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Earth Community Organization (ECO)
the Global Community


DSc. Professor William M. Zadorsky
Ukraine.ecofond@ecofond.dp.ua
zadorsky@mail.comwww.zadorsky.8m.com


for Discussion Roundtables 1, 6, 7, 25, 26, and 28


Table of Contents









 
Cleaner Production as a base of Sustainable Product Development


by DSc. Professor William M. Zadorsky
Ukraine.ecofond@ecofond.dp.ua
zadorsky@mail.comwww.zadorsky.8m.com

Introduction

There was already standard definition of sustainable development - " it is a coordination process of productive forces, maintenance of satisfaction of necessary requirements of all members of a community under condition of preservation and reconstruction of integrity of environmental natural environment, creation of opportunities for balance between its potential and requirements of the people of all generations ".

As is known, the concept of sustainable development includes three aspects: ecological, economic and social. The underestimation results any of these three components in a skew in equal sides system triangle and infringement in strategy of sustainable development. Really, the reassessment of an economic force with underestimation ecological and social results in infringement of stability of development, for it is impossible to ensure improvement of conditions of life of the following generation, if the improvement of economy will not be accompanied by reduction of technogenic loads per capita and decision of social problems in life of a community. Precisely as there cannot be by end in itself a reduction of technogenic loads per capita, and, means, the decision of ecological problems nor can be end in itself, as in a limit it would result in returning to a primitive community, when with ecology all was in the order.

Thus, only counterbalanced simultaneous complex decision of all three tasks of sustainable development - growth of economy with simultaneous improvement of ecological conditions and decision of social problems - will allow to realise this progressive strategy.

The system analysis shows strong interaction, direct and feedback between mentioned by three factors of sustainable development. In this connection the strongest parameters determining stability of development, are just those, which render influence, at least, on two factors of sustainable development from three.

The increase of manufacture cleanliness renders influence on the economic and ecological characteristics of system and consequently can be regarded as one of the basic factors ensuring sustainable development of system.

Recently, the main conception of nature protection in the Ukraine was the finding and analysis of human impact on surroundings. Today the situation is changing and this defensive concept is replaced by the new one, the main approach of which is the rebuilding of agricultural and industrial complex. It's the conception of Cleaner Production (in Russian more often they used "ecologization"), its basis is the systematic approach.

Significant Ukraine's problem is division economic, social and ecological factors within the framework of systems of acceptance of the decisions at levels of a policy, planning and management, that renders significant influence to realization of the concept of sustainable development of the country and first of all - its industrial and agricultural production. The Ukraine needs in environmentally sustainable economic and social development.

It is necessary for realization of all complex problem of the integrating of economic, biological and human systems to collaborate between the engine-, info-, mathematical modeling-, and eco- communities.

Development of sustainable development strategy is expedient, which had two orientations: ecological safety and preservation of environmental natural environment, i.e. development of sustainable social-ecological strategy with use of effective economic gears of satisfaction of requirements of the person.

The world experience testifies that the main tendencies in maintenance of sustainable industrial development of an industrial region following: development of low- and non-waste technological processes and equipment and salvaging industrial and household waste. It the same ecologization concept of manufacture is.

Thirty years ago American scientist Barry Commoner has formulated four ecological laws. First: all is interconnected. Second: all should somewhere disappear. Third: all has any cost. Fourth: the nature knows better us. The ecological interrelation of all kinds of natural resources requires the system analysis of their condition, complex forecast of use and definition of allowable volumes of use of natural resources.

It would be possible to consider the interaction between nature and man on the basis of a complex systematic approach founded on the apprehension of the fact, that the technical equipment is only a part of the all system.

Hence the tendency to harmonize the relationship of nature with technical equipment, where the operation of industrial complexes is tied not only to the technogenic activity of man and the use of technological objects, but also to the state of natural environment becomes evident. The ideal solution of the problem would be the creation of nature-technical system allowing to achieve high technical indices at favorable ecological condition.As far as it is frequently impossible to reduce a level of negative influence of manufacture on environment without change of technological processes, the nature saving activity should be directed or on improvement acting, or on creation of predominary new technological processes, directed not only on, to decide helpful problems, but also on protection of an environment.

Thus, system of quantitative valuation of industrial objects' ecologization degree and degree of ecosystems' destruction for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories, is necessary.

Important problem is integration of processes of acceptance of the decisions in the field of a environment and development, improvement of transfer system and analytical methods. A complex of measures by valuation of consequences of the decisions in economic, social and ecological spheres is necessary. It is necessary not only at a level of the separate projects, but also at a level of a policy and programs. The analysis should include valuation of costs, profits and risks.

The groups of Ukrainian, German and Netherlands scientists draw similar conclusions and started to work together at more deep theory of the strategy and tactics of the Cleaner Production and sustainable development. Now we have scientific design and production prototypes of technology and equipment corresponding to the trends, that may be the objects of cooperation of the other countries' colleagues.

Definition of the term "the product's sustainable development". Development of sustainable development strategy

Sustainable development is an extremely important concept in global environmental politics and law, as it provides countries and regions with the ideal goal of "progressing" through their perspective stages of development, while ensuring that the ability of successive generations to do the same is not jeopardized. Development without environmental sacrifice

- this is a basic conception of sustainable development.

The Brundtland Report defined [4] sustainable development as: "a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations".

The definition that we find more simple and easy to quote to people who are new to the concept of Sustainable Development is: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (from "Our Common Future", (the final report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, also known as the Brudtland Commission, 1987).

Regarding the definition of "sustainable development" we should like to add the definition officially adopted by FAO which is: "Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change, in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development (in the agricultural, fisheries and forestry sectors) conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable". (Report of FAO Council, 1988).

Cleaner Production as the conceptual and procedural approach to production

Cleaner Production is the conceptual and procedural approach to production that demands that all phases of the life cycle of a product or of a process should be addressed with the objective of prevention or minimization of short and long-term risks to humans and the environment.

Specifically, the adoption of cleaner production principles offers industry the opportunity to enhance its operating efficiency while improving its environmental performance. Waste is reduced at the source rather, than incurring heavy expenditure on production.

Cleaner production concepts have consequences for the whole life cycle of a product (or source) and can utilize improvements in: product design, production of raw materials, selection of raw materials and more efficient use, production and assembly of the final products, consumer use of the products, reparability and recycle ability, transportation of raw materials and products, and energy reduction.

Cleaner production means the continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy to processes and products so as to reduce risks to humans and to the environment. For processes, this means conserving raw materials and energy, eliminating the use of toxic materials and reducing the quantity and toxicity of all emissions and wastes before they leave a process. For products, cleaner production means to reduce impacts along the entire life cycle, from raw material extraction to disposal. Cleaner production is achieved by applying "know how", by improving technology and changing attitudes. Cleaner production is generally cost effective due to the potential improvements of both process efficiency and improved product quality. These economic advantages of cleaner production are especially evident if compared with other environmental protection strategies (such as end of pipe waste water treatment, waste processing and exhaust gas treatment).

First of all for optimization of natural environment it is required of ecological hydrochemical valuation of the objects of optimization with using of normative limiting parameters of environmental quality and methods of ecological optimization of surrounding. There are both forecasting and regulation of optimal processes, valuation of efficiency of use of mineral resources, control of nature using, regional economy and ecological monitoring with its technical, program and information maintenance. And, at last, it is required the control and management of quality of natural environment on the base of the science about biosphere and its evolution.

So, we hit on the necessary using of systematic ecology with concepts of system analysis as its basis. Then it will be need in databases on physical -chemical methods of effect on systems and of methods of optimization and ecologization. For realization of a complex approach it will be necessary to use the criterions both of optimization of an ecological engineering and of quantitative definition of intensity, efficiency, flexibility, degree of production cleanliness.

Algorithm of optimization with the aim of ecologization of the production supposes to apply experimental methods of the analysis of technology. Mathematical modeling is the basis of technological accounts. And physical chemistry and hydrodynamics is the base of technology. The applied aspects of chemical kinetic, thermodynamics, hydrodynamics and heat transfer have to be by the main contents of the informative technology database.

Besides it is necessary to have the data about local and integrated flexibility at various levels of hierarchy of object and about methods of its quantitative definition, methods of maintenance of flexibility of technology and equipment, internal and external flexibility and connection between them.

And, at last, one needs in data about degree of production cleanliness and methods of its quantitative definition and also about connection of an optimum level degree of production cleanliness with economic parameters of installations.

The systematic approach is the basis of the modern approaches to ecologization. Strategic principles and tactical receptions of ecologization have to be as the main block of informative database. As example, in our arsenal there are:

a lot of the principles of systematic ecologization (non-wasteness through selectivity, local neutralization of pollution, recuperation of salvaging, resource saving, integrated approach, multipleness of use of resources and energy, maximum selectivity of synthesis and dividing, ecologization of a sphere of consumption, etc.),

regime-technological methods of ecologization (process maintenance with excessive less toxic reagent, minimizing the time of processing, re-circulation, closed character of substance and energy streams, combination of synthesis and separation, wastelessness through selectiveness, selectiveness of synthesis and decomposition),

apparatus-constructive methods of ecologization (adaptability, intensification, closed structure, multi-functionality, etc.).

The ecological interrelation of all kinds of natural resources requires the system analysis of their condition, complex forecast of use and definition of allowable volumes of use of natural resources.

Elaboration of the ecologization (cleaner production concept) . System-structural analysis of the ecologization of production

Apart from cleaner production in industry, our approach also surveys opportunities and constraints for cleaner energy conversion and improved energy utilization.

Cleaner production concepts can utilize improvements in: product design, production of raw materials, selection of raw materials and more efficient use, production and assembly of the final products, consumer use of the products, reparability and recycleability, transportation of raw materials and products, and energy reduction.

There are main principles for realization of this conception:

All ecological problems should be solved in cooperation and simultaneously, and according to the united program.

Ecologization of economy supposes the modernization of objects, which are real or potential pollutants of environment.

The creation of civilized ecological market is necessary prerequisite of ecologization of economy.

The prosperity of ecologization means the presence of skilled professionals in the sphere of theory and practice of ecologization and ecological management.

We deal with ecologization and optimization of chemical and metallurgical plants and particularly its equipment on the foundation of system-structural analysis. We deal also with the research of the Cleaner production technology and equipment, and analysis of the interaction of the industry with environment, allowing to determine on the basis of system-structural analysis the direction to improve the technological processes, which would provide the reduction of their negative influence on the environment and, as result, the strategy and tactics of the Cleaner Production.

The scientific analysis of the production interaction with the environment allowing to estimate the direction towards improving the technological processes, which would reduce their negative influence on the environment, is possible only on the basis of system-structural analysis of the ecologization of production, particularly of the chemical production. An apprehensive apparatus of the scientific direction towards "ecologization of production" is formulated, methods of quantitative determination of the ecologization coefficients in variants of a single or integral index, calculated either by additive ecologicity indices, or as a multiplicated parameter are given.

The systematic analysis of chemical engineering works allowed to determine the main principles and methods of their ecologization basing on several concepts. Some of the stated concepts being of general technical character (recuperation, waste reclamation and resources economy), the other ones are of especially important significance to chemical production. For instance the concept of providing wasteless operation not by reclamation or resources economy, but by promoting selectivity, that is the yield rate of the target product. Finally this concept is reduced to the tendency not to try to eliminate waste, but to run the process so as to minimize its quantity.

Along with the stated above principles of complexity and systematic character, there should be noted such an important to modern engineering principle as flexibility. Under the "flexibility" of the chemical technique they are incarnating its indissoluble unity with the technical quantitative index, which reflects the possibility of the technique and equipment to function within a wide range of changes of outer and inner parameter settings with assigned values of selectivity, and consequently, the formation of by-products. At the same time many of these methods are acting on the object to realize principles of "repeated use of resources and energy" and "maximum selectivity of the synthesis and separation", the meaning of which is sufficiently evident from their names.

As for to the methods of ecologization of chemical production calling for realizing the stated concepts and principles, the features of chemistry suppose to use some special methods of ecologization along with the traditional ones for any field of engineering (closed-loop structure and multifunctionality of equipment, intensification).

Among them are the following:

minimizing of the time of treatment and the excess of one of the reagents, resulting most frequently in the increase of selectivity and in the reduction of by-products formation;

recuperation, closed cycle of substantial and energetic fluxes, had shown in "idealization" of the synthesis regimes and in a significant reduction of the speed of the secondary reactions rate;

combining the synthesis and separation, heterogenization, resulting in significant reduction of by-products formation by carrying the target products outside the reaction zone at the same moment as its are formatting;

adaptability of the technique and equipment, allowing to secure a reliable operation of the technical system through the "intrinsic" reserves of the installation, resulting in minimizing of the possibility of "volley" polluted ejection out of the installation.

As it was marked above world-wide experience testifies that the main trends in the ecologization are the following: development of low- and non-waste technological processes and equipment and rendering industrial and domestic wastes as harmless.

As it is often impossible to reduce the level of negative influence of the production on the environment without modifying of the technological processes, the activity to improve the current ones or creating principally new technological processes directed not only to solve the utilitarian problems, but to protect the environment.

Quantitatively the degree of the production improvement as regards to the influence on the environment may be estimated, similarly to the efficiency of any technological object, by the coefficient of ecologization.

An apprehensive apparatus of the scientific direction towards "The cleaner production" is formulated, methods of quantitative determination of the ecologization's characteristics are defined.

The system analysis of engineering allowed to determine the main principles and methods of the ecologization basing on several conceptions.

Some of the stated conceptions are being of general technical character (recuperation, waste reclamation and resource economy), other ones are of especially important significance to chemical production. For instance the conception of providing wasteless operation is not by reclamation or resource economy, but by promoting selectivity, that is the yield rate of the target product. Finally this conception is reduced to the tendency not to try to eliminate waste, but to run the process so as to minimize its quantity.

The specific conception of the ecologization of chemical productions is not to render harmless the mixed liquid or gas effluent "in general", but to make it harmless locally as near as possible to the source of its formation.

And finally, the conception of the ecologization of the consumption sphere supposes to solve the problems of packaging, transportation, preparation forms etc... minimizing the hazard of using chemical products by customers.

The principles of realization that had been formed lately are closely tied to the conception of the ecologization. Along with the stated above principles of complexity and system character, there should be noted such an important to modern engineering principle as flexibility. Under the "flexibility" of the chemical engineering incarnating its indissoluble unity with the technique one should comprehend a quantitative index, which reflects the possibility of the technique and equipment to function within a wide range of changes of outer and inner parameter settings with assigned values of selectivity, and consequently, the formation of by-products. As we can see, the methods of ecologization are acting on the object primarily through its flexibility. At the same time many of these methods are acting on the object to realize principles of "repeated use of resources and energy" and "maximum selectivity of the synthesis and separation", the meaning of which is sufficiently evident from their names.

Measure of ecological efficiency of technological processes

As it was marked higher the important problem is integration of processes of acceptance of the decisions in the field of an environment and development, improvement of transfer system and analytical methods. A complex of measures by valuation of consequences of the decisions in economic, social and ecological spheres is necessary. It is necessary not only at a level of the separate projects, but also at a level of a policy and programs. The analysis should include valuation of costs, profits and risks.

The ecological interrelation of all kinds of natural resources requires the system analysis of their condition, complex forecast of use and definition of allowable volumes of use of natural resources.Thus, system of quantitative valuation of industrial objects' ecologization degree and degree of ecosystems' destruction for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories, is necessary.

System of quantitative valuation of ecologization degree of industrial objects and destruction of ecosystems for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories is described in this article.

Present condition of environment near by global ecological crisis compels to take into consideration productional influence on environment. It's need a quantitative indexes characterising the influence not only for estimation measure of influence of the production but for prognosis estimations for enterprises being projected or for securing given level of technogen influence.

United universal method to define technogen influence quantitatively is not to be so far notwithstanding that elaborations are conducting in that direction quite actively. Ecological questions ignoring results not only in pollution and deterioration of a condition of a environment, but also in deterioration of technological and ecological parameters. For example, it is known, that yield of grain in operative range of color metallurgy is reduced in 2 and more time, and the increase of pollution of atmospheric air results in reduction of service life of the industrial equipment in 1,5 time.

Thus, from the point of view of the system analysis of a problem of interaction of the person with environment in accordance with development of a industry more and more significant role begin to play feedback, i.e. influence of a environment to development of manufacture. In opinion of many experts in the field of industrial ecology it is necessary to be aimed not to complete clearing or waste salvaging , instead of to admit their occurrence, aiming to non-waste or, at least, to cleaner technology. Any technology it is necessary to evaluate on a degree of its ecological danger - on quantity and quality of formed waste. A parameters of quantity and quality of pollution of departing gases, of waste waters and of solid waste are the most objective criterion of technology imperfection.

For example, Slavin M. proposes [1] to use economical effect E of realization technical arrangements directed to environment protection, as the quantitative evaluation mentioned above. It may be calculated by formula:

E =Sum Ei,. i=1...10............... (1)


where E1- value of supplementary products or energy got in result of utilization and using waste and lateral-side products;

E2- economy of means expended for transportation production and consumption waste to places of their centralized destroy, tran-sformation or utilization;

E3- economy of means expended for restoration normal chemical and ecological ground and reservoir structures or for liquidation negative consequences owing to impossibility their rational use;

E4- liquidation negative economical consequences of ruin or into-xication industrial animals, wild and cultured plants in result of that it gets their use inadmissible or inefficient;

E5- economy of means expended for medical treatment, diagnosis, preservation and nursing for invalids when poisoning or intoxication, caused by unfavorable influences of environment;

E6- reduction of means which State spends for payments on temporary disability due to disease owing to unfavorable influences of environment;

E7- liquidation negative economical consequences as cost of products not got owing to loss working ability of persons being in zone of the production influence on the environment;

E8- economy of means expended for buildings external look restoration and gardens, parks and other places for workers' rest preservation, and restoration architectural buildings and memorials being guarded by State;

E9- economy of means expended for planed and not planed environment conditions control realized by sanitary epidemic stations or other sanitary and hygienic services;

E10- liquidation negative consequences being as product cost not got due to temporary stops of production in violation of recommended sanitary and hygienic standards.

Ecological influence criterion (e.i.c.) allowing to evaluate degree of production technology perfection from view-point of interaction with environment is proposed V.Anikeev with co-autors [2]. They suppose that " the most representative and useful ecological criterion is the ecological influence criterion k (e.i.c.)", which defines by formula:

k = Wt /Wr = Wt /(Wt +Wc),............... (2)


where Wt- theoretical influence necessary for production;
Wr- real influence;
Wc- influence determined of concrete production.

Maximum significance of e.i.c. equally 1 is determined by condition Wt = Wr that is when real influence corresponds to theoretical necessary level which determines by laws of substance and energy. The lower e.i.c. requires more quite technical solutions, from view-point of influence on environment. And when k-- 0, the production does not to take into account demands of environment guarding absolutely.

It is proposed [3] also the following indexes of ecological efficiency of technological processes:

- ecological measure (L) - quantity of harmful action at environment (P), dividing at the quantity of the useful production or services that qet with help of this process (Q):

L = P/Q,............... (3)


- resource capacity of the process (N)
- debit of energy, water, air, ground and other nature resources (R) to the useful production or services that qet with help of this process:

N = R/Q,...............(4)


- ecological index of the object (E) defines by formula:

E = (Q - P)/ R,.........(5)


where (Q - P) is the useful effect.

The all sizes of Q, P, R are getting in natural significance. As it seems to authors ecological index of the object (E) describes the degree of the object closing in relation to nature. When E = 0, the nature potential destroys without any useful effect, and when E = 1, there is not non-utilization remainders of the matter or energy.

Thus, system of quantitative valuation of ecologization degree of industrial objects and destruction of ecosystems for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories is necessary.

Selection of Technological Processes from the Standpoint of LOW AND NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGY for Industrialization Projects

As for Wotte J. [5] a precise way of evaluating technological processes in order to develop and to introduce LNWP, theoretically would be by cost-benefit-analysis. In this connection not only technological and economic influences should be taken into consideration but also ecological and social aspects. The question of monetary evaluation of environmental impacts and similar effects, however, has not yet been solved at the international level. Therefore other ways must be sought for evaluating technological processes.

It was tested [5] new method and completed especially for industrialization purposes in developing countries. The method developed may be used:

-to compare several technological processes (at least two) for the production of a defined product,

-to evaluate the processes from the standpoint of LNTW,

-to make a clear choice-which process variant should be preferred because of its technological, economic, ecological and social characteristics depending on national economic conditions as well as regional or local prerequisite, respectively.

The developed method bases on selected characteristics, which are grouped to a minimum program, characterizing the technological process and-if necessary-the aimed main product from the standpoint of low-and non-waste technology (LNWT).

Fig.1 shows the sequence of the working steps of the selection, which represents a combination of evaluating as well as weighting the given characteristics.

For evaluating the characteristics against the back ground of a world level analysis there are estimated for each characteristic:

-the Zero-value, Ko (accepted worst value) and -the Best Value, Ks (best possible value).The evaluation is calculated by the equation:
PW = (Ko-K)/(Ko-Kb),............ (7)


where K - Real-Value of the given characteristic.

This delivers values for all characteristics for all technological variants under discussion within a given industrialization project.For weighting the characteristics a group of experts is formed consisting of technologists, economists, ecologists and specialist of territorial planning. All the experts should be skilled specialists in their profession or their fields of activity, respectively, with long-time experiences, the private interests of which are not connected in any way with the interests of the enterprise ordering the selection procedure.

After a total information of the experts' group about advantages and disadvantages of the technological variants under discussion as well as the conditions within the region and the whole national economy each expert gets a questionnaire, which contains the characteristics grouped for a paired comparison.

Each expert separately marks in each pair of characteristics, which of them from his point of view in the given case should get a higher importance. On the basis of the experts' decisions made by this paired comparison a personal preference table is compiled for each expert.

Integrated measure of a level of sustainability of development of the system. Complex quantitative valuation of the product's sustainable development rate

Important problem is integration of processes of acceptance of the decisions in the field of a environment and development, improvement of a system given and analytical methods. A complex of measures by valuation of consequences of the decisions in economic, social and ecological spheres is necessary. It is necessary not only at a level of the separate projects, but also at a level of a policy and programs. The analysis should include valuation of costs, profits and risks.

As it is showed higher it is necessary to realize of all complex problem of the integrating of economic, biological and human systems to collaborate between the engine-, info-, mathematical modeling-, and eco- communities.

For complex quantitative valuation of a level of stability of development of system expediently to use the integrated parameter of sustainability, that may be to define as multiplication coefficient including the main technical characterizations of technological process connected with resulting measure of production purity such as: flexibility of the production; intensiveability of the technique; efficiency of the technology, etc., and also parameters, that reflect, accordingly, social and economic efficiency of transformations, determined by expert way, for example, with the help Prof. Wotte's methods [5] (Germany, Dresden).

To connect these databases, approaches, concepts, etc. in the joint system it is very difficult problem. It is possible only by theories and methods of technical creation and with use of the laws of the development of technical systems, of the using of psychological peculiarities of creative activities and modern methods of technical creative activity in solving problems of ecologization (such as method of attempts and errors, brain storm, morphological analysis, synechtics, theory and algorithm of inventory tasks solution, decision making in risk conditions, elements of the theory of usefulness, means of support of acceptance of the decisions creation of information means of the analysis and modeling of ecological situations; methods of the analysis of conditions, forecast of development, modeling of the scripts of the decision of a waste problems; means expert valuations of the proposals on the decision of ecological problems; integrated base of knowledge of waste problems.

Thus, system of quantitative valuation of ecologization degree of industrial objects and destruction of ecosystems for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories is necessary.

The world experience testifies that the main tendencies in maintenance of sustainable product development are following: development of low and non-waste technology (LNWP) and utilization of industrial and household waste. It is the concept of manufacture ecologization, in the basis of which the system approach is.

As it was showed by J.Wotte [5] in connection with industrialization projects the correct selection of a technological process among several possible variants for meeting an existing demand of national economy from the standpoint of LNWT is of outstanding importance. A precise way of evaluating technological processes in order to develop and to introduce LNWP, theoretically would be by cost-benefit-analysis. In this connection not only technological and economic influences should be taken into consideration but also ecological and social aspects. The question of monetary evaluation of environmental impacts and similar effects, however, has not yet been solved at the international level. Therefore other ways must be sought for evaluating technological processes.

First of all for optimization of natural environment it is required of ecological hydrochemical valuation of the objects of optimization with using of normative limiting parameters of environmental quality and methods of ecological optimization of surrounding. There are both forecasting and regulation of optimal processes, valuation of efficiency of use of mineral resources, control of natureusing, regional economy and ecological monitoring with its technical, program and information maintenance. And, at last, it is required the control and management of quality of natural environment on the base of the science about biosphere and its evolution.

Thus, system of quantitative valuation of industrial objects' ecologization degree and degree of ecosystems' destruction for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories, is necessary.

To connect these databases, approaches, concepts, etc. in the joint system it is very difficult problem. It is possible only by theories and methods of technical creation and with use of the laws of the development of technical systems, of the using of psychological peculiarities of creative activities and modern methods of technical creative activity in solving problems of ecologization (such as method of attempts and errors, brain storm, morphological analysis, synechtics, theory and algorithm of inventory tasks solution, decision making in risk conditions, elements of the theory of usefulness, means of support of acceptance of the decisions creation of information means of the analysis and modeling of ecological situations; methods of the analysis of conditions, forecast of development, modeling of the scripts of the decision of a waste problems; means expert valuations of the proposals on the decision of ecological problems; integrated base of knowledge of waste problems.

The ecological interrelation of all kinds of natural resources requires the system analysis of their condition, complex forecast of use and definition of allowable volumes of use of natural resources.

For complex quantitative valuation of a level of stability of development of this or that system expediently to use the integrated parameter S (parameter of sustainability), determined as product:

S = aE ? bR ? cK,....... (8)


where a, b, c - "weights" contributions of appropriate parameters, R, K - parameters, reflecting, accordingly, social and economic efficiency of transformations, determined by expert way, for example, with the help of Prof. Wotte technique (Germany, Dresden), E- parameter of a system's ecologization, which expediently to define, proceeding from following reasons.

At our opinion quantitatively the degree of the production improvement as regards to the influence on the environment may be estimated as multiplication ecologizational coefficient:

J = P Ji ,. i=1...k........... (9)


where Ji are the main characterizations of technological process connected with resulting measure of production purity such as: J1 - flexibility of the production; J2 - intensiveability of the technique; J3 - efficiency of the technology, etc.

Any of that measures may be defined similarly to the efficiency of any technological object as:

Ji =(P1i -P2i)/(Pmaxi - P2i),............ (10)


where P1i, P2i, Pmaxi -are respectively the final, initial and maximum measures.The value Pi may be both a common index characterizing quantitatively one or the other property of the system that connected with corresponding measure (for example, the dust collecting efficiency, extraction ratio, etc...), and a complex integral index, which counts several characteristics of the object simultaneously.

In the latter case it is supposed to use either additive indices:

Pi = S Kj Pij , .j=1...n ........... (11)

where Kj is significance of the j-th indices (estimated expertly and changing within the limits of O to 1).It is necessary that multiplication ecologizational coefficient J for comparison of the different technological installations contains the identical typesetting Ji.It is possible to realize of all complex problem of the integrating of economic, biological and human systems to collaborate between the engine-, info-, mathematical modeling-, and eco- communities.

Literature Cited

1.Slavin M. Social- hygienic factors of new technique // "The qustions of economics".-1979.-N5.-p.58-66

2. Anikeev W.A., Kopp I.Z., Skalkin F.W. Technological aspects of surrounding defense.- Leningrad.: Gidrometeoizdat, 1982.-254 p.

3.Environmental protection. The models of social-economical prognosis.- Moscow: Economica, 1982.-224 p.

4. INFOTERRA, digest 488, September 27, 1995 (Infoterra - the global environmental information exchange network of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)).

5. Wotte Joris. Selection of Technological Processes from the Standpoint of LOW AND NON-WASTE TECHNOLOGY for Industrialization Projects. Journal of EIA Vol.3, No.2 November 1994, p.9-14.



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