universe. While no one can compute with any reliability the entropy per baryon which derives from these processes, they are generally thought to be inescapable, and much more effective than shock waves in producing entropy.

So, while this is still a highly speculative and unsettled chapter of cosmology, it is true that phase transitions provide the greatest hope in explaining this otherwise mysterious number.

When two objects orbiting a centre of mass have lower entropy than when said objects eventually crash into each other and form a new one. So let's say that a typical galaxy spirals around its centre of mass and eventually objects within it will fall into the center thus increasing its entropy. But if the entropy of the Universe was somehow to be constant, then maybe that's why space is expanding? As each galaxy becomes more chaotic while objects are going closer and closer together these galaxies are at the same time becoming more and more spread apart thanks to expansion of space. Also gravity is increasing in intesity when the distance between objects is shorter, so the longer two masses are gravitating, the shorter the distance between them and then the more intensive gravity becomes over time. This might correspond then to the increasing speed of expansion of Universe, as it has to compensate faster to keep entropy constant.

Moreover, the expansion of the Universe contributes into creating more and more microstates. This is almost equivalent to saying that entropy increases (because 𝑆=𝑘𝐵S=kBln(Ω). We cannot be sure that the law of entropy applies to the whole Universe (There is debate if the Universe is a closed system or not, if its infinite or finite, etc..) but from what we know the disorder of the Universe is increasing due to this large number of microstates increasing with time, leading to the disorder of the Universe increasing.

Whenever there is a decrease or release of energy, the entropy increases. This means that entropy is also a measurement of how much usable energy there is. The entropy of an isolated system never decreases, because isolated systems spontaneously evolve towards thermodynamic equilibrium, the maximum entropy. Change in entropy is defined as 
where T is the uniform thermodynamic temperature of the system and  dQ is the incremental reversible transfer of heat into that system.

Our Sun, as every other star, radiates heat into the Universe. But they can’t do it forever. Eventually the heat will have spread out so much that there won’t be warmer objects and cooler objects. Everything will be the same temperature. As all of this happens, the entropy of the Universe keeps increasing. Thus, it was speculated that the Universe is fated to a heat death in which all the energy ends up as a homogeneous distribution of thermal energy, so that no more work can be extracted from any source. Thus the expansion leads to the Universe getting colder faster. When this heat death is reached, the Universe will attain a thermodynamic equilibrium and will have maximum entropy (which will essentially be constant).

How long will it take for the Universe to die? The Universe will cease to exist around the same time our sun is slated to die, according to new predictions based on the multiverse theory. Our Universe has existed for 13.8 billion years, and as far as most people are concerned, the Universe should continue to exist for billions of years more. Will the Universe last forever? In a closed Universe, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the Universe, after which it starts to contract until all matter in the Universe collapses to a point, a final singularity termed the "Big Crunch", the opposite of the Big Bang.

Is Universe open or closed?
Curvature: open or closed. In cosmology, we speak of the Universe as being "open" or "closed", and we are most commonly referring to whether the curvature is negative or positive. A "closed Universe " is necessarily a closed manifold. An "open Universe " can be either a closed or open manifold.

How long until the heat of the Universe dies? This is the timeline of the Universe from Big Bang to Heat Death scenario. The heat death will occur in 10100 years, if protons decay.

Is the Universe ever expanding? The expansion of the Universe is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the Universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion whereby the scale of space itself changes. The Universe does not expand "into" anything and does not require space to exist "outside" it. Why is the Universe expanding? The accelerating expansion of the Universe is the observation that the expansion of the Universe is such that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.

What is pulling the Universe apart? In physical cosmology, the Big Rip is a hypothetical cosmological model concerning the ultimate fate of the Universe, in which the matter of the Universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, and even spacetime itself, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the Universe at a certain time.

Is the energy in the Universe constant? The zero-energy Universe hypothesis proposes that the total amount of energy in the Universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.

What will happen to our Universe in the future? Observations suggest that the expansion of the Universe will continue forever. If so, then a popular theory is that the Universe will cool as it expands, eventually becoming too cold to sustain life. For this reason, this future scenario once popularly called "heat death" is now known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze.

When observing distant galaxies, we observe they were fleeing outwards. Or to be more precise, all the galaxies are moving away from each other. So up until about 15 years ago, the only answer was momentum. The idea was that the Universe received all the energy it needed for its expansion in the first few moments after the Big Bang.

The Hubble Space Telescope image of the inner regions of the lensing cluster Abell 1689 that is 2.2 billion light years away. Light from distant background galaxies is bent by the concentrated dark matter in the cluster to produce the plethora of arcs and arclets that were in turn used to constrain dark energy. Now it appears that the Universe will not only expand forever, but the speed of its expansion will continue to accelerate faster and faster. So what’s causing this expansion? Currently, we believe it’s mostly momentum left over from the Big Bang, and the force of dark energy will be accelerating this expansion, forever.

The 'heat-death' of the Universe is when the Universe has reached a state of maximum entropy. This happens when all available energy (such as from a hot source) has moved to places of less energy (such as a colder source). Once this has happened, no more work can be extracted from the Universe. The heat death of the Universe, also known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze, is an idea of an ultimate fate of the Universe in which the Universe has evolved to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that increase entropy. Heat death does not imply any particular absolute temperature; it only requires that temperature differences or other processes may no longer be exploited to perform work. In the language of physics, this is when the Universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). After the heat death of the Universe will anything ever happen again? The spreading out of energy can be described using entropy. When energy is completely and evenly spread out and the temperatures are the same everywhere, then the system is in a “maximal entropy state” and there is no remaining useable energy.

The “heat death of the Universe ” is what you get when you starting talking about the repercussions from ever-increasing entropy and never stop asking “and then what?”. Eventually every form of useable energy gets exhausted; every kind of energy ends up more-or-less evenly distributed and without an imbalance there’s no reason for it to flow anywhere or do work. “Heat death” doesn’t necessarily mean that there’s no heat, just no concentrations of heat.

So now, our expanding Universe will eventually lead to heat death via entropy. Energy levels everywhere are equal. But what drives that expansion? If it were only the laws of motion the centre of the Universe could be identified – the origin point. But as everything is moving away from everything else, that implies that other forces are at work as well. Pressures from stars and the like. But once those are gone, the one active force left in the Universe will start having a greater effect. Gravity! While negligible in the current greater Universe, its very nature is contrary to expansion. Eventually, over a similar timeframe as the life of the Universe, super gravitational forces will have a greater effect, first on their surroundings, then on each other. This will continue until all that exists once again is at a single point, recreating the conditions of our Big Bang.

Once all the energy is turned into heat, gravity comes into play, and all the heat is brought back to the center and get more and more intense. Eventually, there is too much and it results in another big bang. Matter is spread out once again and forms into the Universe again. This is a neverending cycle of big bangs. The Universe is pretty much refreshing itsself. In order for us to survive, we must find a way to somehow shield one part of the Universe from this big bang. After the big bang happens again, we will be roaming around in the dark Universe forever. Also, if it is impossible to escape the forces of the Universe and avoid being destroyed in the big bang, we will all die and our whole existance, everything everyone has ever done, erased. This cycle has always been happening, so it is highly likely there was another form of life as advanced as us in the Universe, and was wiped out by the heat death and then the big bang.

Why is it important for humanity to understand that the observable Universe had a beginning? Why is it important for humanity to understand very clearly the Laws of Thermodynamics, the most fundamental laws of the physical sciences? Why is it important for humanity to understand the working of energy and entropy? Why is it important for humanity to understand that entropy is related not only to the unavailability of energy to do work, it is also a measure of disorder? Why is it important for humanity to understand that the Universe began a finite time ago with a lot of usable energy, and is now running down, that the Universe had a very low entropy at the beginning but now has a very high entropy? Why is it important for humanity to understand that the Universe tends toward increased entropy, that heat transfer from hot to cold, and are related to the tendency in Nature for systems to become disordered and for less energy to be available for use as work? Why is it important for humanity to understand that the process of the evolution of life does not violates the second law of thermodynamics? Over time, complex organisms on Earth evolved from much simpler ancestors, representing a large decrease in entropy of the Earth’s biosphere. It is a fact that living organisms have evolved to be highly structured, and much lower in entropy than the substances from which they grow. But it is always possible for the entropy of one part of the Universe to decrease, provided the total change in entropy of the Universe increases. So the process of the evolution of life does not violates the second law of thermodynamics. Energy coming from the Sun can decrease the entropy of local systems on Earth. But the overall entropy of the rest of the Universe increases by a greater amount that is positive and greater in magnitude. Thus the second law of thermodynamics is not violated. Every time a plant stores some solar energy in the form of chemical potential energy, the Earth can be viewed as a heat engine operating between a hot reservoir supplied by the Sun and a cold reservoir supplied by dark outer space, a heat engine of high complexity, causing local decreases in entropy as it uses part of the heat transfer from the Sun into deep space, in our case Earth. There is a large total increase in entropy resulting from this massive heat transfer. A small part of this heat transfer is stored in structured systems on Earth such as Life (thank God), producing much smaller local decreases in entropy. Can you understand Life on our planet will gradually be extinct sooner or later? Other planets in the solar system will not be better than what we have here on Earth. Life in planets of other star systems might see us as invading viruses not much different than the way we see the COVID-19 coronavirus. Perhaps we should all take very seriously the need to manage Life on Earth, our livelihood in our own community. Let us all manage the most serious threat to Life on Earth: global warming.

Petroleum is a broad category that includes both crude oil and petroleum products. Petroleum and natural gas are nonrenewable sources of energy. Petroleum is a liquid mixture found underground that can be used to make gasoline, diesel fuel, and many other products. Petroleum is also called crude oil or oil. Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons that exists as a liquid in underground geologic formations and remains a liquid when brought to the surface. Petroleum is a fossil fuel derived from ancient fossilized organic materials, such as zooplankton and algae. Vast amounts of these remains settled to sea or lake bottoms where they were covered in stagnant water (water with no dissolved oxygen) or sediments such as mud and silt faster than they could decompose aerobically. Approximately 1 m below this sediment or water oxygen concentration was low, below 0.1 mg/l, and anoxic conditions existed. Temperatures also remained constant. As further layers settled to the sea or lake bed, intense heat and pressure built up in the lower regions. This process caused the organic matter to change, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, found in various oil shales around the world, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons via a process known as catagenesis. Formation of petroleum occurs from hydrocarbon pyrolysis in a variety of mainly endothermic reactions at high temperature or pressure, or both. In the absence of plentiful oxygen, aerobic bacteria were prevented from decaying the organic matter after it was buried under a layer of sediment or water. However, anaerobic bacteria were able to reduce sulfates and nitrates among the matter to H2S and N2 respectively by using the matter as a source for other reactants. Due to such anaerobic bacteria, at first this matter began to break apart mostly via hydrolysis: polysaccharides and proteins were hydrolyzed to simple sugars and amino acids respectively. These were further anaerobically oxidized at an accelerated rate by the enzymes of the bacteria: e.g., amino acids went through oxidative deamination to imino acids, which in turn reacted further to ammonia and α-keto acids. Monosaccharides in turn ultimately decayed to CO2 and methane. The anaerobic decay products of amino acids, monosaccharides, phenols and aldehydes combined to fulvic acids. Fats and waxes were not extensively hydrolyzed under these mild conditions.

The terms oil and petroleum are sometimes used interchangeably. There are 1.65 trillion barrels of proven oil reserves in the world as of 2016. The world has proven reserves equivalent to 46.6 times its annual consumption levels. This means it has about 47 years of oil left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves). Globally, we currently consume the equivalent of over 11 billion tonnes of oil from fossil fuels every year. Crude oil reserves are vanishing at a rate of more than 4 billion tonnes a year – so if we carry on as we are, our known oil deposits could run out in just over 53 years. We understand today that humanity's use of fossil fuels is severely damaging our environment. Fossil fuels cause local pollution where they are produced and used, and their ongoing use is causing lasting harm to the climate of our entire planet. The burning of fossil fuels releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere creating global warming, increasing levels of CO2 and other gasses, trapping heat, and contributing to global climate change.

“Global warming” refers to the rise in global temperatures due mainly to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. “Climate change” refers to the increasing changes in the measures of climate over a long period of time – including precipitation, temperature, and wind patterns. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary greenhouse gas emitted through human activities. In 2018, CO2 accounted for about 81.3 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from human activities. By increasing the abundance of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, human activities are amplifying Earth's natural greenhouse effect and causing the global warming of our planet. Indeed, carbon dioxide, a byproduct of fossil fuel combustion, is the principal greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. However, other greenhouse gases including methane, nitrous oxide, and a number of industrial-process gases also are important contributors to climate change. Fossil fuels produce large quantities of carbon dioxide when burned. Carbon emissions trap heat in the atmosphere and lead to climate change. Coal major impacts: air pollution. These impacts include mercury, lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulates, and various other heavy metals. Health impacts can range from asthma and breathing difficulties, to brain damage, heart problems, cancer, neurological disorders, and premature death. Burning fossil fuels emits a number of air pollutants that are harmful to both the environment and public health. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions, primarily the result of burning coal, contribute to acid rain and the formation of harmful particulate matter. As of 2010, coal accounted for 43% of global greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main greenhouse gas, and is the leading cause of global warming. Simply put, to solve the climate crisis we must stop burning coal. Job number one is retiring old coal plants. Job number two is using fossil fuels only for essential services, starting now, today.

The United States and China are two of the largest consumers of oil in the world, totaling 19.4 million barrels per day and 14 million barrels per day, respectively. Saudi Arabia, the largest OPEC exporter, was the source of 6% of U.S. total petroleum imports and 7% of U.S. crude oil imports. Saudi Arabia is also the largest source of U.S. petroleum imports from Persian Gulf countries. The price of oil has collapsed, Saudi Arabia storage will rapidly run out, and oil companies face the real prospect of having to cap wells. The oil and gas sector accounts for up to 50 percent of the kingdom's gross domestic product and 70 percent of its export earnings.

Nearly two-thirds of the world's oil consumption is used to fuel our various modes of transport, from airplanes and cars to buses and cargo ships. Transport in Europe is 94 percent dependent on oil, according to data from the European Commission. The first part of refining crude oil is to heat it until it boils. The boiling liquid is separated into different liquids and gases in a distillation column. These liquids are used to make petrol, paraffin, diesel fuel etc. Crude oil is a mixture of different chemical called hydrocarbons. Gasoline is a mixture of many different hydrogen- and carbon- containing chemicals (hydrocarbons). A typical gasoline mixture contains about 150 different hydrocarbons, including butane, pentane, isopentane and the BTEX compounds (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes). All those chemicals can kill us all when inhale. Job number three make it a law to declare all of our various modes of transport, from airplanes and cars to buses and cargo ships as essential services, starting now, today, and cut down on consumption by 50%.

The 10 biggest oil consuming nations account for more than 58% of the world's total oil consumption per day. The United States is the world's biggest oil consumer, followed by China, Japan and India. Coal-fired power plants release more greenhouse gases per unit of energy produced than any other electricity source. The United States produced the most oil in the world in 2019, at around 17 million barrels of oil per day on average. Saudi Arabia and Russia followed as the second and third largest producers, and also rank as the top two countries with highest oil exports. The United States gets 81% of its total energy from oil, coal, and natural gas, all of which are fossil fuels. We depend on those fuels to heat our homes, run our vehicles, power industry and manufacturing, and provide us with electricity. The USA has added close to 50 billion barrels over the last year and now holds an estimated 310 billion barrels of recoverable oil with current technologies, equal to 79 years of US oil production at present output levels.

The primary distinction between crude or conventional oil and shale oil is the way it collects. The oil in shale is typically found in smaller batches. As a result, shale oil often needs to be fractured so that the oil trapped within the shale can be recovered. Surface mining of oil shale deposits causes the usual environmental impacts of open-pit mining. In addition, the combustion and thermal processing generate waste material, which must be disposed of, and harmful atmospheric emissions, including carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” is revolutionizing oil and gas drilling across the country. However, without rigorous safety regulations, it can poison groundwater, pollute surface water, impair wild landscapes, and threaten wildlife. The USA shale oil will last a little longer: there are 2 million barrels a day produced by Texas. In 20 years, its number of wells could increase from the current 8,000 to at least 40,000. Part of the reason for expansion is that each well runs dry after about two years. US shale isn't dead but it's crippled for life. The key source of funding for most E&Ps, the reserve-based lending facility, is all but extinct by the end of 2021. Without this source of cheap capital from the banks, energy producers will be forced to spend within cash flow.

The Earth will begin to heal from over a century of human-caused climate change. In the United States, the burning of fossil fuels, particularly for the power and transportation sectors, accounts for about three-quarters of carbon emissions. Without oil, cars may become a relic of the past. Streets may turn into public community centers and green spaces filled with pedestrians. Bike use might increase as more people ride to school or work. But oil is needed to manufacture bikes. And oil is needed to make machines to manufacture bikes. And so on for everything else in society. When oil runs out, cars might run on electricity, or even water. We might rely more heavily on public transportation, like trains and buses. Cities will look different, too. Without oil, cars may become a relic of the past. Again and again, only essential services of a city will be allowed to use oil. All machines driven by oil and gas will be no longer useable. Airports and shipyards all over the world will only be allowed to operate and manage under government controls. Electricity generation would lose perhaps its most flexible, reliable fuel, and coal, nuclear and wind would have to pick up the slack. But then again, oil is needed to make other types of energy systems. Until it does, cooking and heating will revert to primitive fuels like wood, causing fires, smog and lung disease in poor neighbourhoods. Today, most electricity systems still come from fossil fuels, and we are struggling to replace them for non-heat electricity loads. A fossil fuel-free world might not materialize in our lifetime. Still, plenty of people — and companies — will be reducing their carbon footprints, creating investment opportunities for themselves.

Knowing now what is going to be our future, and the future of the next generations, would humanity finally understand the urgent need of governing and managing Earth resources, and our needs for them? Our planet is populated with living beings consisting of millions of different lifeforms interacting with each other to survive, thus forming an intricate web of life in different ecosystems on the planet. The interaction and interdependence between lifeforms are the driving force that creates and maintains an ecological - environmental equilibrium that has sustained life on Earth for millions of years enabling it to evolve, flourish and diversify.  

For a century evolutionists have challenged creationists with a large amount of scientific experiments and theories. Was life on Earth created by God about ten thousand years ago as described in the Bible or was it a slow and natural evolution spreading over several billion years? Most scientists dont want a supernatural being to affect Nature and rather like a Darwinian evolution which provides a mechanism for the formation of life. Unfortunately, Darwinian evolution encounters significant problems in explaining many biochemical systems which cannot be built up by natural selection alone. There seems to be no direct mutations, no gradual routes to some very large biochemical systems. And those biochemical systems could not have been built by hazard and chance.  For a while the theory of Intelligent Design satisfied the creationists as it implied the inadequacy of the theory of Evolution in explaining the gradual steps of life to its complex making. The only logical explanation was to believe in the theory of Creation as presented by the Bible. The theory of Intelligent Design postulates that the ordering of separate components to achieve an identifiable function depends sharply on the components. The basis of life is the cell. The big molecules that do the work in the cell are proteins and nucleic acids. They are polymers. The building blocks of proteins are amino acids, and the building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides. For instance, the DNA is a nucleic acid made up of four different kinds of nucleotides: A, C, G, and T. Amino acids and nucleotides tend to associate together in almost an infinite variety of different molecules. The complexity of the problem faced by the Darwinian scheme of evolution is that evolution cannot explain the step-by-step pathways in a cell. Evolution could not have been happening by chance either. No one can explain the origin of the complex biochemical systems in a cell. There were no biochemists on Earth several billion years ago. No laboratories either! The origin of life appears to require an Intelligent Design to direct the complex biochemical processes. For instance today a biochemist can easily synthesize the components of nucleotides by first purifying and then allowing them to recombine through chemical reactions. Several billion years ago undirected chemical reactions most often produced useless products. The proponents of the theory of Intelligent Design concluded that it was becoming more obvious that the complex biochemical systems of life were not put together gradually but rather quickly. The designer knew what the complex biochemical systems would look like. The systems were designed by an intelligent agent. Life was purposely arranged. So it seems!  Only Global Community can provide a reasonable explanation about how life was formed everywhere in the Universe. 

It is commonly believed that a Soul comes into existence at the same time as the body and that, as the body grows older, the Soul may be defined as a person's strong, deeply felt thought, action, and emotion, which may or may not be of moral nature, and which may be concerned with language, social customs, religion, and music. But this is not my view. The laws of nature can organize matter to build complex biochemical systems that are at the origin of lifeforms such as a complex human being. The most relevant laws are: biological reproduction, natural selection and mutation. The evolutionary process has been activated from the beginning. And each particle of matter has a Guiding Soul. All biological structures can be explained in terms of those natural laws and the Guiding Souls. Souls exist in all spaces and are goal oriented. Observations of the Universe show the stars in our galaxy, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, super clusters of galaxies, and many other special objects. A theory of the observable Universe that has stood out over the past decades is the Big Bang theory. The conditions for the formation of Life on Earth appeared gradually over the past billion years. A Soul shows the way in whatever particule they exist in.A Soul has one very important goal, and it is to show the way toward the creation of Life in the Universe. Souls were guiding the expansion of the Universe and evolution of Life in small ways so as to make it possible for Life to evolve and be conscious of itself. All lifeforms , even plants, can be conscious. This goal is a global common to all Souls. Most Souls today are not as they were at the beginning of the Universe. Let us say that at the beginning of our observable Universe there was the Primeval Atom or Big Bang. Souls have merged and evolved ever since this beginning. Then the Primeval Atom  exploded and, space, time and matter were formed and the Universe evolved as we observe it today. This is especially true during the formation of stars. Stars are formed when a large cloud of dust particles collapse on itself by gravitational forces and other physical phenomena which may affect their characteristics. Then a star, and planets with their moons, if any, are formed. After being born a star system has a lifetime of its own. For instance, our Sun is believed to be about six billion years old, a young star really! Souls do their work at all times and everywhere over the entire Universe. Souls continue to do their work at all times during the formation of a new star system. It is very likely that there are billions of star systems with planets in our observable Universe. Souls would have guided matter to create such systems. The ultimate goal is the creation of Life on a planet and be conscious.

 We can communicate with our Soul just by listening to our own thoughts, our innerself. Our Soul talks to us all the time. We just need to pay attention and differentiate our everyday thoughts to those of our Soul. Souls dont make decisions for us but they always show us the way, and it is left to us to choose the way of the Soul or not. Where Souls live time does not exist. Time has no meaning for Souls. Past, present and future dont exist for Souls. What seems a billion years to us is only an instant, an event, a motion for a Soul. So time is truly a global common for the physical Universe, for all Life, as we do observe the passage of time, but is not a global common for Souls. Global commons amongst Souls are peace, truth, justice, doing good, social harmony, cooperation, love, absolute communications, and fluid motion. Although the same Soul would be within a life-form throughout its life-span, it is only a viewpoint, Life's viewpoint, the physical Universe's viewpoint. The overall picture, the Soul's viewpoint, is still a fluid type of motion and Souls move around as waves and the wind, swirls, interacting gusty winds, in and out of each other, constantly merging to achieve the ultimate goal of the Soul. 

From Life's viewpoint, the ultimate goal of a Soul is truly to create a symbiotical relationship between Life in all its forms. Souls exist in all particules and can have an effect on the physical Universe. That is why I referred to them as 'Guiding Souls'. Since time has no meaning to a Soul, the billions of years that it takes to create galaxies, planets, and ultimately Life, can always be achieved. Like an artist painting the Universe making sure that, at the end, Life is expressed on the canvas. Life is the ultimate goal to achieve. A Life-form with more physical senses has more ways to communicate with the Soul and thus with Soul of all Life. From Life's viewpoint, the ultimate goal of a Soul is truly to create a symbiotical relationship between Life in all its forms. The Soul of all Life or Soul of Humanity is a wonderful loving Being made up of the Souls of all Life forms on Earth and the Soul of Earth itself, and by extension the Soul of all Life is the Soul of all Life over the entire Universe.

This is what Souls do best, they unify to better serve Life. They merge together to better serve Life. Souls can evolve as well. They have formed a new Being, the Soul of all Life , also called the Soul of Humanity, to better serve Life. The Soul of Humanity is helping to bring about the event of Peace in the world. Knowing that Earth is a spiritual entity as well as a physical entity in space and time in the Universe we begin to have a better relationship with Earth and with all its living inhabitants. This way Earth management will become a spiritual and a natural process whereby each person is responsible and accountable for its management the best they can. Peace in the world and Earth management have for far too long been in the hands of and affected by government and business leaders, in the hands of a few people on the planet, as opposed to being in the hands of all of us working together to keep our planet healthy. We are the keepers of the Earth.  Now we all see the place the Earth has in the Universe , and that it also has a Soul. Earth has a Soul just like each and everyone of us. Obviously the Soul of the Earth is different than the Soul of a person, and the Soul of each person is different from that of another person. No two people are the same or have the same Souls. Souls have lived different experiences, have merged and evolved in different ways ever since the beginning of the Universe. Actually, the Universe has always existed and will always exist in some form or other. From our perspective, the Universe is infinite in space and time. The Big Bang expansion was just a 'blink' within an infinite Universe. Because of the danger of Life extinction on Earth, the Soul of Humanity will be helping us for some time. This makes a lot of sense! If you were a Soul would you prefer to serve Life in a dust particle found in the empty space between the oldest galaxies? But the next particle might be a million light years away. Pitch dark! You could not even see or sense the light of the nearest galaxy. You could not see anything because you would have to be in a lifeform or in a particle to do so.  Not a very good place to be conscious of Life. As a Soul you would still be with the other Souls but you would not taste Life in the physical Universe. Just a particle! Or would you prefer to be on Earth or on any other planet where there is Life, and where Life can be created. As a Soul you would probably prefer to serve Life within a human being or within some other advanced lifeform in the Universe. This would allow the lifeform to be conscious of Life. There is a lot to be conscious of in any lifeform on Earth. There is so much more to be conscious of in a human body. Can you believe that every lifeform has a Soul? Well, with some differences. There will be a time when enough people will be able to think together very strongly about Life, and then Guiding Souls will make it possible for us to acquire the knowledge and expertise to travel the distances of the Universe and propagate Life in all its forms. At the moment our civilizations are not ready for the exploration of the Universe. Too many conflicts and wars and not enough peace in the world. To acquire such knowledge would be more destructive than helpful for the propagation of Life. For now the Peoples of our world need to learn to live in symbiosis with one another. Their are many types of symbiotical relationships to choose from.

Guiding Souls guided the evolutionary process in small ways. Many groupings of Souls became more complex than others as they were much brighter beings than other groupings, but all serve Life in their own special way. One unique and most wonderful grouping was the grouping that made the Human Soul. The Human Souls have wonderful qualities. Through their Souls human beings became conscious of Life in many different ways. Religions of all kinds started to spread on Earth over the past thousands of years to pray together. Different groupings of Souls affected human beings in different ways and Peoples today have different religious beliefs.  Different religions have different ways to love, adore and pray. Heaven on Earth is different from Heaven as described in different religions. Earth management becomes a spiritual and a natural process. The Soul of Humanity is helping to bring about the event of Peace in the world. Knowing that Earth is a spiritual entity as well as a physical entity in space and time in the Universe we begin to have a better relationship with Earth and with all its living inhabitants. This way Earth management will become a spiritual and a natural process whereby each person is responsible and accountable for its management the best they can. Peace in the world and Earth management have for too long been in the hands of and affected by government and business leaders, in the hands of a few people on the planet, as opposed to being in the hands of all of us (over 7 billion people on Earth) working together to keep our planet healthy. We are the keepers of the Earth.

The Soul of Humanity will help us:

*     resolve problems, concerns and issues peacefully; *     reinstate the respect for Earth; *     work with humanity to keep Earth healthy, productive and hospitable for all people and living things; *     bring forth a sustainable global society embracing universal values related to global rights, economic and social justice; respect of nature, peace, responsibility to one another; *     protect the global Life -support systems and manage Earth; *  and   evolve spiritually to fulfill Life's Plan on Earth.

Life exists on millions of other planets in the Universe, and our species got to be who we are today through the evolutionary process just described. Other lifeforms in the Universe may have evolved to be at least as advanced as our species. Their Guiding Souls may even be more complicated than ours. They may have merged a trillion times more than our Souls. They may have evolved as well. We are all members of Global Community. We all have the duty to protect the rights and welfare of all species and all people. No humans have the right to encroach on the ecological space of other species and other people, or treat them with cruelty and violence. All Life species, humans and cultures, have intrinsic worth. They are subjects, not commodities, not objects of manipulation or ownership. No humans have the right to own other species, other people or the knowledge of other cultures through patents and other intellectual property rights. Defending biological and cultural diversity is a duty of all people. Diversity is an end in itself, a value, a source of richness both material and cultural. All members of Global Community including all humans have the right to food and water, to safe and clean habitat, to security of ecological space. These rights are natural rights, they are birthrights given by the fact of existence on Earth and are best protected through global community rights and global commons. They are not given by states or corporations, nor can they be extinguished by state or corporate action. No state or corporation has the right to erode or undermine these natural rights or enclose the commons that sustain all through privatisation or monopoly control. Life is what allows us all to be who we all are and to have symbiotical relationships between ourselves, and between ourselves and the Soul of Humanity.

Life often involves tensions between important values. This can mean difficult choices. However, we must find ways to harmonize diversity with unity, the exercise of freedom with the common good, short-term objectives with long-term goals. Every individual, family, organization, and community has a vital role to play. The arts, sciences, religions, educational institutions, media, businesses, nongovernmental organizations, and governments are all called to offer creative leadership. The partnership of government, civil society, and business is essential for an effective global governance based on global concepts such as the Scale of Global Rights. Let our time be a time remembered for the awakening of a new reverence for Life, the firm resolve to achieve sustainability, the quickening of the struggle for justice and peace, and the joyful celebration of Life. Let our expanding consciousness blend with that of the Soul of Humanity. Being unified under the Soul of Humanity dissolves all barriers and expand our global consciousness. We become more whole and complete within ourselves and as a group. Our common Spirit is able to resolve planetary problems in a coherent way. One common 'Global Vision'  allows us to see how all the parts of the whole relate to each other. We have the right relationship with one another, with all lifeforms and Earth itself, and with the Soul of Humanity. All religions around the world are asked to re-examine their scriptures, precepts, practices, ethical and moral values in light of ecological concerns. Global Community is facing a global existential crisis. It is very important that every person on Earth accept of being part of the process in protecting the global Life-support systems. The ecological crisis is as much about saving children as it is about saving other lifeforms on the planet. Our first objective will be to find statements from all religions that promote the respect, stewardship, protection, ethical and moral responsibility to Life and of the environment, the Earth global Life-support systems, and statements that promote a responsible Earth management.

The peoples of all Nations, in creating an ever closer Global Community among them, a Global Civilizational State, are resolved to share a peaceful future based on common values. Conscious of its spiritual and moral heritage, Global Community is founded on the indivisible, universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity; it is based on the principles of democracy and the rule of law. It places the individual at the heart of its activities, by establishing Global Community citizenship, and by creating an era of freedom, security, global justice and social harmony. 

Global Community disapproves of the limitless exploitation of the natural foundations of Life, the relentless destruction of the biosphere, and the militarization of the space within and above the Earth's atmosphere. The lives of all lifeforms and plants on our planet deserve protection, preservation, and care. Global citizens must live in harmony with Nature on and above the Earth's surface. We need ways of organizing ourselves to help us live in a world with less energy and to grow strong caring communities in which we get more of our human satisfaction from caring relationships and less from material goods. We need to reclaim the ideal of being a democratic middle-class people without extremes of wealth and poverty. We need to recover a deep sense of community that has disappeared from many of our lives. This means letting go a sense of ourselves as consumption machines.

Sciences and statistical data show clearly that we are at a crucial stage of a slow but accelerating critical global environmental crisis. To be effective and timely, sustainability policy should already be consistent with the real-world evidence. Failure to implement a global sustainability plan that addresses excess consumption and over-population while ensuring greater social equity may well be fatal to global civilization. Indeed, adherence to any variant of the growth-bound status quo promises a future of uncontrollable climate change, plummeting biodiversity, civil disorder, geopolitical turmoil and resource wars. Capitalism only survives by us buying more and more things so investors receive returns. The GDP must keep going up and up and up forever or the system collapses. But we all know this is not possible. We have extremely limited Earth resources, and for the GDP to keep rising, we need more and more people and Earth resources. We cannot continue to expand our population in perpetuity. The system was flawed at the outset, and its flaws have never been more apparent than now as we start to see our life systems unravel before our very eyes. In these circumstances, should not elected politicians everywhere have an obligation to explain how their policies reflect the fact of global overshoot? The phenomenon of climate change, in addition to fossil fuel based energy systems, have many other components to worry about as well. It is not just the transformation of energy scenario alone, which is required. We need an entirely different paradigm to the way we view Nature around us.

A global critical tipping point that is evident, obvious, clear, is the way society view Nature around us, a situation that is bad in two different ways. To maintain a general satisfaction within the capitalist system that is driven and motivated by competition, endless growth is needed, but in a finite system it must end when resources are exhausted. However, we also have a double crisis emanating from this view, pollution that impairs life and the carbon that is heating the biosphere and acidifying the oceans, all would end Life if the system is maintained to its exhaustion. Capitalism is the system that can only lead us to our annihilation, all Life extinction. Our options is limited because competition entices and pressures us to keep doing more of everything or suffer the consequences of losing the little power we still have. This very important tipping point has been the cause of global crises and is due to human activities, our ways of doing business and trade, and to our ways of consuming resources, and involved well known international organizations and nations such as:

*     G7 and G20 nations,
*     World Trade Organization (WTO),
*     Free Trade Agreement (FTA),
*     North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),
*     Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA),
*     World Bank,
*    Free trade between Canada and the EU,
*     International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the
*     Military and war industry.
Most of those organizations and nations do have ethics but they dont follow them. Business and trade do have ethics but they dont follow them either. The problem is the capitalist system they have created and the looming of globalization that followed. Today, it has become clear that this culture of waste, mismanagement and corruption cannot reform itself. Infinite growth is not possible.

The assumption of unchecked exponential growth makes no sense. Truly, our world is not governed by democratically elected governments. It is ruled by global financial institutions in the service of financial speculators who exchange trillions of dollars daily in search of instance unearned profits to increase the wealth, and the power, of the richest people on the planet. Consequently, capitalism is causing a situation in which the 1% of the global population accounts for 70% of all emissions, and if we take the top 5% we are talking about the top 90% of emissions. It is above all the carbon intensity of the lifestyle of the global elite that is taking us all to global warming and climate emergency. As we have seen repeatedly, policy is written by the polluters for the polluters and when the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme was set up, it was no exception. In the USA, the Trump administration replaced the Obama-era Clean Power Plan with the Affordable Clean Energy rule, which does not cap emissions. As of May 2020, the Trump administration has rolled back 64 environmental rules and regulations, and an additional 34 rollbacks in progress will significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade and lead to life extinction on Earth. Trying to make Trump and the Republican Party of the United States of America understand sciences and statistical data about the COVID-19 coronavirus that is killing Americans by the hundreds of thousands so far, but could reach over a half million dead Americans this winter, is beyond the bounds of possibility, hopeless, impracticable. The 1% controls the mass media for the sole reason of educating Americans within a paradigm of economic productivity and well-being, and of course they have defined "consuming goods and services" as meaning "well-being". Americans live in a cocoon of denial. They have been thought from childhood that they are isolated or protected from harsh, dangerous, or disturbing realities, so why should they be worried about Life extinction on our planet. Joe Biden won the election so why should Republicans deny the fact? To deny that fact is to take refuge in a cocoon, to hide from the truth and to live in an irrational Universe. Humanity’s rapidly growing consumption of materials, water, energy resources, fertile land is causing severe damage for all Life on Earth. The amount of natural resources extracted for the production of goods and services is steadily increasing.

Scientific research suggests that breeding grounds for rats, like mosquitoes are expanding significantly as a result of rising world temperatures. Facilitating the emergence and spread of deadly pathogens like the Ebola virus, SARS, and coronavirus. The global warming of the planet caused climate change and Artic ice to melt at rates unseen before. The Artic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the world. Iceberg and the Artic snow cover are melting much faster. The Artic Council suggests 20 percent of the uppermost layers of permafrost may melt by 2040. As the ice begins to thaw, each eroding layer will expose new layers, along with microbes that have been frozen away for thousands of years. That vast collection of bacteria, viruses and other pathogens may impact, or infect, our lives in ways that are hard to imagine. The tipping points of greatest concern to scientists have been the rapid melting of the Greenland and West Antartic ice sheets. Should they melt ever more quickly with all that water flowing into oceans, a sea level rise of 20 feet or more can be expected, inundating many of the world's most populous coastal cities and forcing billions of people to relocate. And of course the melting will most likely bring about diseases caused by viruses including rabies, herpes, Ebola and Coronavirus.

Many organisms change their nature with fluctuating climatic conditions, and become fatal and toxic with changing environments. In the Artic as melting permafrost steadily releases the hundreds of gigatons of methane, a greenhouse gas 80 times more potent than carbon dioxide, stored in soil, lakes and sediment in Canada and Siberia. Methane is also boiling up from underneath the Artic ocean. Melting permafrost could potentially yield viruses fromlong-extinct homonin species like Neanderthals and Denisovans, both of which settled in Siberia and were riddled with various viral diseases.

The thawing of permafrost either from global warming or industrial exploitation of circumpolar regions are affecting and threats to human health. Putting aside long-dormant new viruses, there is also the issue of "zombie diseases" that have been safely tucked away in the ice for tens of thousands of years. These can include infections that have wreaked havoc on human populations in previous eras, including smalpox, various flu varieties, bubonic plague, and other deadly illnesses long since forgotten. Possible causes for zombie behavior in a modern population can be attributed to viruses, bacteria or other phenomena that reduce the mental capacity of humans, causing them to behave in a very primitive and destructive fashion. President of the USA, President Donald Trump, may have been affected by a zombie disease because his leadership is truly primitive and destructive. He may have infected millions of Americans from the Republican Party because they all behave a similar primitive and destructive fashion that threatens Democracy and the rule of Justice and Law in America.

Other infections that did not kill previous generations, but which we have lost immunity protection for, could also emerge. A bacterium that have been encased in the Antartic glacier for million years can be revived. Carnobacterium pleistocenium shared the era with mastodons, woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats. Though the microbes have been immobilized in a chunk of ice for thousands of years, they can be revived as things warm up. Even within humans and other living creatures there exist micro-organisms whose nature we simply cannot ascertain. Science so far has been able to identify only one percent of bacteria and its nature living in human body, and 99% of other organisms living within us are still unknown.

Warmer temperatures and more moisture are conducive to the accelerated reproduction of mosquitoes, including those carrying malaria, the zika virus, and other highly infectious diseases. Such conditions were once largely confined to the tropics, but as a result of global warming, formely temperate areas are now experiencing more tropical conditions, resulting in the territorial expansion of mosquito breeding grounds. Accordingly, malaria and zika are on the rise in areas that never previously experienced such diseases. Similarly, dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease that infects millions of people every year, is spreading especially quickly due to rising world temperatures.

Global warming alone can kill us all. Petroleum is a fossil fuel derived from ancient fossilized organic materials. The organic material that is the source of most hydrocarbons has probably been derived from single-celled planktonic (free-floating) plants, such as diatoms and blue-green algae, and single-celled planktonic animals, such as foraminifera, which live in aquatic environments of marine, brackish, or fresh water. Heat and pressure are the two main forces that transform organic matter into fossil fuels. One must understand burning this vast store of carbon that Nature managed to accumulate in the ground has never happen before. Global warming will also release the greenhouse gases from the permafrost and methane hydrates thus producing colossal positive feedbacks. They are tipping points easily observable. Soon, to sustain Life in those extreme conditions would require more energy but there will be less to share, especially with more people. There’s no certainty of how much time we have to turn the world economy from an exploitative one, to one that functions within Nature, as a part of Nature before it becomes irretrievable.

For a long time, the major fossil fuel suppliers have resisted any restraint on emissions but it is the lifestyle of the elite that needs to be tackled. They bring down governments that displease them, and buy and sell the largest corporations like commodities. By design and law the defining priority and obligation of these governing institutions is to generate financial profits to make rich people richer, in short to increase inequality in a world in desperate need of greater equity. Labour rights are abused in efforts to earn more profits. This leads to abhorrent working conditions, job insecurity and low living standards, all global rights. Consumers in developed countries have been socialized to want more and more things to consume but have not been socialized to appreciate the impact of their consumption choices on the global rights of other people; that is, they are not being responsible for their decisions, and they have taken refuge in a cocoon of denial.

Sadly the 1% dominates and controls the information services, the mass media; it’s the only power that is able to disseminate the needed information to change our self-destructive way of life to an inclusive positive one. If we can show the 1% that they’re facing a dire situation in a overpopulate world that’s depleted of vital resources, in an unliveable hot and violent climate, then they might avoid continuing on that path. Wealth can’t have any value in an unendurable social chaotic violence, when the economy goes from sour to putrid and as well the 1% may be an early victim of vengefulness. We desperately need to show the 1% how closes they and we are in producing an unliveable world due to the outcome of a capitalist economy gone out of control. The 1% life is at stake like everyone, they must not only cooperate to live within Nature’s ability, but promote it on a world scale. They are the only ones with the power to do so, and it may be the only way to survive. All living things have to have a survival instinct to be alive; it will save us all if we use it. However, that instinct will only kick in when those multi billionaires realise that their life is at stake and they can only be saved if they do their best to save everyone. That would mean an unreserved sharing with all people and a qualified one with Nature, the sooner we can accomplish that, the easier and satisfying life will be, for the more cooperative our life is the more satisfying and secure it must be. In a cooperative based society there would be no advantage to be deceitful; people will then revert to honest relationships. That correlation in societies and also as a part of Nature infers that people would see exploiting Nature as destructive for us. The reason we are destroying our habitat thus ourselves is due to the competitiveness of the Western civilisation, the West, and its intensification under capitalism. Competition is capitalism lifeblood and now it’s our foe, the Life extinction crisis.

Is our system of governance a sustainable system? We need to recognize the failure of fundamental systems and to let go the notion that what there is to do is to recalibrate the institutions that structure our lives today. Somewhat like the US Congress is doing. Put money into the system and everything will be fine! We need to realize that the way we thought things would work out truly is gone. Capitalism is at the core of this unsustainable system. It gives rise to the high-energy/mass-consumption of privileged societies. We must setup measures to stop speculators benefiting from the misery of others, by punishing corrupt politicians. Ultimately, unless we begin to see the world as a whole, in which things are truly interconnected, our governments will continue their hostilities, oil prices will keep on rising, and when the time comes for us to complain, we will be faced with the guns of the police whom we have helped to create with the payment of our taxes.  

Our climate is changing; fresh water reserves, fish stocks and forests are shrinking; fertile land is being destroyed and species are becoming extinct. In order to continue to thrive on our planet, our lifestyles will need to become more sustainable, so that we are able to protect our natural resource base and the fragile eco-systems of the planet. There are other tipping points with potentially far-reaching consequences: the die-off of the Amazon rain forest and the melting of the Artic ice cap. Both are already under way, reducing the survival prospects of flora and fauna in their respective habitats. As these processes gain momentum, entire ecosystems are being obliterated and many species killed off, with drastic consequences for the humans who rely on them.

An organised global organization has been found with the political will and power to set an absolute ceiling on the amount of carbon based fuels allowed into the economy. Global Civilizational State found evidence that resolving all critical global issues is the essential prerequisite for the effectiveness and exercise of all rights recognized for human beings. We need to build global communities for all life on the planet. Global Civilizational State will apply the Scale of Global Rights to the most important global issues threatening humanity's survival worldwide.

From ancient time to this day, morality in society made its way into our ways of doing business. So the set of behaviors that constitute Global Civilizational State ethic for a business also evolved largely because they provided possible survival benefits to increase evolutionary success. Consequently, peoples evolved socially to express emotions, such as feelings of empathy or guilt, in response to these moral behaviors. Humans developed truly moral, altruistic instincts. When looking across cultures of geo-cultural areas and across millennia, certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures, the major ones include: 

wisdom, knowledge, courage, justice, love, truth, empathy, kindness, and social intelligence. 

These virtues were not always incorporated into the ways of doing business because the 1% super rich businesses became corrupted, greedy, no longer in line with humanity's survival on the planet. This was the time of human history when capitalism gradually formed. At this moment, the 1 % super rich people worldwide, who thrive within capitalism, must be overthrown. But today, Global Civilizational State incorporates these virtues and proper behaviors into corporate citizen global ethics. These moral virtues and intellectual development stages can catapult the whole planet forward into a future where war is no longer thinkable between nation-states, and a legitimate and beneficial Earth governance, Global Civilizational State, is able to cope with global problems. A more inclusive Global Civilizational State is emerging today, gradually, through the continuous exploration and expansion of evolutionary commonalities between Peoples in all civilizations. Global Civilizational State is actively organized and morally and intellectually powerful to halt all the belligerent nightmares planned and orchestrated by the capitalist war lords now governing the world. Making the needed change is never easy, and can challenge our ingenuity, and unfold the best in us to open the new vistas of human, intellectual and global opportunities. What can we do to avoid this global crisis, or at least to reduce its severity? We must urgently address the problems of global warming and climate change; and we must shift money from military expenditure to the support of birth control programs and agricultural research. We must also replace the institution of war by a system of effective global governance and enforcible international laws. Let us activate the Global Civilizational State leadership in dealing with global issues.

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