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Dr. Mikhail Krasnyanski
Ukraine (Yupanka)

for Discussion Roundtables 4, 1, 7, 22, 24, 25, 26, 28, and 35

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International Centre of Practical Ecology and Industrial Safety for Countries with "Transitional" Economics

The problem of ecology and technological safety become more and more important for the mankind. But the majority of countries of East Europe, South America, Asia and Africa have not enough finances either for environment protection (keeping air and water clean) or for utilization of the accumulated industrial and domestic wastes, or for preventing fires and explosions in industry, woods, etc.

The International Center of Practical Ecology and Technological Safety was established to bring solutions to the problems.

International Centre of Practical Ecology And Industrial Safety For Countries with "Transitional" Economics

Dr. Mikhail Krasnyansky
E-mail: public@library.donetsk.ua

The problems of ecology and technological safety become more and more important for mankind. But the majority of countries of East Europe, South America, Asia and Africa have not enough finances either for environment protection (keeping air and water clean) or for utilization of the accumulated industrial and domestic wastes, or for preventing fires and explosions in industry, woods, etc.

The industrial wastes in these countries (stored in dumps and settling tanks)can be of interest. In the Ukraine there had been accumulated not less than 25 billion tons of such wastes, and the estimates are that they are 2 - 3 trillion tons in the whole world. On the one side such wastes are the source of ecological disaster and on the other side they contain billions of tons of ready residual raw materials: coal, oil products, wood, iron, non-ferrous metals, rare metals, etc. (If, for example, you buy all these dumps in all the above countries 0- and often they are given practically without money - you will become the owners of huge amounts of extremely cheap natural resources that could be compared with the deposits of a big country).

In Ukraine (and Russia) there is a number of rather cheap technologies of utilization of industrial wastes (some of them had been developed by us), the use of which permits to extract raw materials the cost wich is 2 - 5 times less than usual. We have also developed some cheap technologies for extinguishing fires and explosions; small furnaces for burning domestic wastes at a site (without transporting it to other locations); installations for liquidation of local poisonous and radio active impurities, etc.

These technologies are designed for non-wealthy countries that have big ecological problems (I have been to Vietnam and understood there that the country needs cheap technologies of wastes' utilization as badly as Ukraine). Perhaps, these technologies are not so perfect or well computerised as American or West European but they are 5 - 10 times as cheap!

It is necessary to stress that the market of industrial and domestic wastes utilization and is huge (it excludes Europe, North America and Japan): the demand for cheap technologies here is just in the beginning stage and it will greatly increase in the 21st centure. On the basis of the above said I suggest you to establish the International Center of Practical Ecology and Technological Safety. The aims and tasks of this Center are as follows:

1) In this Center all cheap and efficient technologies will be concentrated for: industrial, domestic, poisonous and radio active wastes utilization, technologies of physico-chemical and microbiological purification of ground and water to remove chemical, oil and other impurities; technologies of fighting fires and explosions and other catastrophies: other "ecological" technologies.

2) The Center will either sell its technologies and equipment to the above countries or it will install equipment for the wastes" utlization and then it will dismantle the equipment and take to the other site. The raw materials, or thermal (electrical) power obtained from the wastes, or cleaned ground can be the payment for the above work.

3) The center intensively works at:

- expansion of the efficiency of the technologies and decrease of their cost;
- increase of the number of countries that want to imrpvoe their environment;
- training the students;
- advertising ecologically clean environment;

The Center carries out the following problems:

1) Processing of waste, comprising residual raw Materials to be processed:

a) processing of metallurgical production waste (slurries of gas cleaners, blast furnace and other dust from filters, scale, lime dust, coke breeze, Mn-ore fines) into compositional (burden) briquettes

b) process of coal production waste
- extraction and dressing of slurries from storages;
- briquetting of coal dust and coal slack;
- removal and grading of refuse dumps (up to 15% of coal: 30 - 40 % of crushed stone, the rest is clay);
- pumping out methane from oal seams and burning it in the boilers;
- extraction of nickel from used alkaline cells;

c) processing of coal carbonization and gas and oil chemistry waste

- production of motor and boiler fuels (petrol, diesel fuel, fuel oil from gas condensates, pyrolysis pitches, used absorption oils and others);
- production of liquid emulsion fuels from tars, bitumens and other hard waste;
- production or reagent for flotation for concentrating mills (instead of kerosine) from vat residues of fractional distillation;
- production of interior corrosion inhibitors of gas and oil pipelines from piridins;
- production of plasticizers from vat residues;
- extraction of germanium from tar water and fewage

d) processing of steam electrical station waste;

- production of powders resitant to acids and plates from ash and slags;
- separation and drying of microspheres;
- extraction of rare metals (vanadium and others) from ash;
- production of low-grade building materials;

e) extraction of rare and precious metals from industrial flows and from ash of steam electric sytations and the help of new superpower sorbents and also from electronic scrap with the help of modern electrochemical technologies.

f) Complex utilization of wood working wastes.

2. Manufacture of constructional and finishing materials from the wastes of stone crushing, metallurgic and wood working production (brick, slap brick, pedestrian way plate, foam concrete, wood particle board, parquet).

3. Utilization, landfill and incineration of domestic, toxic and radioactive wastes:

a) small incinerators for domestic wastes on the sport (without withdrawal);
b) small high temperature incinerators for infectious hospital garbage;
c) liquidation of liquid petroleum products and other toxic liquids spilled on water or soil with special adsorbents;
d) landfill of hard toxic and radioactive wastes under special "coat" made of quick-setting foam polymer solution (with a help of foam generator).
e) Alternation of stand-idling coke and cement furnaces for burning of domestic wastes:

4. Cleaning of industrial sewages, drinkable water, air and soil:

a) compact installation for cleaning of domestic sewages for small settlements;
b) compact installation for cleaning and disinfection of drinkable water for small settlements;
c) microbiological recovery of soil and water surface, contaminated with petroleum products;
d) industrial effluents cleaning;
e) devices for on-line control of air, water and soil contamination level;

5. Fire and explosion protection of industrial installations and means of large fire fighting.


1) Manufacture of coal (anthracite) bricks
Use: ovens and furnaces
Size and weight: 65 x 55 x 35 mm, weight 85g or 48 x 46 x 25 mm, weight 40g
Dumpring strength: not less than 95%
Top Calorific power: 7900 - 7950 kca/kg
Ash: 15 - 16%; sulphur: 0,7-0,8%; volatile substances; 2,5%
Price (without VAT): 80 - 90 USD per 1 tonne (EXW)
World prices: 120 - 150 USD
Manufacturing cost (without VAT): 60 - 70 USD/tonne
Profit: 20 USD/tonne
Output: up to 600 000 tonne/year (50000 tonne/month)

2) Manufacture of coke bricks Use: Blast furnaces and foundry shops (10 - 15% of the purchased coke have to be replaced)
Size and weight: 65 x 55 x 35mm, weight 85kg. Or 48 x 46 x 25mm, weight 40g
Dumping strength: not less than 95%
Top Calorific power: 7400 kcal/kg
Ash: 17%; sulphur: 1, 4%; volatile substances: 3, 5%
Price (without VAT) - 75 USD/tonne
World prices: 95 USD/tonne
Profit: 10 USD/tonne

3) Manufacture of composite (blend/burden) bricks
Use: blast furnaces ( 10-20@ of the purchased burden have to be replaced) and foundry shops
Size 65x55x35 mm, weight approx. 150g
Price (without VAT): 55 USD/tonne
Manufacturing cost: 50 USD/tonne
Profit: 5 USD/tonne
Output: up to 500 000 tonnes/year

For the manufacture of three types of bricks (coal, coke and blend) with the total output up to 1 million tonnes/year it is necessary to have:
- working capital (credit) - 600 000 USD
- capital for the modernization of equipment (credit) - 300 000 USD
Total amount of credit - 900 000 USD
Average profit per 1 tonne of products - 10 USD/tonne
Average annual profit - 10 000 000 USD
Time of credit repayment/reimbursement - 12 months

4)Take-down and utilization main rock pail (anthracite coals)
Average mass of a waste heap - 2 000 000 tonne
Average area of a base - 50 hectares
Composition: coal, crushed stone, clay
Total ash contents - 85%
Average anthracite contents - 15% (300 000 tonnes)
Average contents of crushed stone - 35% (700 000 tonnes)
The rest - clay (1 000 000 tonnes)
Expenditures for the take-down (credit):
-equipment - 1 250 000 USD
-working capital - 250 000 USD
-operation expenditures - 800 000 USD
-transportation of 1 mln tonnes clay to a ravine (20 km) - 650 000 USD
-restoration of fertile layer (50 hectares) - 50 000 USD
Total amount - 3 000 000 USD

Income from selling:
- anthracite - 20$ x 300 000 = 6 000 000 USD
- crushed stone $3 x 700 000 = 2 100 000 USD
Total income - 8 100 000 USD
Profit - 5000 000 USD

Time of credit repayment (i.e. time of a waste heap take-down - 18 months (3 months - preparation, 1 year - take-down and transportation, 3 months - recultivation).

5) Processing of coal dressing slimes by mobile dressing complexes:
Average mass of slimes in a collector - 2 500 000 tonnes
Average total ash contents - 60%
Average output of "grain" fractions 0, 1 - 3 mm (with ash contents 40%) - 22%
Productivity "at the inlet" - 60 tonnes/hour (1000 tonnes/24 hours)
Productivity "at the outlet"
For power-generating coals - 350 tonnes/24 hours (ash contents 18%)
For coking coals - 200 tonnes/24 hours (ash contents 10%)
Cost of equipment - 900 000 USD
Total amount of a credit - 1 200 000 USD

Cost of technological equipment with
The output 200 tonnes/24 hours (credit) : 1 000 000 USD
Time/period of the credit reimbursement 3. 5 years

7) Extraction of microsphere from ash of Thermal Power Stations:
Use: space apparatuses, submarines, sea platforms for oil extraction, oil-carrying tankers, etc.
Price: 800 USD/tonne
World prices - 1000 USD/tonne
Manufacturing cost - 100 USD/USD
Output - 1000 tonne/year (o,1% from TPS ash)
Profit - 700 USD/tonne or 700 000 USD/tonne
Required capital for organizing the production process (credit) - 100 000 USD
Time of credit reimbursement - 10 months

8) Extraction of nickel and cadmium from the used alkaline storage cells of coal mines
One alkaline storage cell contains: Ni-1,7 kg (extraction - 80%); Cd - 0, 6 kg (exgraction - 95%)
Nickel to be extracted in the form of nickel hydroxide (60% Ni)
Annual output - 100 tonnes
Price - 10 000 USD/tonne
Prices in CIS - 12 500 USD (EXW)
Manufacturing cost - 8000 USD / tonne
Profit - 2 000 USD/tonne or 200 000 USD/YEAR

Cadmium to be extracted in the form of cadmium stearate
Annual output - 25 tonnes
Price - 15 000 USD/tonne
Prices - CIS - 18 000 USD/tonne (EXW)
Manufacturing cost - 5000 USD/tonne
Profit - 13 000 USD/tonne or 325 000 USD/year
Total annual profit (Ni+Cd) - 525 000 USD
Required amount/capital for organizing the production process (credit) - 500 000 USD

Time of credit reimbursement - 18 months

Application 1
Application 2
Application 3
Application 4
Application 5

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