HYPOTHESIS OF THE LAW DETERMINING THE EVOLUTIONARY DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATURE
I have written this report due the wish to impart my ideas which base on comprehension of experi-ence obtained during my life in the society on the eve and in the period of crisis and on books I have read.Those conceptions which are discussed later on are by no means the statement of the fact. It is a hypothe-sis and its discussion is urgently necessary. I hope for your kind attitude to the results of my reflections.
Also I would like to tell of a wonderful coincidence. Two weeks before I have begun to write the report, a book of J. Krishnamurti "Tradition and revolution" attracted my attention and I began to read it. In spite of his eastern approach to presenting the material, his train of thoughts was clear, and it was striking to what degree they coincide with my conceptions. The day before I have finished my report and given it to a translator, I woke up at 4 o'clock in the morning with clear understanding that independently from each other we have come to practically the same views on the evolution. Doubtless, it was more dif-ficult for Krishnamurti to come to these views because the level of knowledge in the field of psychology was considerably lower in his time, so one can only surprise his courage and force of his intellect. It is also a coincidence that nearly three years ago on the 15th of November, 1995 I woke up at 4 o'clock in the mourning with clear understanding that every man is the infinity in his possibilities and I felt by in-tuition that there is SOMTHING preventing from realisation of these possibilities. So, during less than three years the idea which is the result of subconscious analysis has come to the level of consciousness and formed finally. I analysed at least twenty years observations over myself and people with which I have had contacts and also information concerning human being and human relations, great interest in which did not leave me all this time until now.
A deeply stirring question why with such considerable achievements of science and technique the people have not less considerable problems in interpersonal, ethnic, religious relations, in relations be-tween states, has become the reason for considering the processes of the evolutionary development. Be-sides that the great volume of knowledge in biology and psychology which Darwin could only dream about when he created his famous work "On the Origin of Species" is accumulated today.
The wording of the hypothesis of the law of evolutionary development according to my compre-hension of the problem has been formed not long before the conference: The evolutionary development of the nature is determined by the priority development and per-fection of information-control biological systems and the human brain possessing the consciousness is an information-control system which has become the highest point of development of the nature.
This wording can be cleared by the following suppositions. Perhaps the Cambrian explosion char-acterised by the general spreading the multicellular organisms is caused by appearance in the process of evolution of such information-control system as the gene mechanism. It is possible that separation of the animal kingdom from the vegetable one took place as a result of appearance of nervous cells, united in the information-control nervous system. This system provided the possibility to coordinate movements in representatives of the animal kingdom. Brain as the next stage in development of the information-control system in cooperation with the gene mechanism promoted the appearance of functionally more compli-cated biological species including mammals and human being. From the above mentioned data one can make a conclusion that for further evolutionary development of a given concrete species it must have a certain reserve of possibilities of its information-control system. This indirectly confirms the supposition on the priority character of its development and perfection, i.e. the evolutionary perfection of the infor-mation-control system makes it possible the further functional perfection of species. So, the larger re-serve of possibilities the information-control system has, the larger step in its evolutionary development the given species can make. Since the evolutionary assimilating of possibilities of the information-control system is a gradual process, evidently many species have a certain potential of its possibilities which at the given moment is being used not to the best degree, this supposition is of great importance, later on it will be developed conformably to man.
It is possible to determine conditionally two types of the evolutionary development of biological species, horizontal and vertical which act simultaneously. The horizontal type is understood as changes which take place within the limits of already achieved possibilities of the information-control system, and the vertical type as changing the level of its possibilities. Such conditional division allows to make an interesting supposition that when the potential possibilities of the information-control system are on the lower level, the horizontal type of development has larger probability. This leads to more narrow spe-cialisation of species and, respectively, to their larger quantitative representation. The higher level of possibilities of the information-control system increases probability of the vertical type of development, provides better adaptation ability of species and, respectively, leads to their less quantitative representa-tion. Figuratively one can imagine a pyramid where the area of section determines the quantitative repre-sentation of evolutionary species and the height of section determines the qualitative level of their devel-opment or the level of evolutionary safety. With satisfaction it is possible to say that man as a single rep-resentative of his species is the peak of this evolutionary pyramid.
Brain as the information-control system proved to be so evolutionally perspective that the vertical type of the evolutionary development began to be determined exclusively by perfection of this organ. Later on for more easy presentation of data the development of information-control systems will be con-sidered on the example of brain.
When development of brain as the biological information-control system is on a certain level the problem of its steadiness arose in full measure. So, one can suppose that from the moment of its appear-ance further evolutionary development took place according to the following scheme:
· evolutionary perfection of a system securing steadiness of brain
· evolutionary increase of the brain mass and, respectively, of its possibilities;
· evolutionary change of species for adaptation to new conditions within the limits of increased possi-bilities of the brain.
As it is known the evolutionary process is characterised by selective mechanisms of variability and natural selection. For convenience in more detailed consideration of the process of evolutionary devel-opment of the nature conditionally it can be divided into several evolutionary components having corre-sponding selective mechanisms. These components as they appear are acting simultaneously.
The evolutionary process of development of the nature began with appearance of replicator mole-cules which for the first time in the nature at any rate on the Earth were able to record and reproduce biological information. When the gene mechanism of heredity had appeared this process was perfected. The first component of the evolutionary development, that is biological evolution is very well developed in Darwin's theory and supplemented by his followers. At this stage the gene mechanism of heredity serves as mechanism of variability and natural selection is acting when mutations in genes worsen the survival rate of species.
So, with appearance in the process of evolution of nervous cell, nervous system and brain the pos-sibility to record operatively and reproduce information has appeared in the nature. Beginning from this period one can speak of a qualitatively new stage of evolutionary development that is psychical evolu-tion. Programs being recorded in nervous cells have become the mechanism of variability at this stage. The natural selection works when breaches in programs lead to worsening the adaptation of species to environmental conditions.
Transition even partial to the more operative adaptation to changes of the environment by means of changes in programs is a considerable step for speeding-up the evolutionary development and the evolu-tionary safety, respectively. So it is not surprising that when components of evolution were acting simul-taneously it moved mainly in the direction of perfecting the brain and systems connected with it. As changes in the environment take place on the land relatively quickly this evolution direction can be ob-served in species inhabiting it the most clearly.
At the initial stage of psychical evolution recording the programs into brain took place on the base of information fixed in genes. This process continues also now in insects, amphibian, reptiles and fishes. Brain increased in the process of evolution in some varieties of these species is able to record operative information and to form a certain number of conditioned reflexes.
A1 a certain stage of brain development the information capacity of genes proved to be insufficient for more full using its possibilities. To get over such a contradiction evolution has chosen a compromise variant. Part of the most important for life program information is being transferred into brain via genes as before and another part is being formed without genes by means of education and upbringing. Ap-pearance of such type of transferring the information is the next step in speeding-up the adaptation to en-vironmental changes and the evolutionary process, respectively. So, evolutionary perfection of species has taken the way of increasing the information volumes being transferred without genes.
Such method of transferring the information requires the certain social organisation. So in the process of evolution family as an initial form of social organisation has appeared for the first time most likely among birds. Function of family consists in giving to the next generation by parents during certain time after birth the most important information necessary for survival under given environmental condi-tions. This requires certain individualisation, members of the family must learn to recognise each other.
Mechanism of ungenetic transferring the information from one generation to another was called IMPRINTING, for the first time its action was observed by ethologist Hainrot in his experiments with geese, it was also well described in works of ethologists Lorenz and Tinbergen. Since information being transferred by IMPRINTING is determining for preservation of species one can suppose that a mecha-nism for protection of such information has been worked out simultaneously. This mechanism can be called the biological information protection. From my point of view, both these mechanisms are studied insufficiently and importance of their influence on the evolution process is estimated not in full measure.
The information capacity of birds' brain allowed also more complicated social organisations. For example one can mention a Flock where representatives of given species unite anonymously, only on the base of species indications, and also a Union where connections between members of the group obtain already personal character what presupposes recognition of all members of the group or more high de-gree of individualisation. One can suppose that namely the system of biological information protection became the base of the appeared for the first time emotional component of behaviour and respectively of appeared for the first time breaches in emotional sphere, clearly observed by ethologists.
More complicated social organisation requires larger possibilities of brain and at the same time one of its functions is to preserve the brain steadiness. Such function of the social organisation and emo-tional connections in the group is of great importance because it creates a prerequisite for further devel-opment of brain and its structures.
Further development of mammals took the way of complicating the social relations and emotional connections. The brain mass increased and respectively its potential possibilities grew. They could pro-vide an ever increasing volume of information being transferred by ungenetic way compared to that being transferred by genetic way. The imprinting information in mammals as in birds is being formed in the family at the earliest stages of development of the young and has very hard biological information pro-tection. It must be mentioned that the period during which the imprinting program information in mam-mals is being formed considerably increased, man has such period of three years, birds have tills period of about from several hours to several days. The informa-tion capacity of mammals' brain allows also to form a large base of social program information which is also being protected but it has not so hard pro-tection as the imprinting information, so it can be called the social information protection. Systems of the information protection realise their functions through emotional reactions which lead to release or sup-pression of psychical energy. Control over the psychical energy is realised by corresponding chemical compounds being excreted by brain or by changes in its electrical activity.
Possibilities of the language for transferring the information on emotional states of brain are broadening simultaneously in the process of evolution. This language is necessary for realisation of social connections. Information is transferred by means of rituals, facial expression, gestures and voice signals. All this promotes preservation of steadiness in the work of brain and its further perfection. But facts of emotional breaches and even loss of steadiness of brain work in whole groups are observed in mammals more often than in the lowest species. This, for example, can explain cases when whales throw them-selves out to the coast and when large numbers of small and sometimes large mammals migrate sponta-neously. Such loss of steady work of human brain manifests in a crowd in the form of a spontaneous re-action at the call to certain action or in panic. In the highest primates the brain volume reached about 350 cm3, perhaps it is a limit of brain steadiness without its further perfection.
It can be supposed that consciousness had appeared in one of the species of the highest privates about 3 million years ago as a system increasing the steadiness of brain. Its appearance has led to un-precedented increasing the brain mass in human ancestors compared to other mammals, with relatively small morphological changes. By the time of about 200 thousand years ago when as it is supposed the present human being has been formed the brain mass has increased 4 times and is today in average 1400 cm3. There is no even one modern computer possessing such Information capacity and not soon it can reach such a level. Appearance of consciousness from a certain moment made the morphological chang-ing the species almost not necessary.
Consciousness can be defined as ability of the brain to operate mentally with accumulated infor-mation that is ability for thinking and cognition. In this case ideas of man about himself also take part in this process. Under certain conditions self-consciousness allows to change behaviour programs not corre-sponding to the real environmental conditions, to create new programs and to act on their base. Besides that consciousness controls the information coming into brain, estimates degree of its importance and makes limits for its interpretation by subconsciousness. Today neurophysiologists suppose that con-sciousness appeared as a result of broadening the information possibilities of audio-visual areas in brain, that is perhaps it was only a functional change without formation of a new structure.
The moment when the consciousness has appeared characterises one more component of evolu-tionary development of the nature that is evolution of consciousness. The level of consciousness charac-terised by a degree of personal freedom and opening of an individual in social organisation of the society serves as the mechanism of variability in this process. The natural selection has the broad spectrum of action at this stage and promotes increasing the level of consciousness. When this problem is being con-sidered in more detail it is possible to show that psychical disorders, criminality, wars in their essence are the result of action of the natural selection. Both decreasing the level of consciousness and its more inten-sive increasing can take place locally in every given community but doubtless it grows when it is aver-aged in time.
Constantly increasing brain potential promoted formation and development of the language as one more powerful and very economical way of coding, transferral and recording of the informa-tion in brain structures. Already 400 thousand years ago the Neanderthal man had the language possibilities of the pre-sent man. The language allowed to pass from image to abstract thinking what considerably speeded the process of thinking and, respectively, cognition. Besides that using words it is possible to code effec-tively and to start behaviour programs. The language provided with the possibility to create complex and ramified social connections and became the main instrument for the consciousness in changing the ex-isting internal programs and creating the new ones. Increasing the evolutionary safety the language has become one of the most important indications preserving the species. So, it is not surprising that training in language takes place during the period of IMPRINTING and this knowledge is being protected by the powerful biological information protection as the information which is of the most importance for giving to the next generation. It is known that when a man is put in another language surroundings he experi-ences great stress almost all the time what indirectly confirms existence of such protection.
Practically endless reserve of potential possibilities gave to the man the great evolutionary advan-tage over the other species. It was mentioned above that more full and effective use of brain potential is taking place gradually. It may be that achieving of this goal is one of the main motive powers in devel-opment of mankind and this process continues today. History tells us expressively that the great brain potential of every man is being used often not in the best way and knowledge of processes which are taking place in human head will allow to go to this goal consciously.
If the nature is considered as the unity of organic and inor-ganic world one can say that man has appeared in the nature as its conscious element. Such view allows to understand more clearly significance of appearing of the consciousness and to acknowledge this fact as one of the key moments in evolution-ary development of the nature. Before this moment all processes of development in the nature took place in accordance with the laws of probability, beginning from this moment the part of processes which man participates in is being realised on the base of knowledge and conscious choice what considerably in-creases the probability of result sometimes up to 100%. In this case the responsibility for the choice rests with man as the conscious element of the nature but not always man takes this responsibility upon him-self. Mankind has come near to the moment when it will be ready to take this responsibility upon itself because further going away from it threatens the survival of man as the species. Fortunately, all proc-esses in the nature connected in any event with survival of species stir to activity very powerful forces of self-preservation.
At certain stage of development conditions had appeared in the society under which a certain number of people could devote themselves to cognition of the world around for the sake of cognition it-self without any practical need. These people had means for scientific work or their activity was provided by persons having means and organisational possibilities. This moment can be defined as beginning of the one more component of the evolutionary development that is evolution of cognition. The level of knowledge having no upper limit serves as the mechanism of variability for this process. And natural se-lection is determined by possible negative results in the course of practical using this knowledge.
A11 above mentioned components of the evolutionary development as they appear continue to act simultaneously and in certain moment it is possible to speak only of a component exerting the most con-siderable influence on the evolutionary development of the given species. Division of the evolutionary process into components allows to understand it better. It is clear that the evolution of consciousness and cognition concerns only the species Homo sapiens.
A territorial factor determined by migration or another reasons for changing the place of inhabiting also exerts considerable influence on the evolutionary process. Divergence in ways of development of the same species takes place on different terri-tories not connected with each other. Facts obtained as the re-sult of studying the morphological differences in representatives of the same species inhabiting different islands of the Galapagos archipelago helped Darwin much in substantiation of his evolutionary theory. Investigations of present ethologists show that also divergence in ways of development of psychic and social processes takes place when development is isolated in territories.
For better understanding of processes which are taking place in the world today it is particularly interesting to consider the influence of the territorial factor on development of the human community. Recent genetic studies of American and Japanese scientists confirmed indirectly a hypothesis that the Eastern Africa was the motherland of man. Migration has led to the isolated development of separate groups of Homo sapiens. Divergence in the ways of the evolutionary development of psychical and social processes has led to appearing the large number of nations and nationalities differing in language, cul-ture, traditions and form of social organisation. The development under different climatic conditions has led to considerable dispersion in the level of knowledge and consciousness and also to certain morpho-logical changes in the form of outward race indications. So, representatives of the one species were sepa-rated by cultural, language, social barriers and by difference in the level of development.
It is not difficult to see that separation is caused only by the information content of brain and this proves that the informa-tion protected by the systems of information protection is included by evolution into indications characterising the species. So, it is not surprising that the historical development of mankind was accompanied by conflicts because representatives of non-kindred nations in contacts treated each other as representatives of different species, In time the thinking activity directed to increasing the level of the life safety under unfavourable envi-ronmental conditions led to gradual growth of the con-sciousness level and respectively to lowering the influence of information protection systems. During the conflicts the conflicting parties got to know each other better and often came to understanding that there were another ways for solution of conflicts providing with more safety. Later on development of naviga-tion and trade promoted further mutual penetration of cultures and lowering the information barriers.
Conservatism of the society to perception of the new information more corresponding to realities in the surroundings is determined by action of the information protection systems. If changes in the sur-roundings are taking place slowly during the time which is longer than the life of one generation chang-ing the information base of the society realises relatively smoothly. If conditions are changing more quickly psychical tensions are being accumulated in the society and change of the information base real-ises as a result of crisis. The grown level of knowledge and active influence exerted by man on the envi-ronment leads to changes in it which are much more quicker than the life of the one generation. The hu-man biological nature is not adapted to such quick changes, the information protection systems and natu-ral selection begin to act and in this case, the level of consciousness also grows but this takes place more slowly. Sad events during the first half of the twentieth century and constant sequence of crisises and conflicts today confirm this.
Today owing to wide exchange with information by means of newspapers, radio, television, Inter-net. and mass tourism the intensive influence on processes in the human community is being exerted by the territorial factor of the evolutionary development. The difference consists in its moving in the oppo-site direction that is to no isolated development and removal of information barriers. Unfortunately, this process is being realised spontaneously by way of trials and errors not taking into account the powerful influence of the information processes on the human being and effects of biological laws what continues to lead to negative consequences for many people, in particular in developing countries.
Today in developed countries the people have come to understanding that certain types of the in-formation of sexual character and the information propagandising cruelty and violence exerted harmful influence on man and in particular on the children’s psychics which was not yet steady. Since such in-formation is very profitable for its spreaders, passing the laws limiting its propagation will have small effectiveness if the demand on it is not liquidated using instructive and educational measures. The people will trust this knowledge if it is confirmed by the authority of the science.
In my opinion the vulgar approach to Darwin’s evolutionary theory considering that striving for ri-valry and aggression is a natural trait in the human character is a mistake. Striving for safety is a natural trait, rivalry and aggression appear when man feels a threaten for his safety. But this feeling can be erro-neous due to action of the information protection systems. If man since his birth lives in the safe sur-roundings, he will not be aggressive and can use his potential brain possibilities more effectively. The information protection systems are a kind of atavism but since they are genetically programmed their ac-tion on man is inevitable. But knowing how these systems are functioning it is possible to make their ac-tion useful. In some countries physicians and teachers working with children learned to achieve such a result. In USA there are Glenn Domann who has achieved great results in encyclopaedic education of children from the earliest years and Bruno Bettelheim who in a clinic for children suffering from nervous disorders in the Chicago university has elaborated a method to help children which were in variance with the surroundings. In Japan it is Masaru Ibuca which basing on a method for training young children in playing the violin elaborated by the doctor Shinichi Suzuci, has worked out a system for upbringing and education of children under 3 years. In France it is a union of teachers "French Group Novel Education" who basing on the principle that "All children are clever" achieve realising the ability for education in all children without exception. I am sure that there are many more examples of successful practical activity in this direction which requires the theoretical grounding for its more wide dissemination.
Constantly increasing commercialisation of all sides in the human activity does not coincide with the natural direction in development of the nature what leads to the above mentioned negative conse-quences, conflicts and crisises. Attempts to solve them forcibly are dictated by the false understanding of the safety, which is based on the projection of the past experience into future. The true safety can be achieved only when material means and political efforts are directed to overcoming the differences in the level of consciousness and knowledge of all nations populating the Earth and to more full using the po-tential possibilities of every man. So, efforts and means must be directed not to perfection of the arma-ment but to perfection of man. This will be possible when the science can unite knowledge accumulated by many directions of psychology and philosophy into complex ideas on principles determining the work of the human psychics and on way of development of man which is the most important and inseparable element of the nature. Besides that results of theoretical and experimental studies must convincingly sub-stantiate these ideas. The above mentioned conditions are necessary so that the evolutionary development of the nature may successfully lead mankind to a single species with the integrated culture.
I thank all who had enough patience to read the report up to the end and invite those who are inter-ested in this field of activity to unite for organisation of investigations.
The above considered suppositions allow to make the following conclusions:
· The evolutionary development of the nature is an endless, continuous process and it has no excep-tions.
· Information processes in the course of the evolutionary development are of the priority and deter-mining significance.
· Comprehension of practically unlimited potential possibilities of every man and purposeful efforts directed to their more full use will help to speed considerably the process of the evolutionary devel-opment.
· The influence on the course of development of the human community exerted by the information protection systems requires further studies.
· It is necessary to change radically approaches to upbringing and education of children. These ap-proaches must take into account and use to the maximum degree biological programs of the human development.
· It is necessary to carry out the large-scale instructive work with using the means of the mass informa-tion. This work must be directed to training the people in overcoming internal subconscious conflicts and in the first place those people who work with children.
· It is necessary to create an international service which could organise the work with the people in those countries where the instructive measures can not be effective yet.
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