Earth Community Organization (ECO)
the Global Community
Professor Alexander Skalon
and Igor G. Ivanov
email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org
for Discussion Roundtables 1, 7, 9, 24, 26, 28, 36, 48, 51, and 53
Table of Contents|
To our mind nowadays the most important aspects of influence of market reform, occurring in Russia, on regional policy and nature management strategy are being discussed. On several problems characteristic for Southern Siberia and Altai Territory we are able to show that the idea of the market (private property on resources, freedom of trade and competition in conditions of limited resources and decreasing ecological quality of the environment) does not contradict the idea of effective and ecologically eligible development.
ECOLOGICAL QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT AND MARKET: SETTING THE TASK.
The Fundamental task of Russia is to increase the efficiency of use of material and power resources, to ensure economic growth. It can be achieved only in the conditions of market economy, when its major features such as the competition and the selection of the most effective ones operate.
Nowadays the task is a privatization of economic sphere and the transition to a privatization of natural resources. These basic shifts should be carried out simultaneously because the economic growth and the ability of the society to regulate the operation of Nature management subjects must be at the same level. The task is difficult from the political and legal point of view. There is not enough knowledge about what operations are adequate to a today situation, there is a serious opposition in the society and among decisions makers, it is necessary to take into account the experience and the errors of another countries.
The task is difficult from the scientific point of view too. Factually there is a unique, solved by nobody problem of giving the legal and economic status to a primary factor of a survival of sort Homo Sapiens on our planet: to environmental quality whose major criterion is a structural and biological variety of the biosphere.
The thing is that the responsibility for resource conditions should be assigned on persons who use them, and the state has the functions of monitoring (screening) environment and controlling nature management. The individual user should completely depend on own operations and completely be responsible for them from economic and legal points of view. But for this rights and responsibilities of the proprietor should be counterbalanced, clearly stipulated and rigidly protected. " A private property which can be confiscated according to any good objectives gives a few income " 1.
The problem cannot be solved " at once ": like any resource the ecological quality of the environment can be appreciated when its deficiency and necessity (usefulness) are realized and the price capable to compete with the prices of another resources ( usefulness) arises. We are sure that the price cannot be created artificially and cannot be included in the price of a made product according to someone`s will. It is necessary to change adequately social experience inherited by us and the motives which are followed by a manufacturer and customer in the whole society and for their initiation and maintenance changes in the educational system, structure and activity of higher education, new researches and advanced legal solutions are necessary. It is ideal, if these changes are not response to an already occuring catastrophe, when it is necessary to restore already destroyed, and anticipate worse.
Therefore, from our point of view, problems of supporting ecological science and law, propagating basic knowledge, higher and secondary education are playing the first fiddle among a state spectrum of the tasks.
In an economic science of the countries based on market economy, the problem of usefulness and the role of a competition and market with passing from a resource on a resource in process of their exhaustion, is far from being new, habitual and ascends to Adam Smith and John A. Hobson, Carl Menger and Friedrich von Wieser. Nowadays but already with reference to problems of life-support of mankind, this problem repeatedly was developed by such authorities as Vasily Leontjev and Jan Tinbergen, also it was discussed within the framework of the concept " of limits of growth " and now it is heavily being developed in frameworks " environmental economy " and synonymous to it directions.
In the USSR, with extreme limitation of access to the foreign literature on ideological reasons, were practically inaccessible operations the scientific researches by such scientists as having liberal sights (C. Menger, L. von Mieses, F. von Heiek, M. Friedman and their followers), and more moderate (among which I would select R. H. Day whose statements on adaptive economy2 have influenced me greatly). The isolation has created a very serious problem, considerably complicated by ideological interference.
So in Russia the eligibility of a richest Russian and world legal and economic scientific thought was sharply interrupted in the beginning of the century and down to the end of the eightieth years the problem about a market estimation of natural resources having especially non-productive usefulness was not discussed at all. The huge layer of social experience was deliberately deleted together with its carriers. Only in the first two years of soviet power about sixty thousand professors and instructors had gone abroad or were killed. If you take into consideration, that for his life the professor transfers his knowledge to approximately three thousand students, thirty post-graduate students and leaves about hundred researches, it is possible to figure to yourself the scales of losses suffered by Russia. All libraries and the archives were subjected to censorship and selectively deleted. The fate of loyal to authorities experts were different but courts and the mass executions of scientific intelligence proceeded down to the beginning of the fiftieths Three generations of the scientists have grown in a specific atmosphere of a falsehood and silence.
Besides based on collectivism, originally ideological, deeply hostile attitude of the prevailing part of authoritative scientists, especially old representatives of soviet economy to economy of individualism, freedom of trade, private property on ground and aspects of the economic theory connected to them has been a powerful retard of evolution of our economic science, has become a main reason of its backlog from events occurring in the country.
Such a backlog is fatally dangerous. Actually it makes us to repeat tragically errors of Dusty bowl and Amazon thoughtlessly and unwillingly because in Russia there is no public ecological realization that helped America to survive. The time period is too great and the period is between the comprehension of the catastrophic phenomenon of " crazy plougher " and the beginning of operations on his curbing and training.
SOME KEY TENDENCIES IN POST REFORMING RUSSIA.
The political and economic conversion experienced by Russia has influenced nature management. The tendencies observed by us are contradictory and various but can be distinguished as follows:
legal and economic independence of the managing subjects (nature management subjects) is growing and will grow and the degree of their responsibility for the operations will grow simultanuously;
the state role in regulation of economic processes " from general center " is being reduced and will be reduced; the budget expenditures of the federal center on these objectives will rather be reduced, expenditures of the subjects of Russian Federation will rather increase up to limits dictated with political and economic feasibility;
the role of regions (the subjects of Russian Federation) in management of Russian resources potential is growing and will grow henceforth. At a regional level the greatest part of Acts regulating the relations on Nature management (by analogy to the legislation of the federal countries - up to 9/10 of the whole volume) will be formed. Therefore, the quality of legislative operation and regional made decision is of the great importance ;
The role of federal center will be displaced in the side of creating, forming and maintaining basic limitations, common standards, criterions and requirements, reflecting the point of view of federal legislator and federal Government on the effective state strategy and state policy, expressed first of all in legal (normative) form (within the framework " environmental law ", under which we shall understand a collection of the legal acts ensuring strategic interests of the population in a support of the valuable and various life environment);
The regions will pay a main part of expenses on nature management regulation and the expenses connected to solving nature conservation problems. The federal center and financial institutions of the backup character of different patterns of ownership (for example, insurance companies and funds, development funds, trust mechanisms protecting the Natives and separate objects with the special mode of nature management, trust funds of different assignment) will undertake damping extreme situations in nature management (technogene ecological catastrophes, natural disasters) and, partially, financial support of the projects of strategic character including long-term (academic, fundamental) research and educational activity.
ECONOMIC GROWTH AGAINST ECOLOGICAL QUALITY?
Economic growth for Russia and its regions is a categorical imperative nowadays and on intermediate term (10-15 years) perspective. The economic growth is necessary on many widely known reasons and a most important is that the poor state destroys natural resources being available more and receives from resources exploration less than a rich state gets. But development ecologigation of Russia and, most of all, the decrease of an already being available load on natural systems are also categorical. Is it possible to find a constructive matter in the externally contradictory situation ?
Yes, it is possible. Economic growth is developed ecologically acceptable tools at first mainly and then extremely . The tendencies of the world economic process specify high efficiency of capital investments in ecological technologies; production of high-quality ecological engineering and technologies, ecologically pure production. This factor makes the "ecological" strategy of development more attractive and perspective sphere for capital investments. But it is necessary to take into consideration that the similar results are only observed in highly developed market systems, on the basis of the highest achievement of scientific and technical progress, in conditions of intensive competition and elimination of the manufacturers not adequate to conditions of the market.
Being accepted as a part of state (regional) strategy of development, as one of its major conditions, this task (and simultaneously - objective) will become a criterion for selection of programs and projects, tools and mechanisms of development. But it is clearly necessary to realize that being really put and equipped by tools of its fulfillment (appropriate legislation, specifications, power for inspecting bodies, adequate pressure on the businessmen), ecologigation will become a serious brake of development rates of the country, at least at the first stages of adaptation of the managing subjects to it. It is not only inevitable to pay significant expences on implementation of all installations: growth of current expenditures on activity of institutes of authority, expense for reorganization of production and purchasing new technologies, but also indirect expenditures expressed mainly in growth of transactions (this phenomenon is similar to driving the automobile with reduced transmission). All these matters will be included into the price of production and can make products noncompetitive in relation to production of the foreign manufacturers for a long time . Speaking differently, a customer will have to pay the expences and he will not make choice in favor of domestic production.
Hence it is clear that the attempt rigidly (as sometimes ecological extremists offer) to replace course of development is unreal and merely dangerous. Policy " of soft replacement " of ineffective managing subjects, out-of-date manufactures, dangerous technologies, incompetent chiefs is necessary.
And here Russia has a huge advantage given by History once: we basically know what and how it is necessary to do and beginning market development practically from a clean page we take into consideration the best samples "of the extended economic order" (Heiek, 1992) past through the crucible of ecological crisis and obtained immunity to its most dangerous manifestations.
Hopes of the supporters " of state charge " of economy can hardly be justified by the fact that the creation of the next structures (as usual "central", "uniform and strong") can solve this problem. It is impossible to solve the problems of saving natural environment, not having strong cradles of influence on economic and political behaviour of the subjects of law. The market economy and democratic organization of a society give us such cradles - it is necessary only to learn how to use them.
ARE THERE THE MECHANISMS OF LOCAL SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS?
The problems examined by us can be solved with presence of defined conditions only. They are:
- close link between the manufacturer and ground and other resources which he uses, i.e. with presence of the realized and responsible subject of property right on the object of nature management;
- mechanism of matching efficiency of operation of nature management subjects and recognition of free economic competition (market of labour, ground, goods, anti exclusive legislation and protection of property right) as a basis;
- the specially authorized by the state representatives and structures capable to estimate cumulative operation of nature management subjects on the biosphere (or on a concrete its site within the country, territory, region) using independent experts that possess the strategy of achievement of set by legislator objectives and legal mechanisms of effective nature management within this strategy.
We think that the program of regional nature management conversion is necessary. It should include three large blocks:
Creation (or, if this solution should be accepted at a higher hierarchical level - initiation) of necessary political and legal conditions for operation of independent, free and competent manufacturers, businessmen and experts. There is not only constitution of production conditions and exchange of made production but also a system of the wide notification, explanation and learning of the population to rules of new for them economic life3. Particularly, it will concern to nature management problems: all main rules regulating nature management and its limits should be repeatedly and widely explained and included in educational programs of schools and higher educational institutions;
Creation of floppy, fast adapted to changes in economic life mechanism of strategic management including operating in common channel specially authorized bodies, and also fiscal service, specialized private banks and etc., based on the thin game of "encouragement" and "punishment": taxes, loans and credits, incentive trust advantage and others that are rather effective within the stable economic process;
Development, acceptance and implementation of nature management strategy basing on the newest scientific representation about the forms, tools and methods of rational nature management in certain natural conditions. The representations about the objectives (ideals) which are necessary to achieve, periods and stages of solution of the main tasks, and also about main collections (sequences) of operations (programs) executable in system unity should become a key unit of the strategy
In the basis of strategy there are two most important programs:
- initiation, coordination and maintenance of the most optimal manufactures ecological for examined zone and, in balance to it there is a program of folding, replacement and elimination of manufactures and technologies ineffective from the ecological point of view;
- reconstructive program: the system of coordinated measures on step by step restoring violated natural systems and land fertility (phyto-, forest melioration, protection of natural systems from degradation, implantation of bioagriculture and ecological technologies, scientific and scientific practical researches etc.).
Advanced fundamental and applied (including cadastre) scientific researches, monitoring of natural environment and nature management control are necessary for a support of efficiency of development of such complex social, economic and natural object as a modern region (examined in administrative or in economic-geographical boundaries - it does not matter).
But voluntary limitations of ethical character accepted by the businessmen, financiers - holders of the free capitals and businessmen which capital consists of knowledge, labour and ground with placed on it and in it natural resources are necessary most of all. It is incredibly difficult achieve consensus in this sphere and to our mind its creation will last for many years.
ABOUT CRADLES AND MECHANISMS OF NATURE MANAGEMENT.
Now being in specific conditions of transition period and then in market economy, it is a mistake to depend on a main role of the federal centre in realization of the common and effective state strategy of nature management and moreover the signs of rough pressure from the side of lobbying groups of natural monopolies, large capital (so called "the noncompetitive capital" 5) and the highest echelons "nomenclature establishment" on federal legislator, Government, regional legislative assemblies and Administrations for the benefit of solutions restraining long-term interests of the Russian citizens become more distinct. We should take the lest considerations that in the future during the process of creating market mechanism there will be the return to not justified methods " of command economy ". It is possible to hope that Russia past through pitiable experience " of advanced socialism " has received an inoculation against the "leveling" myths for long years.
The realization of the state strategy in nature management, environment protection and, particularly, in solution of problems of saving biovariety can be occurred with legal and political tools under continuous pressure of a public and experts first of all.
But Russia needs key crandles of social and state regulation ensuring the mode of balance of forces in conditions "of the extended economic order" so that this mechanism effectively functions.
We list the most of them from our point of view:
Property on resources. The world experience allows to assert that the economic matter of influencing a proprietor fails to appear without a private property on ground, without the advanced market of ground, without the competitive environment selecting the most effective proprietor from many others according to many parameters (e.g. according to his environmental behaviour). While the ground is not perceived as the capital, the integral constituent of the price of which is ecological quality, appreciated by the market and expressed in the money form; while the proprietor of ground does not directly feel the influence of ecological quality of ground on the price of ground in the market, until we can not depend on rational economic behaviour of nature management subjects;
Advanced market and highly competitive environment. Unfortunately, too frequently it is possible to hear the thesis about necessity " to protect from plunder " natural resources of Russia by means of power operations (more often since Lenin time the favorite tool of communists has been the monopoly of the state on any natural resource; also the different tense tools are popular, they are "closing of boundaries", customs duties, licensing, prohibitions of export and the other forms of a total control. But only their reasonable maintenance, fair estimation and effective competition between the users will be the real care for country resources. The resource not having the price inside but having it outside of the country, cannot be saved by law enforcement. The whole nature management history in USSR full of miserable errors and losses convinces us. Not democrats "of the first appeal" are guilty of that Russia has become a raw appendage of growing western economy for a long time but the plunder of its resources - main economic policy of the country is the reason of it. This logic of development was imposed to the country in the first decrees of new authority in 1917-1918. The leader of October revolution L.D. Trotzky most precisely and completely formulated the strategy of raw expansion declared in a Siberian meeting in 1927. The strategy was exploration and export, export, export....
Nowadays there is the task of creating a new, balanced strategy of development, taking into account domestic and foreign experience. For it it is necessary to align the internal and world prices, first of all on oil, gas, coil, main sorts of raw material and in process of becoming economy on labour. High production expences, the errors in allocation, disproportion of structural character and the others inherited by domestic economy from "scheduled" period including low productivity and labour quality prevent from it. The number of firms of Altai Krai, especially large, developing and introducing the strategy of lowering costs, getting rid of unnecessary functions and divisions is small.
The market ratioes and the competition are a basis of new to us economic methods of influence on the manufacturer. The businessman breaking an environmental act or a sanitary norm defining quality of made by him production should be set in a unprofitable situation: he should be imposed stiff fines by the bodies of inspection or a customer through trial), he should incur losses, withdrawing production or covering damage and, at last, the businessman will receive bad advertising that certainly has an effect on production selling. For example, it has become usual that today an American or a West European customer voluntary refuses to purchase quite qualitative production which is known to be produced with ecological violations. Such mass boycott can be the most effective control over operations of nature users;
effective operation of all courts. There are many judges, lawyers, inspectors with very low "ecological" culture in our courts and the courts still remain a punishing body. While in a civilized society the court occupies a main place where disputants can objectively weigh the arguments on the basis of law and common sense, where the arguments of the qualified experts and scientists knowing specificity of local conditions, can be heard and applied in the legal process (for example, in the judicial process regional law protecting any species, communities or landscapes, nature monuments can be applied while it is difficult to initiate such law regional legislative assembly);
Persistently spent state policy of improvement of professional skill of decision-makers and also manufacturers, working in critically important fields and with super complex systems (for example, with large natural objects);
Effective tools of mass propagation and information of the population. It is possible to assume that the first of all such tools could become independent higher school newspapers and researches, issues of ecological unions and scientific societies, regional mass media, but it will be possible only owing to the support of federal legislature and individual investors, if certainly their contributions to the noncommercial projects will be released from the taxation. It is realized that this is a leading direction of the support of the state nature management strategy and nature protection, giving the public political tools of influence on authority elite;
Wide right and guaranteed by the state possibility of access of the citizens to the information having basic value for population health, its well-being and safety. It is possible to realize this right through mass media and, in some cases, through court (in cases about reimbursing damages, in disputable cases not soluble by tools of ecological expertise and etc.).
ECOLOGICAL QUALITY AND THE CONDITIONS OF ITS SAVING
Necessary conditions of occurrence of such factor as ecological quality, as the constituent of the ground price are the presence of the modern market, ground in an individual property and developed legislation providing, particularly, detailed (we shall remark - rather expensive!) land Cadastre.
Is it possible to consider to save a reserved nature intensifying production (without it economic growth is impossible), for example?
Certainly and for the benefit of this statement there are some reasons:
The Northern Asian foodstuff market is rather full, the world foodstuff prices is tending to low. Russia is appeared to be in the conditions of an sharp competition, compelling to great lowering of costs and rise of labour productivity of in agriculture;
labour productivity and the efficiency of land use in a Russian agriculture is much less than in another countries in similar agricultural climate zones and therefore there is a significant reserve of productivity growth, including released lands of poor quality or risky in ecological ratio;
fast (but, while there is no effective land market - ugly) agricultural reconstruction is happening. New production zones are formed, new technologies are mastered, new economic links are developed;
The agriculture "dumps(resets) excesses": many workers are freed (by an expert estimation if there is the ground reform, up to 90-95 % from nowadays occupied workers will set free) and unproductively cultivated land. The process goes in a direction of intensity growth of using the most qualitative and productive land, while earlier "according to the plan" mastered but rather less productive grounds are deserted;
deserted land places, frequently applied to the natural objects requiring for protection are formed.
All these factors, taken together, create interesting possibilities for reallocation of a load between regions of Russia and inside regions - between separate natural zones and places. With thoughtful, advanced approach we can sequentially put the recommendation made by V. V. Dokuchaev about a harmonic relation "a wood - a meadow - a plough" into practice, and on the one hand we can increase agricultural efficiency and on the other hand we can output losing fertility land and land having high biosphere and scientific value (for example, some saved feather grass steppes) from pressure. The creation of a reserved and protected lands fund can be turned out to be a variant of implementation of such approach and in this fund according to the solution of a legislator lands requiring protection and special nature usage mode can be transferred (including ransom from land owners). Some individuals can manage the Fund and in the supervising council there will be representatives of interested banks, authorized Krai and regional officials, authoritative scientists and experts. The similar land depot will have quite concrete economic value because it will be possible to rent or to sell the land (for example, declaring tenders on which there will be land with early set managing conditions) to managing subjects for the objectives not contradicting to their mode (recreation, hunting, scientific objectives, limited pasture, accessory usage such as medicine grass cultivation in approximate to natural conditions).
There will be some lands in the Fund:
Potentially mud-torrents(land sold for living construction at the market price),
Potentially industrial ones(after quality restoration or with occurrence of deficiency of productive lands acting in call), component of the main profitable article of the Fund, and
Reserved ones (lands not intended for sale and or any use, except scientific one).
Thus we offer the creation of a new to Russia institute reflecting a combination of state and private property on ground: state regulation of land movement and private(individual) initiative of a trusted manager. The incomes from Fund activity will be the constituent of expences of the regional budget on nature conservation and restoration measures, including protection of some landscapes, where climax communities or some separate protected spices have survived, under the aegis of the Fund.
DEVELOPMENT AND NATURE MANAGEMENT PROBLEMS.
So, everything above mentioned allows to assert that into the definition of "development" concept there must be the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the development as the process related with properties of the environment enclosing the object and future possible states of the developing object. It means that considering the development process as temporary extent, we should compare a direction and properties of development to both properties and directions of other enclosing it systems development and with properties and character of the object to avoid the occurrence of basic contradictions7, for example, between an ecological optimum for ๎rgans` component of the development object and the conditions as a result of unreasoned operations.
Hence it is necessary to consider two major characteristics of development having certainly, basic value: evolutional eligebility and ecological eligebility of selected (or researched, foreseen) development8.
The criterions of evolutional and ecologival eligebility should be applied to the tools of development which are social, economic, industrial by means of which it is planned to carry out public development (to effect on it in common sense to make teleological operation).
It is suggested that these characteristics be considered as principles and we shall name them further so.
These two principles are deeply interconnected and supplement each other, but differently oriented. If we try to look them, at any rate, like vectors, the one will be oriented in the future, designating a direction of development and dynamics of its characteristics within time, and the second is oriented in space, designating interaction of the developing object (distinctive marks of a selected type of development) with an environment, i. e. with the other objects, having the complex characteristics of development.
The first principle reflects consequent links during development and its causing factors, (eliminative, stimulating, neutral), the second one reflects links with environment systems from biothetic ones, being a basis and condition of human existence, to antropogeneous derivative - arthefactors, originating as a consequence of nature socialization and inexpedient conversion of natural substance (for example, environment pollution by substances, not existed in nature earlier).
Then, in the first occasion, the evolution eligebility principle can be defined as absence of basic, antagonistic inconsistencies between a researched type of development of the object (objectives, forms, tools and mechanisms of development of a region, or human society - ethnics, or defined type of production, branch, management pattern), on the one hand, and biological bases of human being evolution, as of sort, with the other hand.
First of all they are organism properties and human being demands during evolution. It is clear, that already not favorable to biological evolution of Homo Sapiens factors of civilization, as production and arrival of cancerogen, terrathogen, mutagen substances, radioactive longlife isotopes in an environment, barbarous methods of industrial management that eliminate the possibility of long term use of renewable resources or considerably complicating their use and etc. can be identified and discussed. Thus, this concept involves as common human, typical feature of biology, genetics and physiology of human being as specific genetic and physiological features of separate, especially isolated human populations.
Direct use of this concept (and criterion) during a nature management control, in production or planning of commercial activity will be rather inconvenient.
Therefore, the use of evolutionary eligebility principle should be done by universities and specialized institutes, private research corporations and experts first of all .
Evolution eligebility can be defined as absence of basic, antagonistic inconsistencies between society development and its natural environment - ecological systems and separate sorts of alive organisms.
It is more difficult to realize this principle than the first one because of human being biology is studied better, knowledge about his genetic mechanism and pathologies is accumulated much more than about our neighbors on the planet. Extreme acceptable norms of pollution and quantitative representations about responses and specific structure of alive substance influenced with polluters and most of all more exact and deep estimations of thin legitimacy of dynamics of natural systems (forming so-called "sustainability" "biovariety" and at least "quality" of natural systems) can be the criterions of ecological eligebility of a firm, technology, the branches or new substance, mechanism, engine.
These legitimacies (generalizing characteristics) come to light through monitoring and screening of natural systems and factors integrating complex natural processes, teleological researches within the framework of various scientific directions. Both tools of learning are rather labour-consuming, expensive, scientific and can be successfully applied in conditions of constant and generous state support only.
Consideration of the economic and social development characteristics as it is frequently done abroad and in Russia, attempt to present development as "growth" of a number of metrics which are considered to be main criterions of "the developed" from the economical and social points of view, are turned to be palliatives at the best only capable to remove solving the main nature management problem in the future.
PROGRESSING DESERTIFICATION - PROBLEM OF THE WHOLE SOUTHERN SIBERIA
Here we shall point out some most serious ecological economic or to say differently ecological geopolitical problems9 standing before us on a threshold of the third millennium.
Since the fiftieth years of our century the extensive area of the Aral -Kyzylkum -Karakum desert has been being formed owing to many factors. Besides the Aral and the attached to it territories the Kara-Bogas territory and bordering to it territories (more than 20 thousand kms sq.), and also Balkhash and Kazakh hills are being involved in the process of desertification. Huge summer intense heat from this area withers all bordering territories of Northern Asia and the territories being in a direction of prevailing winds especially Altai Krai, Novosibirsk and Omsk oblasts. The mechanism of this climatic machine requires detailed learning, but facts show that desertification is coming: the experts declare that there has been xerotifization of vegetation for more than 30 years, spreading of the steppe animals is happening, Southern Siberia woods are receding to the North.
The matter of determining some factors, for example, global climatic transgressions and researching the specific influence of the Aral-Kyzylkum-Karakum area is more scientific than practical and it is impossible to wait while the problem of desertification will be solved. All the happening dictates to take urgent measures on protection of agricultural areas, the remains of the mountain taiga and woods of the Southern Siberia flat part.
This process combined with the known tendencies in the development of Southern Siberian is especially dangerous.
The idea of solving desertification problem by means of melioration dominates in the minds of the scientists, experts, officials. It is considered to be the simplest and fastest thing notwithstanding a great number of failures and miscalculations, such as the Karakum channel and the irrigation strategy of developing the valleys of the Central Asian rivers, the Kulunda channel in Altai Krai and etc.
Now we notice a dangerous development of events in Altai Krai where in the conditions of increasing desertification land "privatization" (allotment of peasants by ground without the right of its sale and mortgaging, this privatization can be called a relative one) without forest restoration is occurring. Nowadays shelter belts are about 1,6 % of ploughed fields only, and in the majority of farms there are no shelter belts at all. More than 4,7 million hectares are subject to water and wind erosion, the part of the best chernozems is lost completely, in 16 Altai regions suffered from erosion there is about 30 % of humus and its losses is going on 10. Such situation looks like a catastrophe for semiarid zone where the Dokuchaev specification is about 20-25 % of forest square in relation to ploughed square. The danger of repeating dusty storms of the beginning of the sixtieth years increases, it can result in a national catastrophe comparable with the American tragedy of "Dusty Bowl".
Decision-makers do not pay attention to soil salinization, fertility loss, ineffective water losses being the consequences of gross errors in planning, construction and maintenance of irrigation systems. Besides under the pressure of an agrarian and water management lobby a special act eliminating payment for irrigation water use and other anti market Acts were put in the force in the Water Code of Russian Federation. A vicious circle is legislatively fixed, when the economic inefficiency is an occasion for financial supports and privileges, fixing and erecting irresponsibility and carelessness, being the basic things of an inefficiency in the principle. It is not the first and not the last vicious circle originated from putting socialist ideas taken from the Communist manifest into life.
We shall mark that it is an interesting thing to investigate realized in the USSR chimerical constructions shown by L. von Mieses and F. von Heiek as logically discrepant in their concrete embodiments. We think that the similar research could be interesting for the today's supporters of socialist ideas, being prosperous on the rich field of market economy, the research for them is the most sequential in the human history incarnation of their dreams and plans in life.
Free water prices, administrative and criminal prosecution of malicious water thieves and land destroyer as a part of the land reform will be medicines for the decease. Significant efforts of regional legislators and Administrations are necessary to create legal base taking Southern Siberia specificity into account. Phyto melioration complexity, forest restoration and land forest protection frighten off the chiefs of large firms and excessive to the majority of the farmers. There are no necessary means on long-term programs of creating plantations of landing materials, grass and long-term bushes, berry cultures seeds funds, the collection of which would allow to create complex forest shelter bars having concrete economic usefulness besides land protective one, for example, medicinal grasses, berries, forages for animals. A forest shelter bar should be completely profitable to the farmer, but actually the situation is different. Today the creation of reserves protecting feather grass steppes and other original Altai landscapes is extremely complicated and ineffective owing to the money shortage on their maintenance and also the hostile attitude of the local inhabitants.
Proceeding attempts of linear, frontal solution of pollution problems by the methods of diluting sewage and exhaust, it happened with the Krapivinsky hydronode on the Tom river11 are not less dangerous. The idea of a huge water closet with the bowl by the size of 11 cubic water kilometers according to the project can be good from the technical point of view, aesthetically attractive by the radical simplicity and plain dealing, but its use is inexcusable, if the fecal sewage pipe comes to an end in our own apartment... Is it possible differently to perceive the idea of such pressure on the Ob river and the Arctic Ocean?
It is clear that the alternative hydronode construction (the system of dammed up mountain rivers of the Tom right side, it looked like beavers` dams and the program of mass forest restoration on the spoiled by mountain developments in the Upper Tom lands, preventing erosion and slowing down a drain) offered by us in 1977 was met hostilely and is not implemented at all. Today The Tom river would be protected with the twenty years' woods from spring flood but we continue arguing about the necessity of the hydronode.
ABOUT POSSIBLE MODELS OF RATIONAL NATURE MANAGEMENT
There is the idea of self-development, self-organizing and self-controllability of systems, basing on productive forces and the functional features of natural systems during their use in the basis of a rational nature management model, the goal function of the nature management system is regional sustainable development, conservation of biosphere potential and environment quality.
A most important postulates of rational nature management, directly following from the idea of equality (the Robespiere principle: "one`s freedom comes to an end where another`s freedom begins") can be formulated so: each human community has the right on defined life quality on a territory and placed on it resources, including the grounds, resources and the conditions being in a private property.
Hence, the subjects of nature management must operate in the interests of the whole community which they belong to. Nevertheless, being apparently simple and clear the principle is a stumbling-block for legal systems regulating nature management and from our point of view it does not matter in what type economy the regulation is carried out .
The American law demonstrates the highest complexity of problems of the coordination of interests of the separate nature management subjects with fixed norms of law in the whole (ecological criminality), and with the interests of another nature management subjects. For example, the coordination of the subject interests wishing to change conditions (to use resources potential, to build a hydraulic engineering and etc.) on its land that can result in direct or indirect damage to neighbors` lands or the whole community is typical. The damage can be measured by costs growth, the falling of the land price, its aesthetic and economic attractiveness12. The reverse situations are possible, when the price of adjacent lands increases according to the operations of the separate nature management subject.
First of all entering in the market system we should expect a role of this principle in creation of the legal device, all legal tools ensuring implementation of the regional nature management strategy. This principle is important for realization of fiscal policy (tax estimations are based on land and other real estate "true market cost" definition and can make a serious problem with definition of indirect influences on the land price).
All, or almost all, the considered above aspects of conversion of the usual nature management mechanism are the constituents of the branch development strategy. So-called taiga nature management is of exclusive interest from this point of view. Because such properties of the managing subject as independence and complete support on its own forces, resoluteness and enterprise, commercial initiative were saved in this sort of human activity.
But especially it is interesting that taiga nature management researched by Skalon V.N for the first time (publication 1928-1968 years) is an unique sort of complex usage of natural resources when a nature management subject directly and rigidly is interested in saving high natural quality of forests and taiga resource potential.
ECOLOGICALLY PURE PRODUCTION AND TAIGA NATURE MANAGEMENT
Implementation of the regional strategy of use of a vegetative potential or animal origin production will be useful because of an exit on the world market with nature management production is far from being so easy as it is sometimes represented. It is enough to make a mistake once, for example to overlook residual amounties of radionucledes, pesticides, bio-stimulants or antibiotics in declared "ecologically pure" as we shall lose a position in the market and trade mark authority also.
The tightened competition typical of the sated West markets requires the following things of the manufacturer:
Express train - analysis of export production and also all its components before their inclusion in a producing cycle (milk with production of cheese, meat with production of sausages, antlers and other products of antlers` deer farming with production of biopreparations and etc.). Moreover, it is necessary to check forage for animals, ground and water on pastures, condition of production storage and transportation regularly as it is done abroad;
Representation of the quality certificate on delivered production including all biochemical parameters and guaranteeing its ecological pureness;
Appropriate registration and culture of deliveries taking into account first of all customers interests instead of exclusive will of a producing department.
All these and many other problems lay in the field of ecological quality production control and, speaking wider, in the field of marketing. So, for example to make cheese which will sustain a competition with an origin Swiss one, Russian farmers should receive ecologically pure grass and hay for cows and observe a rule - animals should not receive the fodder additives capable to influence on thin milk chemism and the process of cheese fermentation
The significant part of nature management production requires operating and careful transportation (for example, ecologically pure greens, vegetables, fruits, fresh berries; milk products; fresh-killed meat and poultry; alive cattle and poultry) and the management of production of such products is possible with a support on the advanced transport network, with the tolerant price of transportation and the minimum of reloading.
The capital investments in production development of taiga nature management and ecologically pure agricultural products are certainly perspective but depend on investments in supplying production (production of services and tools of production). Nevertheless, it is important that the demand on ecologically pure (and unique!) production and services grows and will grow in a remote perspective, the following things promote the growth:
- Rarity of products. In process of cutting sources of taiga products, growing press of agricultural pollution the monopoly price of products with unique properties increases. This growth does not practically depend on measures undertaken by the world food manufacturers on lowering pollution of products;
- Ecologically pure products permanently exceed standard ones in the price that makes them a favorable object for investments and they have a large export potential (but require professional and expensive advertising) ;
- The ecological pureness and high biochemical products value made in natural conditions, favorably distinguish them from the products of intensive West farms using significant amounties of fertilizers, pesticides and bio-stimulants and recently and generically modified products;
- Temporary advantage is a low price of hand labour (about $150 -200 in month with collection of fern or mushrooms, the data of 1998) used with production of taiga nature management products (hunting, collection of wild fruits and berries, the medicinal grass require large sizes of alive labour that costs much in the western labour market and makes this production very expensive). Russia could use these scissors for obtaining temporary advantages in the market of unique taiga nature management products;
- Growing understanding of exclusive value of production with high consumer qualities by customers (cleanness, full value, dietary properties, medicinal possibilities, the uniqueness) and clever and thin advertising should promote it ;
- A new direction of use of taiga products and other natural systems is selection, clearing and adaptation of the separate operating beginnings used in medicine, dietology, biotechnology. It can be phytoncides, the medicinal substances, vegetative and animals poisons, another natural things and their complexes, medicinal improving teas, herbal potions and balms, drinks and etc., about 200 names already included in official pharmacopoeia are known. Highly pure matters and fractions can cost three times more than initial raw material for their production.
UNIVERSITY AND NATURE: THE OWNER AND THE TRUSTEE
At the end of the article we consider a model from integral point of view and to our mind the model combines a conclusive potential of a domestic science and University education with the problems considered by us.
It is offered to combine the known from the T. Jefferson`s times mechanism of maintenance of university and its infrastructure ensuring the educational process, with responsible charge of the qualified university experts about the territories and areas (for example, microreserves, nature preservations, history and architecture monuments), requiring the nature management special mode.
The sense of the model consists of that the society, on behalf of its elective representatives deeply understanding the special role of University education in society life, having some authority, will give an university land property sufficient for a covering of main its needs, in addition to the real estate capital belonging to it. A part of this property should make lands, as it is offered above, being in charge of the Fund of the reserved and protected lands. State specially authorized bodies conduct nature management control (in correspondence to the law and conditions of usage, stipulated in the donative act).
The economic value of this operation is clear: according to this act the society recognizes a role of an University in the history and in the future the society trusts it and cares about it properly, transferring a most valuable thing-land to it. The land price grows always because of economic and demographic reasons and hence land property - university capital will also grow in the price. Such a gift should be given in eternal usage and should not be taxed at any way. Naturally it is necessary to have the rights of managing real estate -so universities should possess appropriate powers, and trustee bodies consisting of city well respected people and real estate experts if an University has the right to trust possessed to it lands in temporary usage of another persons should inspect University activity. Land for an university should be allocated in urban and village area (for example, for part-time farms, sports camps and etc.), but in considerably large amounties than it is necessary for covering today's necessities. Hence this surplus will become a direct source of incomes ensuring intensive development of an university.
Thus an University becomes an original landlord and receives land rent instead of the state. Another income source is tax release, which should be achieved at federal and regional levels, which will make an university extremely favorable sphere of capital investments. Certainly, possession and land management imposes duties that are far from scientific ones on administration and forces it to organize its own economic services, or that it is more reasonable, to charge this matter a trust company that will manage the real estate for a modest interest.
Certainly, as it should be, the Legislator stipulates the possible forms of managing the real estate. It prohibits or permits to rent some land parts, imposes limitations on the usage of the property (for example, it can prohibit pent houses, gambling and beer pubs on the university lands), makes limits and services (for example, the right of passing university lands by the local inhabitants, cattle pasture, collection of mushrooms and berries by the inhabitants of a nearby settlement and etc.). An university also cares about development and maintenance of nature management modes on the lands used in educational, scientific and objectives.
We think that it is inevitable the association of universities and research institutes in the highly connected "research-education-practice" system (not only developing today technological centers, but also the system of closely connected to a higher school private educational, consulting and experimental firms), it automatically results in the idea of step-by-step transformating universities in regional " factories of thought " and the logic of occurring events prompts these centers will be responsible for an intellectual direction of work on saving of ecological environment quality.
The synthesis of efforts of the state and universities in solution of the sharpest problems of reserves, preservations, microreserves and nature monuments are already in a general way today. It is visible on an example of two universities well known to the authors - Altai and Kemerovo State Universities, in the orbit of whiches all without exceptions territories with the special nature management mode are involved. It would be fair, if the universities, already fulfilling a major role in maintenance of quality of the natural environment, received the right to get the equivalent incomes from the activity .
February 1998 - May 2000, Barnaul, Altai Krai, Russia
Alexander Vasiljevich Skalon, full member of Russian geographical society from 1971, Doctor of Geography; sphere of interests - theory and problems of modern Nature Usage, regional development and Nature Management .
1) F.L. Smith. Market ecology: use of a private property for protection of an environment // Economy and mathematical methods.- 1992. า. 28, issue 1.-pp. 29-39.
2) R.H.Day. Adaptive economics and natural resources policy. // Material and Society. Pergamon Press Ltd, 1978. Vol.2, pp. 189-195
3) This circumstance is extremely important because it is impossible to overcome ideological heritage of socialist and communist propagation, falsehood and silence basing on own experience of the population. Owing to pressure of well thought over " the brains washing machine" and mass reprisals from a community the carriers of necessary social experience were withdrawn and some generations of Russians are completely deprived of knowledge and skills elementary for the population of the developed countries. Developed "abolishing illiteracy" is needed, aimed on returning values of the free world for a society, overcoming becoming typical, especially for high generation, xenophobia, fear of novelty and fructration.
4) More detailed we consider a problem of regional nature management strategy creation and its units in the research: Skalon A.V. Problems of development and rational economic behaviour. // Modern problems of geography and nature management. Vol.. น 1. Barnaul: Publ. by Altai Univercity, 1999, with. 19-50
5) Ulyukayev A. Russia on path of reforms. - ฬ.: Eurasia. 1996. ั. 160. See with. 76 and further.
6) L.D. Trotzky. About Siberia // Northern Asia, 1927. - N3.
7) Skalon ภ.V. Three types of development, three strategies. // In Socio economic aspects of the concept of sustainable development. Novosibirsk, 1994, pp 62-69; and also Skalon A. Key conceptual principles of sustainable development. // "Asian Ecosystems and their Protection". Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 1995.
8) Skalon ภ.V. Principle bases of idea of sustainable development. //Mountains and Human Being: in searches of paths of sustainable development, Barnaul, 1996, pp 50-53
9) Skalon ภ. V. Progressing desertification is a problem of the whole Southern Siberia.: Problems of sustainable development of society and evolution of vital forces of the population of Siberia on a boundary of the 20-21 centuries, Barnaul, 1998, pp 78-82
10) State of the natural environment of Altai Krai. Barnaul, 1997. 108 p, page 32-33
11) Skalon ภ.V. The largest in the world...// The Land of Kuznetsk. 1989 Kemerovo, 1989, pp. 72-77
12) R. Coase. Corporation, market and law. ฬ.: Matter ltd, with involvement of the "Catalaxy", 1993. pp.192. Page 2 and further.
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