THE THEORY of DEVELOPMENT AS a METHOD of COGNITION
The theory of development was prescinded in a course of consideration of an evolution series of the motion forms of Matter and their history. It opens a device of interaction of opposites of a contradiction. The way of development of the isolated abstract contradiction results in an abstract network of the contradictions; and from the latter the transition to a concrete network of the contradictions is accomplished. It is the theoretical model of the universe.
We live in the world of elements, such as a wind, rain, hurricane and earthquake. The man not directs by elements but is adapted for them. For example, it is impossible to prevent a rain or hurricane without threat to break dynamic equilibrium of atmosphere. But the man can anticipate a rain, hurricane or earthquake and to construct the strong house. Precisely it is the development. The development is shown not only as quiet evolution, but also as crises and revolutions. Therefore it is necessary to take advantage of knowledge of development for successful development of a community and personality. The development of the personality is a main condition of a development of society.
Globalization forces to look at our world from above, compels us to form the most general theoretical position. The new vision of the world demands new knowledge of it. The search of new knowledge requires, in turn, new cognition, which will lean on new scientific paradigm.
The theory of development demand high level of abstract mode of thinking. However its concepts form immediate connection with sensuous perception as they are found in our daily practice. Comprehension the theory of development requires clear logical thinking only. It is inadmissible to substitute for concepts by that dogmatic thinking sin usually. The theory of development is not intended for self-satisfied dogmatic thinkers or narrow-minded empiricists. It is intended for restless people, who are attended to problems of development of their personalities and development of community, for people, who want do good consciously, for enthusiasts.
The cognition is directed by practice, though the cognition is wider than social practice. In what measure the cognition is directed by practice, in the same measure it goes towards to the inquiries of a society and, thus, becomes public cognition. But also the human activity is transformed in true human activity only after mastering and conscious application of the theories. However theories have property to become outdated, to lag behind the validity. Therefore developing society requires improvement of the most human cognition, which makes the theories, and requires conscious application of the theory of cognition.
The modern cognition leans on the dialectic theory of cognition, which fundamentals had put in by Hegel, Marx, Engels and Lenin. Thinker may be perceive this fact or may be leave behind it as sneaking. The deepest essence of this theory of cognition, its initial points, is the following position: the truth can be searching out in development only. It is impossible to cognize object, by not finding out as it develops. The support on development in cognition does not reject the account of general connection all with everything, but allows to find in chaos of interrelations a main line - line of universe development.
The development is inconsistent. Marx, in difference from Hegel, had become to consider the contradiction as the concrete contradiction (for example, proletariat and bourgeoisie), and not as identity of opposites, but as their struggle. Engels has offered ingenious concept " the motion form of Matter " and has tried to create dialectics of Nature. Lenin has finished the fundamentals of the dialectic theory of cognition by that had approached to understanding of development as to " bifurcation unified on mutually exclusive opposites and relationship between them " (Lenin. Complete works, v.29, p. 317). He had put forward the known requirements of the concrete historical approach in cognition, too.
The given theory of development represents direct logic continuation of the mentioned above fundamentals of the theory of cognition. It opens the device of interaction of opposites during the development of a contradiction. But actually between the fundamentals of the theory of cognition and offered theory of development the whole historical epoch had laid. During this epoch the dialectical theory of cognition had to accomplished materialist process of all previous human culture, all history of a human thoughts. The solution of this problem had forced the theory of cognition to ennoble itself above scientific cognition and to get the form of a rigid logic system of inert concepts. This logic system of inert concepts served official philosophy. As a result the theory of cognition separate from cognition. The comprehension of necessity of the theory of development was the maximum theoretical achievement of so-called before recent time dialectical materialist philosophy. But the construction of the theory of development requires a gap with the usual system of inert concepts. That is why theory of development has arisen outside of it.
Lenin had accentuated three stages during cognition: " From alive contemplation to abstract thinking and from it to practice – it is the dialectic way of cognition of truth, cognition of an objective reality " (Lenin. Complete works, v.29, p.152-153). The cognition of the developing universe is following the specified way, from sensual perception it is descended to the theory of development, and then, with its help ascends to concrete knowledge, which becomes a part of practice.
Lenin had specified also method of a statement of the theory of development, which consists that is necessary to find "attitude which would be the most simple, usual, basic, most numerous, most ordinary, billions time meeting" (Lenin. Complete works, v.29, p. 318). This attitude would be contain " all contradictions " of investigated object, phenomenon; in our case – it is the development. "Bifurcation unified " and subsequent interaction of opposites serve the such simple, usual, basic attitude for development, doubtlessly.
Developmental picture of the universe
The development from an exterior is represented as change of the developmental forms. The picture of the universe in XIX century began by a hypothesis of an origin of planets and Sun. The modern representations ascend to the theory of Big Bang. In second half ÕÕ century have developed steady representations about a developmental series of the self-developmental material systems: galaxies, stars, planets, biosphere and society. They are the motion forms of Matter. Specified motion forms of Matter are not existed always and there were not simultaneously, because of they were formed one after other and were interconnected. There was a time, when there was a biosphere without a society, planet the Earth without a biosphere etc. Such ratio of the developmental forms, which is easy for looking after in a history of human society and biosphere, confirms the Lenin’s formulation of development: "bifurcation unified..." From the earlier unified form there is a new form, and that thus becomes an old form. «Relationship» of a new and an old form (Fig. 1) determine the further development. The only fact of appearance a new motion form of Matter from interior an old form opens inconsistent essence of an old form and discrepancy of their further existence. A new motion form of Matter could arise only under condition of appearance of a qualitatively new type of interaction, which has left an old type and has entered with it the contradiction. Thus, the concept "motion form of Matter" also is inconsistent - on the one hand, it is a material system, and with another is a way or type of interaction, with which help a new material system stand apart from an old.
Fig.1. A developmental series of the motion forms of Matter.
Though a new motion form of Matter could appear, it should prove its vitality in conditions of interaction with an old motion form of Matter. This interaction results in perfection a new motion form of Matter. Hence, the cognition of a way of development is possible only by joint consideration of appearance of a new form and interaction it with an old, and also relationship a new and an old of types of interaction within the framework of a new form.
The principle of joint consideration can be shown on an example of appearance of social motion form of Matter and interaction it with biological motion form of Matter. Essence biological motion form of Matter is the change of biological species in conditions of interaction it with geological environment. The change of species results in accumulation of heredity. The appearance of a qualitative new type of interaction - collective work - has interrupted change of biological species, by making one biological species by king of a nature. Further, in process of formation of labor, society was separated from biosphere. At the first stage the labor activity was outstanding as a new. It was played a direct dominant role in relation to preservation of a biological species of the man and all complexes of the biological attitudes, which was outstanding as an old. Thus the biological makings of the man were altered, had got the social form by pursuant to the labor attitudes. When the community had reached such level, at which the problem of preservation of a biological species of the man was solved, the labor attitudes were pushed aside on the second plan by biological attitudes, though latter were socialized. It is the second stage. The labor attitudes supervised public life indirectly, by means of exchange of the wares. Simultaneously society at the second stage was in time to transform biological motion form of Matter in the interests of society by creating an artificial biosphere. Thus society has ensured basically capability of normal development of the biological makings of all individuals. Transition to the third stage therefore has become possible. It is characterized by return to obvious superiority of the labor attitudes above biological attitudes. It is the scheme of development of a society. It serves only illustration of appearance of abstraction of the theory of development - a new, an old, superiority - from a history and also it illustrate relationship of these concepts in a course of development.
The theory of development of an isolated contradiction
The development as such becomes clear in the purest and simple appearance by consideration of interaction with each other, transitions each other, penetrations each other of concepts a new and an old. Any old was earlier a new, as well as a new in due course will become an old. The appearance of new proceeds by bifurcation of the previous unity on a new and an old, in what event the internal discrepancy of the previous unity finds the final decision.
The development of the considered isolated contradiction is determined by interaction a new and an old at a leading role a new (Fig.2). At the beginning a new conflicts to the same previous unity almost for the later lost only a new, which came out from it. The further interaction should prove stability a new, by transforming thus previous unity in an old. The riches of the previous unity consist in comparison with a new that it contains more capabilities, whereas a new has that advantage, that it more organized and it actuates more capabilities becoming the validity. The organization a new gets stability, immunity against chaotic effect of an old only in a course of development of the contradiction.
Fig 2. An abstract contradiction.
Any contradiction passes three stages of development: first - foundation stage at direct superiority a new above an old, second - antagonistic stage at indirect superiority a new above an old and third - harmonious stage - at mature superiority a new above an old. An inceptive new has certain advantages before the previous unity, differently it has not arisen. Essence of the first stage is the transformation of the previous unity in an old with the help of the specified advantages. To the end of this stage all advantages a new, which are not boundless, has exhausted. However it is enough they always for transformation of the previous unity to an old and for giving to the contents of an old the new form. The form of the previous unity is transformed pursuant to the requirements and effects a new, and its contents remains without change. The change of the contents of an old would attract behind itself destruction, and together with it and destruction a new, for an old serves the necessary basis for a new.
To the end of the first stage a new has exhausted the advantages. It lost the initiative, which owned from the moment of the appearance; therefore a new is compelled to proceed to defense at the second stage. The innermost own laws of self-motion of an old, but, that is very essential, having the form a new, are pulled out on freedom, by taking limitation of advantages a new. An old aims to play a determining role in the contradiction with a new, thus it puts a new under threat degradation and tries to overthrow it, to lower it down to its level. An old plays a role of unrestrained elements in relation to a new; the latter should oppose it own improvement. Only by such way a new can keep a determining role in the contradiction, rescuing the contradiction from decay, disintegration or destruction. Moreover, it rescues from destruction and an old, for appearance a new finds out already inability of an old to self-development, finds out transition it to decline.
The improvement a new consists of reflection by it the device of self-motion of an old. The improvement a new as the progressive phenomenon is caused by degraded effect of an old. In it the essence of antagonism of the second stage and explanation of impossibility smooth, gradual, transition to third - harmonious - stage without a jump or discontinuity. In reply to claim of an old a new improves the structure, becomes complicated, that provides to it eventually successful counteraction (reaction) to any attempts of an old to surpass a new within the framework of the contradiction. The interaction a new and an old at the second stage results them in final and indissoluble accretion. To any effect of an old a new finds counteraction. It seemed, the contradiction has achieved harmony. However imperfection and the discrepancy of an antagonistic stage is, that a new has lost the initiative and determining role. The superiority of a new is shown indirectly as the reaction on random (as from the point of view of a new), impulses and effect of an old. The transition to the third stage proceeds by a jump by a discontinuity, by a bifurcation in consequence of the virtue of the specified feature of interaction of opposites.
The harmonious contradiction is born in the interior of the antagonistic contradiction as a reply to claim of an old to attain superiority. The harmonious contradiction repeats on a way interaction of opposites of a foundation stage, but taking into account also improvements achieved at the second stage. A new has reflected in itself in the second stage the contents of an old, therefore it influences to the latter in accordance with the laws of the old self-motion. Thus its negative influence was outstripped. We came to harmony and, on the first sight the development as such has exhausted itself. But actually improved a new has got the chaotic, unbridled an old from the second stage, therefore development at the third stage consists of taming of an old by a new. The taming carried out by means of complication of interaction of opposites and distribution of harmonious interaction, that is, mature superiority a new, on all variety of relationships a new and an old.
As the transition to the third stage proceeds by bifurcation, there is a contradiction of two types of interaction an old and a new - contradiction of antagonistic and harmonious ways of interaction of opposites of the contradiction or, in other words, contradiction of antagonistic and harmonious types of the contradictions. The development of the third stage of the contradiction new and old proceeds already within the framework of the last contradiction.
At the first phase of a harmonious stage obvious superiority a new, being distributed on an old within the framework of the harmonious contradiction, thus promotes superiority of the harmonious contradiction above antagonistic contradiction. At the second phase the release an old from obvious superiority a new within the framework of the harmonious contradiction results in approach to the latter contradiction of the antagonistic contradiction. In these conditions the perfection of the harmonious contradiction is caused not so much internal it faculty of development, but much by external destructive effect of the antagonistic contradiction. The conditions perfection of a way of effect a new on an old within the framework of the harmonious contradiction proceeds until there will be qualitatively a new - a newest - type of interaction. It appearance is called by development of the not initial contradiction, but driving contradiction of the higher level. There is a great event, but the more grandiose it, the more latent its appearance.
The subsequent development of the third phase of a harmonious stage proceeds in conditions of inner influence of interaction of a newest type. In process of standing out of the latter and struggle with it the same harmonious contradiction approaches to perfection. And behind it contradiction of harmonious and antagonistic types of interaction (a new and an old) approaches to perfection too. Eventually a newest interaction is pulled out on a surface and forms a NEWEST, which enters with a new the contradiction, which will be driving for a newest formation. Only then propulsion of development of the considered contradiction a new and an old will be exhausted. It is wonderful, that the achievement of harmony of the third stage of the initial contradiction is obliged to influence of a newest type of interaction, as well as the appropriate achievement superiority of the harmonious contradiction above antagonistic. For all that the explanation of appearance of a newest type of interaction forces to leave for limits of the isolated contradiction.
The theory of development of the abstract motion form of Matter
Let's consider as the stated above principle of development works on a more complex example of some motion form of Matter. A new motion form of Matter has arisen as a result of formation of a new interaction within interior of an old motion form of Matter and bifurcation last. A new motion form of Matter could be isolated due to formation of new contents, which has inherited an old form by necessity. From here there is a contradiction of the a new contents and an old form, which is the internal contradiction a new motion form of Matter. The contradiction of material systems a new and an old motion form of Matter serve the external contradiction a new motion form of Matter. The contradictions internal and external in turn make the integral contradiction, which role consists in leveling of development of opposites in conditions of the superiority of the internal contradiction. Hence, the development a new motion form of Matter is reflected by coordinated development of the internal, external and integral contradictions, which are sides or moments of interaction an old and a new only.
The internal contradiction opens the contradiction a new and an old from the point of view of interaction of a form and contents. A new contents is qualitatively a new type of interactions inherent a new motion form of Matter; it serves most deep, sufficient, basis of development a new. Inherited from an old motion form of Matter the form is navel-string, connecting a new with previous development; it serves the necessary basis of development a new.
In the beginning a form is corresponds to an old contents, in that appearance, as it inherits the arisen a new interaction from an old motion form of Matter. At the first stage it is transformed pursuant to the requirements of a new contents. At the second stage transformed, it is possible to tell updated, the form is pulled out from under rigid trusteeship of new contents. It aims to take a place of new contents in the contradiction, in what the aspiration of an old is shown to escape from under authority a new. It fails because effect of an old accepts the kind of the updated form.
New contents during antagonistic interaction acquire in the reflected kind the laws of development of an old, which refract through the updated form. To the end of the second stage a new contents, having arranged under the updated form, was quite improved successfully to resist the claims of updated form. But new contents so closely have grown together with the updated form on the basis of implicit or indirect superiority, that the transition to obvious or mature superiority is possible only by revolutionary bifurcation. The bifurcation of the improved contents results in bifurcation of the internal contradiction. This bifurcated internal contradiction is the driving contradiction of the third stage.
The external contradiction is contradiction of material systems a new and an old motion form of Matter. It develops differently as compared to the internal contradiction. At the first stage there is a transformation of a system of an old motion form of Matter under effect of a system of a new motion form of Matter. The evolution of a material system of a new motion form of Matter is determined by the considered above internal contradiction. And the system of an old motion form of Matter continues to evolve agrees to the own laws. The evolution proceeds at determining influence of a material system of a new motion form of Matter. The latter can not use the laws of development of an old system for satisfaction of the growing inquiries. The system of an old motion form of Matter, which there was a system of a new motion form of Matter from, begins to break up, to degrade as a result of alien influence.
At the second stage a new system is compelled to create for itself the basis of existence, by means to adapt a system of an old for its needs. It creates an artificial system of an old, using the laws of development old system. During the second stage a new and a new sides or moments, or parts of a material system an old motion form of Matter enter in a structure of an artificial system of an old. The latter, at last, appears in a condition completely to supply requirement of free development of a material system of a new motion form of Matter. Thus the material system of a new motion form of Matter executes obvious superiority above a system of an old motion form of Matter with the help of the artificial system of an old motion form of Matter. The artificial system of an old motion form of Matter is including in a structure of a new motion form of Matter naturally. An old motion form of Matter cooperates with earlier motion form of Matter and this interaction provides the necessary basis of existence a new motion form of Matter. Therefore the latter at the third stage is compelled to protect an old motion form of Matter from degradation, are caused by continuous destructive effect a new motion form of Matter against an old motion form of Matter.
The integral contradiction synchronizes, orders interaction of the internal and external contradictions at determining value first from them. The conversion of the an old form by a new contents at the first stage inevitably causes (as a necessary consequence) the appearance of a material system of a new motion form of Matter and causes effect latter at a material system of an old motion form of Matter.
At the second stage the specified effect results in appearance of an artificial system of an old. The material system a new motion form of Matter is compelled to follow the laws of self-motion of an artificial system of an old. Therefore external contradiction gets relative independence, but the internal contradiction should be improved. To the end of the second stage the artificial system of an old in bosom of a new motion form of Matter will satisfy needs of its growth completely. The external contradiction will depart on the second plan, but all discrepancy of development will be concentrated on antagonism inside the improved internal contradiction. At the third stage after bifurcation of the internal contradiction a new motion form of Matter will divide at two material systems, which make the external contradiction. The place of the internal contradiction takes the contradiction of harmonious and antagonistic types of interaction a new and an old as was indicated above. In result the contradiction an old and a new at the third stage becomes more complicated. It is possible to assert that there is nothing more inconsistent, than harmony.
The theory of development of abstract network of the contradictions
The discovery of the theory of development of an isolated contradiction has done by consideration of development of a sensually perceived developmental series of the motion forms of Matter and application to it idea of development. The application of an abstract way of development of the contradiction to series of the motion forms of Matter results in the theory of development of the interconnected contradictions. Any thing or phenomenon are many-sided also are diverse so far as "the great general connection" or "universal interaction " acts. Hence, thing or phenomenon serves point of the application of many contradictions. There are the harmonious contradictions and not achieved yet harmonies among their. In a course of development one contradiction come on the foreground, and others recede back, but always there is a main or driving contradiction determining development of the given object in its given condition. The network of the contradictions is formed by the driving contradictions.
According to the theory of development of the isolated contradiction each contradiction is divided into three stages. The development of each stage in turn also is reflected by the specific driving contradiction, inherent in it. A new contradiction arises during bifurcation of determining opposite of an old contradiction. From here follow a succession of the one-level contradictions and hierarchy of the contradictions. They make up a network of the contradictions (Fig.3).
Fig. 3. An abstract network of the contradictions.
The network of the contradictions is arranged in such a manner that the development of the contradiction A corresponds to one contradiction from three stages of development of the contradiction B of the higher level and simultaneously corresponds to three contradictions C, D, E of the lower level. The last are three stages of development of the contradiction À. In figure the network of the contradictions for presentation is unfolded in plane, however is more correct to represent it as one line of development. The network has structure of "matreshka": each contradiction cover three contradictions of the lowest level and together with two other one-serial contradictions is covered with the contradiction of the higher level.
The contradiction of lower level reach the harmonies earlier, than the contradictions of the higher level, though have arisen after last. This circumstance testifies to existence turning point in development of the network of the contradictions. Really, the network of the contradictions has a descending branch, when the contradictions of the more and more low level are born and ascending branch, when the harmonies of the contradiction of the more and more high level achieve.
The analysis of a network of the contradictions lead to idea about regular change of the manner of interaction of opposites of the contradiction pursuant to its position in the network of the contradictions. The requirement of concrete consideration of object of research outflows from here. Only the concrete consideration provides the account of all variety of its internal and external connections all with everything.
The abstract scheme of inversions of the contradiction opposites
The way of development is displayed by a double image: as bifurcation of developing material objects, that opens development on the part of the phenomenon (Fig.1), and as passages into each other and inconsistent interaction of opposites of the driving contradiction, that reflects the essence side of development.
The interaction of opposites of the driving contradiction in a course of ternary stage development causes such changes of these opposites, that they itself can become the mirror reflections. In other words, there is an inversion of driving opposite of the contradiction. By the inversion of opposite its own discrepancy is displayed. This discrepancy ascends to the contradiction of the higher level. The opposites of giving contradiction are inconsistent themselves. For example, the new opposite bifurcate on the new contents and new form, and old opposite - on the old contents and old form. These forms and contents are shown in opposites of the lower order.
The consideration of inversions of opposites is convenient to conduct with the help of passages into each other of concepts a contents and form. A contents is usual controls a form, but also a form renders conversational influence on a contents. For definiteness we shall consider, that the initial contradiction a new and an old corresponds to an antagonistic stage of the higher contradiction.
The further statement is not the proof of the schemes of inversion. It is only shows a way to prescind of them on an example of interaction the social and the biological in a history of a human society, where the social represents itself as a new, and biological - as an old.
The character of inversions changes - at a foundation stage has a place one inversion, at an antagonistic stage - two, and on harmonious - four (Fig.4). The development everyone from three types of the contradiction is divided to the three phases. The development of the first phase begins with superiority of the new contents (which has subordinated to the old form) above the old contents managing by the new form. At transition to the second phase in any contradiction the new contents, executing superiority, so changes the new form, that compels it to leave under the shadow of the old contents. So there is an inversion of opposite. At the same time in a course of this interaction the new contents spend the advantages and lose superiority. For all that at a harmonious stage it leaves under management of the old form, that is there is an inversion of both opposites of the contradiction. The transition to third phase of the foundation stage is not accompanied by inversion that is old contents concedes superiority to the new contents simply.
Fig. 4. Development as essence.
The scheme of inversions of opposites of three types - foundation, antagonism and harmony (n.c. - new contents, n.f. - new form, o.c. - old contents, o.f. - old form; the shaped arrows designate inversion of opposites).
For an antagonistic stage the transition to third phase causes inversion of one opposite - new contents falls under authority of the old form, though thus together with it makes leading opposite in the contradiction. At a harmonious stage the transition to third phase is accompanied by inversion of both opposites.
The adduced schemes of inversion of opposites are authentic only for the initial antagonistic contradiction, as the scheme of inversions was prescinded from development of the appropriate real formations (Table). In the table the two-phase structure of the contradictions is shown on the basis of the antagonistic contradiction of the higher level. In a result 9 main types of the contradictions are received. Precisely also it is possible to receive 18 types of the contradictions for two other contradictions of the higher level - for foundation and harmony.
Types of the contradictions and real historical formations of a human society appropriate to them and adequate the antagonistic contradiction.
Foundation stage Antagonistic stage Harmonious stage
1 phase of primitive social order Primitive social order 1 phase of communist social order
2 phase of primitive social order Exploiter social order 2 phase of communist social order
3 phase of primitive social order Communist social order 3 phase of communist social order
The development of each contradiction is unique because of the unique position it in a network of the contradictions. But the account of its position in a network of the contradictions and account of inversions of opposites nevertheless allows in first (in second etc.) approximation to reflect by concepts the laws of concrete development formations.
The theory of development of concrete network of the contradictions
The theory of development of the interconnected contradictions allows cognition to lean on general connection thus releasing in sphere of cognition general connection from the rigid control of development. There is an antagonistic ratio of development and general connection in cognition here, when the development loses direct superiority above the interrelation. The overcoming of this antagonism, that is the revolutionary jump cognition to synthesis of knowledge, consists of cognition of a real history of development of concrete objects.
The theory of development of the isolated contradiction has become the theory of development of an abstract network of the contradictions after the account of general interrelation. Hence, the abstract statement of the theory of development in main features is completed. Now it is necessary to make ascension from the abstract scheme to the concrete scheme, to fill the abstract scheme with the concrete contents, by returning again to sensual perception. But this returning will take place on a new qualitative level of abstract thinking. The abstract thinking will return to initial point of the theory of development, that is will return to the developmental series of the motion forms of Matter. Then the theory of development as a method of cognition will be completed.
There is a social motion form of Matter on an edge of development in a developmental series of the motion forms of Matter (Fig.5). The driving contradiction the latter is the contradiction of labor activity and activity on preservation of a biological species of the man under condition of superiority of labor activity or, in other words, contradiction the social and the biological at a determining role of the social. The labor activity provides preservation of a biological species, but the society puts a limit to development biological motion form of Matter by the labor activity. For the essence the latter consists of replace of one biological species by others, leading to accumulation of heredity during interaction with geological environment, are changed by a biosphere in turn. The appearance of a new biological species is obliged to extraction of the information in a course of habitability. The latter, at the end, there is a chemical interaction with geological environment. Therefore driving contradiction of biological motion form of Matter is the contradiction of accumulation of heredity versus chemical interaction in conditions of determining role of the first opposite.
Fig. 5. Development of Matter as change of the motion forms of Matter.
( - revolutionary bifurcation, - future revolutionary bifurcation
The accumulation of heredity by biological motion form of Matter has passed in preservation of a biological species of the man by social motion form of Matter. But the extraction of the information has not disappeared - it was transformed into a necessary condition of labor activity, which is in cognition, though has not become its sufficient condition. It is subordinated of labor activity, it implements for labor activity, and therefore extraction of the information represents itself as indirect superiority. The extraction of the information in conditions of social motion form of Matter proceeds by the indirect manner or latently contrary to transmission of the information, contrary to prevailed world outlook. On the other hand, the existence of a biological species of the man depends on chemical interaction. So, both considered motion forms of Matter correspond to two stages of the driving contradiction of Alive Matter. It is the contradiction of extraction of the information versus chemical interaction, and social motion form corresponds to an antagonistic stage, and biological motion form – to foundation stage. To the third stage - harmonious - specified contradiction of Alive Matter will correspond to future world outlook motion form of Matter or noosphere with the driving contradiction: cognitive activity versus industrial activity under condition of superiority of cognition.
The planetary motion form of Matter as previous to biological motion form of Matter develops in a result of gravitational differentiation of the chemical connections (minerals). The gravitational differentiation began for stages of a protoplanetary cloud and proceeds till now in entrails of planets. Density of the arisen connections is determined by character of chemical connections of atoms. Hence, the driving contradiction planetary motion form of Matter is the contradiction of the chemical interaction of atoms and the gravitational differentiation of their connections. In this case superiority belongs to chemical interaction.
In stars the nuclear fusion resists to the gravitational collapse. The nuclear fusion is proceeding by means of electromagnetic interaction. The subordinated role in the given contradiction is played by the nuclear fusion, which can arise only after formation of stars due to gravitation. The nuclear fusion, more and more becoming complicated, under favorable conditions can escape from under oppression of the gravitational collapse, by opposing it explosion of a star. Therefore the antagonistic stage of the driving contradiction of Lifeless Matter is shown in sidereal motion form of Matter – the gravitational versus electromagnetic interaction under condition of superiority of the latter.
The chemical interaction of atoms in planetary motion form of Matter is a particular case of electromagnetic interaction, therefore contradiction planetary motion form of Matter corresponds to a harmonious stage of the driving contradiction of Lifeless Matter. The foundation stage of the latter contradiction belongs to protogalactic motion form of Matter with the driving contradiction: electromagnetic interaction of elementary particles versus their gravitational attraction.
Both existing forms of Matter - Lifeless and Alive – correspond to the two first stages of the contradiction of the higher level, which is the driving contradiction of Matter. It is the contradiction the ideal versus real under condition of superiority of the latter. The substance or Reality is not still finally created, existing things and phenomena do not exhaust it, for it develops. Concept reflecting its essence, however, is already produced as the real. The opposite concept - possible - is closest to concept of the ideal. The ideal is the law of development of Matter. The ideal in the form of the information aims to undermine superiority the real in Alive Matter at an antagonistic stage of Matter. But the extraction of the information can not do without the real. At formation of the third stage of any contradiction proceeds revolutionary jump to obvious bifurcation. Matter that has arisen as a result of Big Bang concerns to the third stage of BEING, and first two stages correspond to Chaos and Probability. The regularity serves the main essence of Probability, which supervises the casual that opposite to it. Probability is behind of vacuum. It is possible to judge about pithy filling of Probability, for example, on quark model, which is ideally designed by the quantum chromodynamics. The ideal laws following from general interrelation there had been transformed under effect of case into the statistical laws in Probability. The statistical laws had become the laws of development in Matter (Fig.6).
The first form of BEING - Chaos - had made the basis for appearance Probability. It is reflected by the contradiction: chaotic motion versus interaction. At the second stage, in Probability, when the chaotic motion has exhausted potential of development the regularity going out on the foreground. It is testifies that the interrelation is the subordinated opposite of the driving contradiction of BEING, whereas leading opposite, doubtlessly, is the development. Three forms of BEING - Chaos, Probability and Matter - correspond to three stages of the driving contradiction - contradiction of development versus interrelation under condition of superiority of development. The development itself changes from chaotic to ideal, and from the latter - to real. Matter corresponds to a harmonious stage of this contradiction; hence, the support of cognition on development receives the theoretical substantiation within the framework of the stated theory of development. The theory of development has finished here logic circle, by returning to an initial theoretical point of view about a leading role of development.
Fig. 6. The concrete network of the contradictions.
- Revolutionary bifurcation,
- Future revolutionary bifurcation.
REST or HOMOEOSTASIS, which main essence is the system quality resisting to freedom, precedes BEING, very likely. BEING and REST are united by concept of regulation or aspiration to the order, for the development in BEING at all hostility of general interrelation and counteraction to it inevitably results in even more complex and strong organization. The picture of the developing universe is limited to frameworks of BEING, whereas from the point of view of aspiration to the regularity development is necessary, but not sufficient condition of BEING. Just in this point is visible cognitive restriction of development, at the same time and the insufficiency of the theory of development for cognition of BEING. That is comes to light impossibility to consider of the theory of development as the absolute theory of cognition.
In REST we come to Aristotle’s motionless protoengine with that difference, that REST is not monolithic but internal bifurcated on system quality versus freedom. Just this bifurcation had made CHAOS eventually, by opening it development of BEING. After end of development of BEING there will be a discontinuous transition to ORDER, in which the return to REST will be carried out on the basis of BEING. The listed three forms are joint by concept of COSMOS.
In COSMOS regulation executes superiority above freedom. In BEING, at an antagonistic stage of COSMOS, superiority of the regulation receives the indirect form. However freedom in the form of growth of the disorder or increase of entropy, aims to set its superiority. Therefore regulation in BEING proceeds at the expense of enormous growth of the disorder or increase of entropy.
Development is manifestation of regularize, which upsets old regularity. The slogan of any development - freedom, though development is directed on an establishment of new order.
The theory of development will become one from the sides or moments of the more general theory of regulation (theory of creation) in the far future. If the theory of development gives the answer to a question how arises, the theory of creation can answer a question – what arises. Development on the point of view of the theory of regulation is irreversible process of transition to a system from more probable to less probable, less free condition. Regulation finds a counterbalance of entropy in development, for the development is creating more ordered systems. Development is antientropy process, though regulation proceeds due to increase of entropy outside of a developing system. In this connection cognition is necessary for development by being antientropy process.
There is a question, whether the human thinking can grasp, comprehend or to cognize the mentioned above universe forms. As Matter concerns to a harmonious stage of the contradiction development versus interrelation, it will been cognized by the developing human personality with the help of the theory of development only. There is a hypothesis, that the thinking proceeds within the framework of the contradiction the order - disorder. If it so, BEING can be cognized with the help of the theory of regulation, concluding inside itself the theory of development. Thus the thinking appears above BEING, for regulation in BEING takes a position indirect superiority, but in thinking - direct superiority. The thinking, hence, is capable comprehend both REST and ORDER.
Now it is necessary to return from depths of a previous condition universe to a current moment, by looking after in a history a concrete course of bifurcation and relationship of opposites. BEING has left REST as a result of appearance of development. Development seizes superiority versus connection. This superiority in Chaos had accepted a kind superiority of chaotic motion versus interaction. The chaotic motion had created COSMOS. In Probability the development, acquire the form of case. But it had fallen under the control of interrelation in the form of the law. It is the second stage, antagonistic, contradiction of development versus interrelation. In Chaos for the first time was showed protoinertia, as reflection of its connection with REST. Chaotic motion had induced Space, and had resulted in inflating Chaos from REST; this inflating had limited by protoinertia. In Probability protoinertia had passed in the opposite itself - in pushing away from REST. That had resulted in so-called inflationary expansion of Probability and had resulted in almost full absorption of Chaos by Possibility. After achievement of the certain critical condition there had been Big Bang with segregation Matter from Probability, that meant return to Chaos in a certain measure. At the same time pushing away had been furcated on gravitational attraction and inertia. As gravitation and inertia essence two sides or moments of connection of Matter with REST, they are equivalent. Material mass is a measure of inertia and gravitation, hence, mass is a property of connection Matter with REST.
Overcoming of the antagonistic contradiction of the law and case within the framework of the driving contradiction of BEING (development versus interrelation) had caused revolutionary bifurcation of Probability. Matter cooperates with Possibility subsequently. Regular development had achieved mature superiority above of universe interrelation in Matter, that had found the expression in appearance of Time. After Big Bang the electromagnetic interaction had attained role superiority in relation to gravitational attraction. This contradiction had appeared the driving contradiction of Lifeless Matter. In it the real had direct superiority versus the ideal. Protogalactic motion form of Matter had been transformed in galactic after appearance sidereal motion form of Matter. At appearance planetary motion form of Matter from sidereal motion form there had been a revolutionary bifurcation of Lifeless Matter. The planetary system had changed processes in entrails of a star by means of gravitational interaction in such way that it had been transformed in solar motion form of Matter. At the second stage of the contradiction the real versus the ideal in Alive Matter, the information (representing the real form of the ideal), had attained superiority above chemistry interaction, as by one from the sides or moments of electromagnetic interaction. In biological motion form of Matter this superiority is shown as superiority of extraction of the information versus chemistry interaction. Arisen on our planet biological motion form of Matter had changed a chemical composition of atmosphere and constantly supports it. Biological motion form of Matter had transformed planetary motion form of Matter in geological motion form of Matter by means of a constant renovation of a gradient of chemical potentials of chemical elements between a surface and entrails.
Chemistry interaction had by accepted information shape as labor, emotions and world outlook in social motion form of Matter. It subjects to threat superiority of extraction of the information. At the third stage of Alive Matter, in future world outlook motion form of Matter or noosphere, the cognitive activity will become determining in the contradiction with produce activity. Then the extraction of the information will achieve obvious superiority above chemistry interaction.
From social motion form of Matter the development begins an ascending way on a network of the contradictions, on which the overcoming of one antagonistic contradiction results in necessity of overcoming of the antagonistic contradiction of the higher level. It is the greatest tragedy of development of Alive Matter.
The theory of development is a method of cognition, that is a tool or a machine for extraction of knowledge, too as, say, bulldozer is the machine for extraction of gold. The task consists of its development. At all abstractness the theory of development contains internally requirement of concrete cognition, inherent in it. The application of the theory of development as a method of cognition is possible because any object of research can be reflected by concepts a new and an old inconsistently, hence, can be shown as a necessary part of a history of the developing universe. The historical approach in cognition means elaboration of concepts having direct connection with sensual perception and reflecting opposite of the driving contradictions. It is necessary to realize clearly, that ambient universe and our reflected internal universe are result of previous development and basis of the further development. Therefore any researches should be subordinated to cognition of a history of objects. A direct way lead cognition from a history to practice, to future.
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