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Anatoliy A. Shiyan
Institute for Social Technologies
for Discussion Roundtables 6, 21, and 23
Table of Contents|
Anatoliy A. Shiyan
Institute for Social Technologies UKRAINE.
Last years the understanding grows that the Nature is arranged by a principle of hierarchical self-organization. It means, that the natural systems, as a rule, are formed on a background of the certain flows of energy and/or mass. These self-organized systems arise and destroy again, - even when external conditions (flows of energy and/or mass) remain constant. The self-organization is described by the nonlinear equations, and consequently "nonlinear thinking" penetrates into all areas of a science more deeply. The natural systems are, as a rule, Hierarchical. It is understood that, as a result of association of a number of the self-organized objects from "the same level of hierarchy", a certain new object having new properties and qualities will be obtained.
But what are ways of change of the approach to management of a Nature? Which methods, algorithms and ways are needed for operation on Nature objects so that to reach optimum results, - and to not ruin the Man? For this purpose it is necessary to reconsider base that we can name as Optimum Control. Such Optimum Control should take into account as the basic laws of existence of Natural objects, and nature of functioning of the Man. I report results on classification of methods of management of Natural systems and I show that this classification is classification of the people. The data of testing of the received results are given.
Last years the understanding is increased that the Nature is constructed by a principle of hierarchical self-organizing - Haken (1988), Nicolis (1986), Nicolis and Prigogine (1989). It means, that the natural systems, as a rule, are formed on a background of the certain flows of energy and/or mass from particles of medium, and both the quantity and structure of particles of medium inside such system is variable. These self-organized systems are arisen and again destroyed, - even when external conditions (flows of energy and/or mass) remain constant.
The self-organizing is described by the nonlinear equations, and consequently "nonlinear thinking" penetrates into all areas of a science more deeply - Haken (1988), Self-Organization…(1997).
The natural systems are, as a rule, hierarchical. It is understood that, as a result of association of a series of the "single-level" self-organized objects, there is a certain new object having new properties and qualities.
However Man in the practical activity many centuries ignored such form of the device of a Nature. He built own environment IRRESPECTIVE of those laws, on which the Nature is arranged.
In other words it is possible to tell so. The Man during many centuries made reorganization of a Nature "at own discretion", that is, actually, He DESTROYED the Natural self-organized hierarchical structures. The Mankind has got used to ignore presence both the mechanisms of self-organizing and the mechanisms of construction and functioning of hierarchy.
During 20 centuries the Mankind has realized, at last, that the Man became the force, which can transform the surface of the Earth. And moreover: that life on the Earth can be destroyed owing to erroneous management, which the Man carries out. The Mankind also has understood that for this purpose social structure of a Human community should be changed.
But what are ways of change of the approach to management for the Nature? What are the methods, algorithms and ways, which are necessary for management for the Nature for reaching of optimum results, - and thus to not ruin the Man?
For this purpose it is necessary to reconsider base that we can name as Optimum Control. Such Optimum Control should take into account both as the basic laws of existence of Natural objects, and nature of functioning of the Man.
In other words, there is a task about the description of not inconsistent ways of management of natural systems. Also there is a question, can is capable the Man to apply these ways of management in the His activity?
In the present Preprint the analysis of the data is carried out which are necessary for a complete description of the hierarchical self-organized systems. 4 classes of the information and 8 information independent component are allocated.
The simplest classification on not inconsistent ways of management is constructed which uses the entered components of the information. The new objects - the system from 16 of two-component Abstract Information Machines (2AIM) is entered, each of which has ability to carry out only one class of ways of management of hierarchical natural systems. The method for definition of type of 2AIM is described. The opportunity is considered for description of the Man as 2AIM. The elements for practical application of a method of classification of types of management for the real people with use of the theory of 2AIM are described. The restrictions are given, at which the type detection can be carried out. It is shown that the classification of types of management for the real person with use of system from 16 different 2AIM in the basic features coincides with classification Myers-Briggs, which is used the MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator). The elements of method for type detecting of the real person are described. The results of preliminary testing of a theory and practical method of type detecting of the real person (volume of sample - more than 1 thousand people) are described. The directions of use of the received results in psychology (including therapy - use for the decision of psychological problems of the client) and in sociology are discussed.
Given Preprint is the first part from a cycle devoted to application of the theory of 2AIM to the description of the management of real people and management in social systems.
Part 1. Theory
INFORMATION NEEDED FOR DESCRIPTION OF HIERARCHICAL SYSTEMS
It is well-known that the same both abstract structures and mathematical models are appeared for description of Natural, Living and technical objects - Nicolis (1986), Nicolis and Prigogine (1989), Haken (1988), Self-Organization... (1997). I sum up the most general characteristics for such abstract structures as a set of following definitions.
Definition 1. The state of medium is named as Nonequilibrium, when its dissipative properties are transformed in presence of external mass and/or energy fluxes.
In other words the medium under external fluxes influence must change its internal structure. In other words, its dissipative characteristics will be changed, - as a rule the dissipative properties for medium will be increased owing to self-organization processes: see Haken (1988) for turbulence and Shiyan (1996a), Shiyan (1996b) for complex systems.
Definition 2. The finite domain of the space-time, in which the medium is in nonequilibrium state, and which is reacted to external influence as the whole, is named as Coherent Pattern (CP).
The CP is often named as a "dissipative system" - see Nicolis and Prigogine (1989).
Definition 3. System is Open and Nonequilibrium (ONS), when it contains CP (one or several).
Note 1. Our definition of ONS is differed from usually used in physics - Nicolis (1986), Nicolis and Prigogine (1989), Haken (1988) - where term "nonequilibrium" was often applied to all open systems.
Definition 4. The State of ONS is characterized by both a set of CP and/or parameters of CP, which are contained in the system.
In the other words the ONS-state is the class of invariance of characteristics from both system and external fluxes of mass and/or energy, under which the CP-set and CP-characteristics are invariable. This definition of ONS-state is convenient for controlling theory and management.
Definition 5. ONS-state is Stable, when exist some finite pattern of external conditions, under which both a set of CP and CP-characteristics in the system are invariable.
Definition 6. The totality of external conditions, under which a set of CP and/or CP-characteristics in ONS begins to change, is named as Border of ONS-stability.
Thus, the arbitrary Hierarchical Self-Organized System (HSS) I can present as the hierarchical set of CP. In some cases CP of higher hierarchical level can be formed from CP of considered level by self-organization mechanism.
The formalism of CP and HSS has been successfully applied to Natural and Social objects. Frequently such ideology has been used for detection of CP.
For example, in the frame of the HSS and CP ideology have been successfully made the description of liquid suspensions in Shiyan (1996a), polymer solutions in Shiyan (1995), biological organisms in Shiyan (1996c), cell populations in Shiyan (1999), ecological systems in Shiyan (1997a), atmospheric turbulence in Shiyan (1997b) and social - economical systems (e.g., separate firms) in Shiyan (1996d). In these papers the apparatus of the stochastic differential equations and fractal geometry was applied for the description of the characteristics of a set of real CP in hierarchical system. In particular, in a number of papers the quantitative description for experimental results and data of numerical modeling was given (including functions of distribution and dependence between fractal parameters).
Definition 7. The creation (or changing, or maintaining in invariable, - depending on concrete problem) of new CP and/or new CP-characteristics in HSS is named as Controlling (Management) in the HSS.
As one can see from Definitions 4-7, for problems on management of Natural and Social systems the knowledge (data, a set of characteristics, etc.) on states and/or processes in hierarchical structure of CP is played role as Information. This knowledge (this data, this set of characteristics) I subdivide into four groups, which I will name as Classes of Information.
But for managing in HSS the description both States and Processes in frame of every information class is needed. Finally we obtain 8 information components, with using of which the arbitrary hierarchical level in arbitrary HSS can be adequately described. For example, the state of HSS's topological structure as the whole will be described by information component S-Top. But the process of changing for HSS's topological structure as the whole will be described by information component P-Top.
Thus, the Proposition is obtain.
Proposition. 8 information components: S-Top, P-Top, S-Memb, P-Memb, S-Singl, P-Singl, S-Int and P-Int (S=state, P=process) are sufficient for adequate description of arbitrary level in arbitrary HSS (i.e. the basis in Information Space are formed by these 8 information components).
The information components S-, P-Top and S-, P-Memb I name as Irrational, because they are abstract and universal for HSS by arbitrary nature. Probably they can be adequately characterized by mathematically.
The information components S-, P-Singl and S-, P-Int I name as Rational, because they describe the real CP, and they can be adequately described in frame of physics, chemistry, biology, psychology, economics, etc., - in depending on nature of considered objects.
Note that for more high level of HSS the information components, which were irrational for this hierarchical level, may be included as composite part into rational information components for this highest level of HSS.
ABSTRACT INFORMATION MACHINES - A GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Let we consider the object, which have the following construction. It is a “black box”, which perceives the information components and which manipulates by information components. I name this object as Abstract Information Machine (AIM).
Thus AIM can be considered as having of such construction
< block of programming ½ block of activity> (1)
Only definite of information components (one or several) in HSS are perceived (assimilated) by the first (programming) block of AIM. By its second block (creating) this AIM can transform the CP and/or CP's characteristics in HSS, which can be described only in the frame on definite information components too (in the same or different hierarchical levels).
In other words AIM, which is constructed by (1), we can consider as object, which carries out a set of methods of management (ways of management, a set of algorithms, a set of regimes) in Natural and/or Social HSS.
Note 2. AIM is transformer exactly in information sense: it activity must be understood in frame of changing of characteristics of HSS. For realization of such activity the AIM is not necessarily obliged to manipulate any real object: for example, for Social systems the "word" (idea, slogan, signature, etc.) is enough for management. In other words, only ability of AIM for programming of activity of other AIM is enough.
Introduced by this way the community of AIM can form the self-organized systems if every AIM have been able to information communication between itself. This information changing ability we will name as "Verbalization" (Socialization) of information, and symbols, which are needed for such socialization, we will name as "Language". Any symbol for any such language are fuzzy variable, which have multivalent commentaries, - this necessity is led, for example, from the fact that AIM, which carries out different ways of management (e.g., creation into different information component), must be communicated between themselves. Consequently, into the same language forms (e.g. - opinions) different AIM can includes different sense - these effects are well known within people communities.
Note 3. The all field of Culture and Science can be used as such language, because some notations (e.g., by which the individual man activity is described) are very difficult to pass by words (e.g., many in people function was determined by "non-written laws" or "well-known traditions"). Besides some activity of man (e.g., gestures, behavior, emotion) is often served as "language symbols".
Thus, the system of AIM can be considered as a set of self-programming elements, when one AIM can be programmed by another AIM. The communication between these AIM can be made both from programming (first) and from creative (second) information components (I will use terms "programming and creative component (block) of AIM" too).
TWO-COMPONENTS AIM: INTRODUCTION
As the example I introduce the class of AIM, which are defined as follows;
As it follows from above, this class of AIM is simplest. We will name this AIM as Two-Component or 2-AIM. Thus, 2-AIM transforms one information component (by its "program component") into other (by its "creative component").
In the other words, 2AIM are constructed by such manner, when one its component is corresponded to considered level of HSS as the whole, and second its component is corresponded to real CP, from which this hierarchical level is constructed. Schematically it is shown in Fig. 1, where as Ir and Ra are denoted the irrational and rational information components, respectively. From Fig. 1 it is seen, that the class of 2AIM forms the feedback ring owing to condition III.
The correct definition of 2AIM as object, which carries out the management at the given level of hierarchy in HSS, is possible only how is described above:
By conditions I-III the class 2AIM is synonymously determined and is constructed from 16 different types (classes or ways of management). These types are shown in Table I.
Marks of 2-AIM types with using of information components, 2-AIM full names and short ordered abbreviations, and correspondence to Myers-Briggs typology of personality (MBTI® types).
Part 2. Elements of Method for Type Detecting for a Real Person
HOW TO DETECT, WHAT THE REAL OBJECT IS 2AIM?
Let's emphasize that everyone 2AIM is a class of related ways of management, which is defined by its program and creative components. Therefore to have an opportunity to examine real object as 2AIM, we should investigate those ways of management, which it applies.
For this purpose a method of consecutive conformity of a ways of management used by the given object (of ways of realization of its activity) to one of alternative poles of definite dichotomy can be conveniently applied. It is guaranteed by consecutive application of four such independent dichotomies that the examined object can be attributed to one of types 2AIM. Note that I choose the dichotomy method only as one from possible examples for realization of a general way for detecting type of 2AIM.
Below I describe the idea of construction of method for detecting type of 2AIM. (The detailed description of key elements of a method (for a person) will be described in the following section.)
First dichotomy is based on consideration of programming block of 2AIM. It is based on division of rational and irrational an information component for the programming block of 2AIM. Thus, the division on Irrational types of 2AIM (irrational ways of management) and Rational types of 2AIM (rational ways of management) is made. This dichotomy describes, for example, how real object expresses the purpose of the management. By this dichotomy the opposition "mark" - "symbol" (or "a part" - "the whole") is determined (in the philosophy sense).
Second dichotomy determines an orientation of activity 2AIM. Some from 2AIM, basing on a condition, create processes. For this purpose they are in "constant creative process", in constant contact to those by (external) objects, over which they carry out the management. Such 2AIM I shall name as Extrovert. Others 2AIM, being programmed by process, create a condition. To carry out such management, their activity should be "with breaks ", "with pauses", that is "discretely" occurred. I shall name such 2AIM as Introvert. Thus, this dichotomy makes division on Extrovert and Introvert types of 2AIM. By this dichotomy the opposition "participant" - "observer" (or "process" - "state") is determined (in the philosophy sense).
Third dichotomy determines, whether is involved in process of management the single individual real objects or the management is described in the terms of many individual real objects. For third and fourth dichotomies the disposition of the information component in programming or creative block of 2AIM has no importance. They can belong either to the program block, or to the creative block 2AIM. The management, which is described only within the term of single individual real objects, I shall name as Logic. The management, which is described within the term of many individual real objects (two and more), I shall name as Ethics. By this dichotomy the opposition "one" - "many" (or "object" - "subject") is determined (in the philosophy sense).
Fourth dichotomy determines, whether the structure of the hierarchical level (structure constructed from a set of individual real objects) is involved in process of management, or the management is described in the terms of border of a hierarchical level as whole. In the first case I shall use for such 2AIM the name as Intuition. In the second case I shall use for such 2AIM the name as Sensation. By this dichotomy the opposition "identity" - "division" (or "equal to me" - "different from me") is determined (in the philosophy sense).
It is necessary to note that in a real case the management described as 2AIM can be applied to objects, which are not HSS. Then as a Rational component of the information the data about the individual characteristics of real individual objects are used. And as Irrational information component is used the information about "general" properties of the certain class, to which the real examined object belongs.
THE MAN AS 2AIM: ELEMENTS OF THE METHOD OF DETECTION
The man is rather complex object, which is investigated from the different parties and frameworks of different scientific disciplines. In this work I consider the man as the most obvious nominee to describe it as 2AIM.
Whether the man carries out the management? The answer is obvious: certainly yes! Statement of such task therefore is quite lawful:
For solution of this task, it is necessary to develop a method for definition of 2AIM with applying to the person.
The elements of such method are below described. Preparation both a complete method and its standard requires a joint work of large collective of scientists. And first of all - psychologists, as the primary data can be received only from the person.
Today it is possible to speak, that the theory of 2AIM can be examined as a theoretical method for detecting of ways of management, which are carried out by the real person. But the occurrence of concrete practical methods for realization of the procedure of detecting of type of management (type of 2AIM) for a person, is a business of the nearest future. I tested in my practical activity only the applicability of the theoretical method for detecting of type of 2AIM for a real person, and also revealing of its efficiency and class of tasks, in which it gives results. Results of my practical activity on testing will be described below.
The Man as object of the appendix of the theory of 2AIM is considered equally so, as far as he carries the management. Such "working definition of the Man" is possible to give, proceeding from this point of view: "the Man is considered as a system of methods of the management (ways, modes, algorithms, etc.)". "The Type of the person is a type of 2AIM". It - and only this - party of activity of the Man is described by the theory 2AIM.
The method of detection of a way of management carried out by a person is constructed from interpretation of this person's management.
Only in this sense I further shall use the term "the type of management for a person" (=2AIM). Or, in abbreviated form, "the type of a person".
The purpose of the method:
I shall remind, that in this work I consider only dichotomizing way for detection of type of management for the real persons.
Let's give an explanation - on one level downwards, considering the hierarchical (on levels of complexity) structure of the method:
Levels of the method (construction of the method - from (1) to (5), interpretation - from (5) to (1); on each of 4 dichotomies):
The remark. Everywhere in present Preprint the translation of theoretical concepts and terms into the level of research questions is resulted. The translation in test, questionnaire or training questions and tasks is a following stage of the work. It should be made with attracting of the professional psychologists.
The definitions of the basic terms are displayed below. I describe them with reference to needs of construction of the method for detecting of type of management for a person, therefore I only outline the transition from the theoretical description to practical application of such description.
Creation (either change, or maintenance in a constant kind, - depending on the real purpose) of "the new" - (new) objects and/or of the new characteristics of these objects is named as management.
The management includes the following components (it is described for dichotomy "Rational - Irrational", - the similar procedure must be carried out for every dichotomy):
The management is carried out always only in conditions of a NEW, as only from perceiving of the new information the described above "process of management" can be started. If the new information is absent - there is no also management.
Here it is necessary to note the following. The new - in sense of the theory of 2AIM - occurs, when the man collides with a new task in a sphere of activity, which is already known to him. Only in this case he can show the way of management in the pure state. It is necessary for detection of a way of management for a person (type of 2AIM).
The type of 2AIM can be detected in only conditions, when the man has necessity "to work with the new", - but when the man has not necessity "to study (to train) the new". The studying (training) of new to the real man is not equal to processing new, and way of studying (training) for the real man is not equal to a way of management.
In "standard" situation ("normative" - see below) - only standard (learned) methods of management are used for a real person. Then the chain of management is reduced to well-known two-link stages: "standard conditions - application of standard management" ("stimulus - reaction"). Necessity of normative control mode is obvious: the man does not perceive 7 components of the information.
Normative activity of 2AIM - activity of object with use of ways of management, learned by him FROM OTHER objects (other types 2AIM). This activity is carried out without of analysis of a situation (of external world), without the account of borders of applicability and efficiency of such methods for this case. The necessity for such activity arises because the man should work under pressure of the social conditions, should take into account the activity of other people. Therefore the language, which is used by persons for communication, uses the indistinct definitions and the indistinct (fuzzy) sense. The man at the normative communications actually "blindly adopts" by someone by ANOTHER the offered methods of management. As a substantiation of applicability of such methods the sending "to authority" follows, as a rule, to "the socially accepted norms" (whence there was a name), etc. Most part of activity of the man is displayed within the frame of this kind of management. Displaying of the normative activity at detecting of type of 2AIM should be rejected as non-informative.
The Structure (internal construction) - items of information (data, information about, characteristics, parameters, etc.), which describe the system of steady connections within of the object and which ensure its integrity and identity to the self, that is preservation of the basic properties concerning the certain class of external and internal changes. In a context of the described method this more often concerns to the description of a general (totality), - then a parts ("real", "single", - but not all components) represents itself as elements of such structure (as element of structural building of object, network of "basic" elements).
The Border (membrane) - items of information (data, information about, characteristics, parameters, etc.), which describe the differentiation between homogeneous objects concerning theirs belonging to considered object. In a context of the described method this more often concerns to the description those elements (individual, single), by which internal from external is separated. It also concerns to the description of a general (totality) - as characterizes at once whole class of objects (having individual properties), having property "to lay on border". The concept of border even within the frame of natural sciences today concerns to general, - for example, in physics the border has fractal dimension and can pass close "almost by everyone" points of object (certainly, not for any object). As a rule, the closed borders are considered, that allows to conclude about "internal" (belonging to considered object) and "external" (it not belonging).
The Object (individual, single, functional unit) - in a context of the described method of the items of information describing certain inseparable units of external world (in relation to the person). Is applied within the frame of individual (single, functional unit), that is those items of information (given, information about, characteristic, parameters, etc.), which describe the differences of the given discussed object from others, similar to it. The Object is considered as "a single real unit" ("as a single representative") from some totality, as a real part from totality, which consists of similar units. Object is a certain individual representative.
The Relation (between individual functional objects) - items of information (data, information about, characteristics, parameters, etc.), which describe all complex of interrelations between several concrete objects. It is applied within the frame of single (individual). It is the description of the mutual relation (interaction, interrelations) between the given concrete objects (which, in turn, are considered as certain "indivisible" concrete units).
Irrational components of the information - it is the structure and the border. As a rule, they are described in extremely indistinct variable, "general words" (generalized concepts). It can to tell that they are expressed by "ideas", "symbols" and they are characterized in terms of "totality". They are referred to level of the "general" ("totality").
Rational components of the information - it is the object and the relation. As a rule, they are expressed in kind of the enough precise characteristics. It can to tell that they are expressed by a "concrete words", "marks", and they are characterized in terms of "single", "unique", "individual". They are referred to level of the "single" ("a part", "unique", "individual").
The State - items of information (data, information about, characteristics, parameters, etc.), which describe the object as constant, not varied, frozen. In natural sciences (for example, physics) the state is usually connected with constant meanings of some parameters. It is emphasized, that they can be as "directly measurable" (including observable) parameters, and the parameters describing certain "calculated" characteristic. For example, the concept about "stochastic (noise, chaotic) states" is entered into last years, - these states are characterized in certain parameters determining "structure of noise (chaos)". It can to tell that the state takes place, when the given object reacts to external influences as a single unit and when this reaction is invariant concerning the certain variety of external conditions. When we are interested in the response of object as whole - we tell about the state, as a rule. Somewhat, it corresponds to the description of "stability" of such object, its "equilibrium" with an environment. Also it is considered, if during observation (supervision, use, display of activity) the characteristic of object has not changed the meaning (or has changed "insignificantly" - so the appropriate property of object has not changed), that it characterize the state.
The Process - items of information (data, information about, characteristics, parameters, etc.), which describe the principal features of the object's variability. When the process in any object is considered, that those characteristics are picked out which testify to such variability. In natural sciences (for example, in physics) it is accepted to connect presence of process with a certain "nonequilibrium" (that is "not - state"), and to consider the process as occurred on a background of certain "flows" (flows of energy and/or substances). With the process the description of transition from one state to another also connects (especially in statistical physics and thermodynamics, - a "thermodynamic state"). The process corresponds to "instability" of object, its "not - balance" with an environment. Also it is considered, if during observation (supervision, use, display of activity) the characteristic of object has changed the meaning (so the appropriate property of object has changed), that it characterize the process.
2AIM - the two-component abstract information machine. This is the object, which carries out only one class from 16 possible kinds of management. Actually, the 2AIM is simply other designation for one of the class of management. The set (system) of 2AIM is classification of ways of management.
The Program Block (Function) of 2AIM - a set of the characteristics describing perception (recognition, analysis) of the external world, purpose of action (activity), analysis, whether is achieved a purpose, planning of realization of the purpose. Actually, it is description of the information component, which the given 2AIM perceive "on an input". It can tell that it is "filter" leaving only one from 8 information components and "cutting" all others. (The normative activity is not considered!)
The Creative Block (Function) of 2AIM - a set of the characteristics describing a method (way) of achievement of the purpose by the 2AIM, displaying of concrete activity of 2AIM, directed on achievement of purpose. Actually, this description of the information components, "within the frame of which" is shown all activity, accessible to object (2AIM). It can tell that on all 7 other information components the activity of given 2AIM is "zero". (The normative activity is not considered!)
Below it is described the EXAMPLE of decomposition onto the levels (up to a level of "the question for research (investigation)") for the method of detecting of way of management for a person.
Poles of dichotomy:
Below I shall describe some examples of the research (investigation) questions for each of dichotomies. These questions I used at testing the theory 2AIM and elements of a method for detecting of a type of management for a person. (It is possible, that some idiomatic expressions, which are characteristic for Russian, nevertheless were kept while translating.)
Dichotomy of " Rational" - "Irrational ":
Dichotomy of " Extrovert" - "Introvert":
Dichotomy of "Object" ("Logic") - "Relation" ("Ethic"):
Dichotomy of "Structure" ("Intuition") - "Border" ("Sensation"):
TYPOLOGY OF 2AIM AND MYERS-BRIGGS TYPOLOGY OF PERSONALITY
I have received typology (classification) of ways of management for the people consisting of 16 types, which are designated by me by a separate type 2AIM.
In psychology is known Myers-Briggs typology of personality. At a theoretical level two these typologies are crossed at the description of ways of management of a person. In this area the classes of information (Top, Memb, Singl and Int) and theoretical terms "Structure", "Border", "Object", "Relation", entered by me, in the basic features coincides with the terms, which are used in the Myers-Briggs typology of personality (accordingly "Intuition", "Sensation", "Thinking" č "Feeling") - see Myers and McCaulley (1985).
It allows speaking that the theory of 2AIM can be considered as a theoretical substantiation for the Myers-Briggs typology of personality. However this question requires more detailed research.
(Today I have very not enough information about the Myers-Briggs typology of personality and I still can not make the proven conclusion. Unfortunately, I have no access up to the appropriate literature about the Myers-Briggs typology of personality (theory, method of type detection, experimental data) both educational and monographic, and scientific.)
Therefore today I can put forward only preliminary conclusion about conformity by mine typology of 2AIM and the Myers-Briggs typology of personality (certainly, inside area of applicability of the theory of 2AIM). This conformity also is reflected in the Table 1.
Part 3. Results of experimental testing for theory of 2AIM
TESTING OF ELEMENTS OF A METHOD FOR DETECTING OF WAY OF MANAGEMENT FOR A PERSON (TYPE OF 2AIM)
During 1997-2000 years I carried out a complex of researches both for development of elements of a practical method for detecting of way management for a person (type of 2AIM), and for testing of elements for such method.
I determined types more than 1 thousand of the real persons. I observe hundred persons some years - from 1 up to 4: a change of type at them is not fixed. I was used the interview as the basic way for type detecting. For every detecting of a type the hierarchically organized check of correctness of the detected type was carried out. The carried out researches have shown high reliability of a method, used by me, of detecting of a type.
Naturally, all results, received by me, I consider only as the certificate that the theory 2AIM is perspective for development on its basis of a standard practical method for detection of type of management for a person.
As the practice has shown, the type of management for a person is reliably detected both at personal contact, and without seeing. In the latter case the information, necessary for me, was received by a talk with the people knowing the real person, whose type of 2AIM was subject to definition.
In total by way of personal contact the types of management for more than for 400 persons were determined. Without seeing the types of management for more than 600 persons were determined. Such variety is caused by that circumstance, that practically each person asks me with the request to determine the type of his friends, kinsfolk and surrounding persons.
(In my practice the person after determination of his type frequently asks me for the help in the decision of the personal problems through the theory 2AIM. Therefore I also had to carry out not only testing of the method for determination of a type, but also to proceed to development of elements for new methods for use of the theory 2AIM for the decision of psychological, family and other problems of the people.)
About use TV, radio and printed interviews I determined the types in aggregate about 50 persons. On the phone and with use of correspondence through the Internet I determined the types up to 10 persons.
At personal contact the average time of determination of a type for me was occupied on the average about 10 minutes, - with variations from several minutes till 20-30 minutes. I was in contact with the person from several minutes and till several o'clock. Last took place, if the speech went about the decision of concrete problems for the given person (more than for two hundred of persons). Thus, the theory of 2AIM can be consider as a rather effective means in quality of method for therapy.
The verification of determined by me of type of management for the real person was made by different ways.
In particular, the person was informed by me both about the ways of processing of new information and about elaboration of the new ways of his management in the spheres of the person's activity, about which the conversation earlier with me was not. Thus by me such areas of his activity were considered, which could take place at him in the past. I chose, as a rule, such areas of the real person's activity, where the multiple-valued choice was supposed. I informed the person as the prognosis, which one variant from a number of possible variants of his behavior (management) will be chosen by him. At this stage I frequently attracted the information from the people, which knew this person.
As verification the forecasts were applied, which were "directed in the future". It was done for those people, which behavior I could subsequently analyze.
Today the elements of the described above method are used by a number of the people, - some users have studied this method independently from me. It testifies that already at this stage in the developed method there is an essential objective element.
The preliminary research has shown high efficiency of the theory of 2AIM for the decision of a number of problems, which can be attributed to tasks of therapy. For example, the task about optimization of a way of management for the concrete man is successfully solved. A number of problems on optimization of professional suitability of the concrete man are solved. A number of problems on harmonization of style of life for a person and optimization of the relations between the spouses or parents and children are solved.
With the help of the theory of 2AIM the following classes of tasks can be solved (I tested more than a few hundred person from each class):
The results of testing of applicability of the theory of 2AIM and its efficiency for the decision of a number of practical tasks are described in a series of papers - Shiyan (1998a), Shiyan (1998b), Baeva and Shiyan (1999), Shiyan (2000), in three books (textbook, monograph and political detective) and in the series of analytical materials. All these materials (including the texts of all three books) are accessible on web-page (Social Technologies, 1999).
Below I shortly describe some results of my activity in two directions of using of obtained method:
2AIM AS A METHOD OF THE PROGNOSIS OF SUCCESS IN A PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY: THE DESCRIPTION OF ELEMENTS AND THEIR TESTING
The obtained results allow developing new methods for the decision of new tasks. As an example I shall describe the theoretical definition of types of management (types 2AIM), which are optimum for a profession of the pilot of the airplane (pilot of space flying apparatus, driver, etc.). For this purpose it is necessary to express the key moments of management of the plane in codes, which are characteristic for the theory of 2AIM. Briefly I shall describe, how it can be made.
Pilot must responses on state of environment, - e.g. the state must be described by its program function (in other word, optimal pilot must be Extrovert). It is desirable that either state of real object (e.g. - Object) or state of boundary (e.g. - Border) can be described by this information component (by the programming block of 2AIM).
As result, we obtain such rational types as suitable for pilot - <S-Singl½ P-Top> and <S-Singl½ P-Memb>. Note, that the preference must be with <S-Singl½ P-Memb>, because pavement of devices in airplane is on a surface (that is just corresponded to creative function for this type).
Further: pilot must constantly manipulates by a real object (airplane) as reaction on external events, therefore the creative function for irrational type must be P-Singl.
Note that in non-ordinary situations most optimal and adequate understanding, reaction, description of situation and communication is in <S-Memb½ P-Singl >. In fact, this type creative function describes real objects (in contrast to <S-Singl½ P-Memb>, which can to interpret its activity only in terms of hierarchical level as the whole, - that only in fuzzy terms can be expressed).
The received results do not speak, that other types of management (types of 2AIM) do not approach for a profession of the pilot. They only speak, that "with other things being equal" real people having these types of management, will have advantages before others. In particular, as their own type of management coincides with optimum, they will be less stressed by this kind of activity.
It is necessary to note, that a rational type <S-Singl½ P-Memb> will "be steadier" at performance of the standard tasks, whereas irrational a type <S-Memb½ P-Singl > in standard situations will have a "information famine". In conditions of an extreme, non-standard situation will take place opposite: a type <S-Memb½ P-Singl > will feel "all completeness of life", whereas the type <S-Singl½ P-Memb> will test obvious discomfort. Such circumstances are necessary for taking into account for development of the training machines for the pilots, because the training program adjusted by the expert with a type <S-Singl½ P-Memb>, will be completely unsuitable for a type <S-Memb½ P-Singl > (and vice versa).
There is the solid experimental test on our theoretical predictions. In Ivanov and Kisel (1996) the influence of type of personality on quality of pilot skill has been investigated. 30 men, which study of profession of military airplane pilot, have been investigated. From experimental tests on quality of education it is found that two types of personality - <S-Singl½ P-Memb> and <S-Memb ½ P-Singl > - have most good results in before-flight education on training machines and these types have minimal quantity of flights with instructor before independent flight. In Ivanov and Kisel (1996) it is noted that in non-ordinary situations better both orientation in situation and talk communication with instructor are just with <S-Memb½ P-Singl >. Thus, this two types of personality is most suitable for taking profession of airplane pilot - this conclusion is made in Ivanov and Kisel (1996), and theirs conclusion is equal to our theoretical predictions.
Part 4. Discussion and Outlook
The theory of 2AIM can be considered as powerful means for the description of a wide spectrum of displays of activity of the man.
Was above shown, that the entered theoretical object - 2AIM - has the real examples in a Nature and consequently is not far-fetched and torn off from life. At the same time the theory allows to advance much further in understanding and description of the man.
Probably, it for the first time in scientific practice is possible to describe a set of the characteristics of the man, basing only on the general laws of a Nature. In the theory 2AIM the man acts as a part of a Nature described by those general laws, which are characteristic for all Natural objects. Thus, the Man is not opposed to a Nature, and is continuation of a Nature.
Results received already today, I plan to present as the following Preprints. I describe of their contents, - from their it is possible to make the enough representation about prospects of development and use of the theory of 2AIM. The first work is this Preprint.
In the second work, it mathematically is proved, that between two 2AIM at their joint management there are unequivocally set of RELATIONS, which characterize a degree of an optimality at realization of such joint management. For description of such relations in social environment, there is enough only of knowledge about types of management for the persons (type of 2AIM). The results of preliminary testing of the developed method for description of these relations are described (volume of sample - more than 1 thousand relations). The directions of use of the received results in psychology (including therapy, - for example, family relations or relations the parent - child) and in sociology, including political sciences are discussed.
In the third work the process of formation (on the mechanism of self-organizing with the purpose of realization of optimum control) of hierarchical structures from 2AIMs and the conditions are mathematically described which are optimum for this purpose. In other words, the model for realization of transition "individual (personal) - social" - that is the transition from properties of an single individual to properties of the large set of such objects is described (that it is possible to consider as a certain analogue of statistical physics). Is shown that for social systems the part of these conditions is expressed as the set of so-called of the "Human Rights". Is shown that it is connected with an opportunity of formation of hierarchical structures from the separate persons - from the separate people. However only "Human Rights" is not enough, in order in a society the hierarchical structures admitting optimum management could be self-organized. For this purpose still it is necessary, in order the hierarchical structures could be formed (on the mechanism of self-organizing) from the hierarchical structures of lower level of hierarchy. It is shown that this requirements corresponds to a system of the laws determining economic life of the country. Such laws basically take place in each industrial country. The results of preliminary testing of the received results are described as report about their using during Election campaign in Parliament of Russia in the winter of 1999 (when a way of use of the received results for construction of hierarchical social structures has been used).
In the fourth work the set of mathematical algorithms for a construction of optimum management in social systems is given. There are the algorithms for a choice of the optimum scheme for management for the given person ("target") through other people from the given group. The algorithms for a choice of the optimum schemes for formation of groups are described which are capable to select the best possible way of management, which is best for adoption and transformation of the new information. A number of methods for construction of hierarchical social structures carrying out the different purposes (including organization of optimum control by firm) are described. The results of preliminary testing of the received results are described. The features of use of the received results in sphere of security of firms, of security of social structures and National Security are considered.
At last, in the fifth work is given heuristic phenomenological model for the quantitative description of features of management, which carries out by 2AIM in conditions of the normative communications. That is in conditions, when knowledge, the skills and experience at all communicants are identical. This work drops out of the theory of 2AIM, because for this model it was necessary to enter the new assumptions - kind of a way of the description of an available experimental situation in frame of the theory of 2AIM. This model has made quantitatively to describe the characteristics of the relations "the Person ® a Society " and "a Society ® the Person" for each of types of 2AIM (for each type of management for a person). The results of preliminary testing of this model are described (volume of sample - more one hundred of the person). The directions of use of the received results in psychology (including therapy, because the types of 2AIM with a rack both overestimated, and underestimated self-estimation have been obtained), sociology, political sciences (including Election technologies) and advertising are discussed.
Below I describe the directions, which, as seem to me, will be important for a wide range of the researchers and experts.
Today it is very necessary to carry out detailed comparison of the theory of 2AIM and the Myers-Briggs typology of personality both at the theoretical level, and at a level of real method for detecting of a type. The preliminary results specify presence of such conformity. The further researches in this direction can, in my opinion, give the Myers-Briggs typology of personality a new prospect. Simultaneously it will allow involving huge experience saved in Associations of Psychological Types almost for 40 years of successful work.
It is necessary faster to carry out a cycle of works in the field of development of standard experimental methods for detecting of a type of management for a person. The work in this direction should be conducted by a multi-disciplinary group of the researchers with attraction of the psychologists - theorists and experts. The research questions, which example is published in the present Preprint, should be translated to questionnaire form. The system of coding of the person's answers should be developed and procedure making of type detection should be fixed. As means for the obtaining of the primary data can act, as has shown my experience of experimental work, practically all methods, known in psychology, - supervision, interview, training. As type detecting by the test, I represent expedient to develop the tests for the computer interactive type detecting.
I understand, that as I am the author of the theory of 2AIM, I easily enough manage to use all levels from the theoretical terms up to research questions and questionnaire questions, which I address to the real person. However inspires, that a number of the people, which are familiar with the texts of my books, have managed (even without contact to me) independently to proceed to a level of detecting type of management for a real person. It testifies that the development of a standard method for detecting type of management for a real person can be made in short time period.
The theory of 2AIM is represented rather useful to the decision of a number of psychological tasks, is especial in the field of study of influence of professional activity and style of life of the man on his mental health. Probably, theory of 2AIM is one of rare methodologies, which allow describing simultaneously a number of the phenomena both internal and external world for the man. The further researches in this area should allow developing the new theoretical device for the description of connection between internal and external for the man. As has shown my experience of work, such methods have enough high level of efficiency. It is interesting, that such methods already today are developed by the readers of my texts on the description of the theory of 2AIM.
In the today's quickly driven world the set of negative stressful situations, as a rule, is connected in professional activity of the person. The theory of 2AIM allows describing these phenomena, and consequently can serve a good basis for the psychologists for development of methods for psychological therapy.
As a number of qualities and properties of the real person have been described in a mathematical kind, there are new opportunities for modeling artificial intelligence. The new opportunities for mathematical modeling of social processes open also.
There are new prospects for statement of tasks in the field of research of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. They are especially - just on crossing of mathematical and psychological ideologies. The man lives and works in the nonlinear and chaotic world, - and the theory of 2AIM is capable to describe some essential features of this life. The theory of 2AIM is a good "range" for improvement of philosophical and theoretical problems for realization of transition from "individual" to "collective", as the transition from qualities of the separate man to qualities, which characterize society.
I want to stop on a necessity of realization of the analysis of those social, economic and legal consequences, which will accompany with dissemination in society of methods, which are based on the theory of 2AIM.
Already today the theory of 2AIM allows to successfully solve the questions about a degree of conformity such as management for the real man to those requirements, which are put forward by this or that profession. Therefore question on an opportunity of "discrimination of the people" owing to their types of 2AIM should actively be discussed already now.
Within the framework of the theory of 2AIM the question on organization of management of the concrete real person is solved by rather completely (at a level of the mathematical theorem). Already material of this Preprint allows developing most effective system of persuasions for the real man. However within the framework of the theory of 2AIM already today are solved as well more complex tasks. For example, the schemes of management by the concrete person via other people - "of the third persons" were theoretically predicted. These schemes are already carried out in practice in several social groups and have proved the high serviceability. Moreover: there are examples of realization of such schemes of management, when itself "the man - a object for management (target)", "the third persons" (which are used for management), at all do not suspect that they participate during purposeful management. They at all do not suspect that "by them operate".
My experience has shown that sometimes such "the chains of management out of the people" develop by a casual image, and the theory of 2AIM allows them to find out. The extreme fear causes that such cases are found out between higher-level officials in the Country. Doubtless influence this circumstance has on a problem of free Election of Candidate to higher-level Institutions of the Country and Parliament.
The theory of 2AIM allows solving at a mathematical level of severity the whole set of tasks on purposeful management both by a separate person, and by large social groups (for example, through the bosses). Therefore the scientists from different field of a science should carry out scientific analysis of the arisen problems.
I thank O. Baeva and I. Kilimniyk for useful discussion. It is especially pleasant to me to thank to psychologist I. Alexandrovich for that huge help, which she has rendered me in psychological discussions.
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