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Dr. Kh. Murtazaev, I.Turakulov and S.N. Karimov
Dr. Khatam Murtazaev
Khujand State University
Republic of Tajikistan
Kh. Murtazaev*, S.N. Karimov**
*NGO "Ecology and Scientific Technical Progress"
for Discussion Roundtables 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 25, 26, 28, 32, 36, 37, and 40
Table of Contents|
1.0 Radioactive Pollutions of the Populated Areas of the Kuramin Range Foothills of Northern Tajikistan
It is a well-known fact that general radiation background is formed due to the contributions of natural (earthly, cosmical) and artificial radiation. In many regions of Tajikistan general radiation background of natural origin is in the limits of a sanitarily admittable norm and is equal to 10-20 micro-Roentgens per hour. But on the populated areas of the Kuramin range the contribution of artificial radiation connected with the activity of man is rather considerable. If to take into account the exceeding of radiation background on local places around mining-geological pits, plants specializing in preliminary processing of ore, then the contribution of artificial radiation is in the range of 10-1000 micro-Roentgens per hour.
This, summary average arithmetical radiation is equal to 20-40 micro-Roentrens per hour. The metter is that it was mainly the Kuramin Hills of Tajikistan uranium for the first atomic units of the former USSR was abtained from. It resulted into the formation of the great amount of radioactive interments, agents, "tails", dumps for many millenia. After the collapse of the USSR these "litters" remained on our territory having created radiological problems of International level in addition to social ones. As mountainous Tajikistan is in the georaphically highly seismological zone there is a probability of radioactive nuclide pollution due to natural cataclysms (earthquakes, inundations, mud-stone lavas, strong winds). Therefore we have been conducting permanent control of the radioactivity of the biosphere of the populated areas pertaining to the Kuramin foothills of Tajikistan.
More and more people have been engaged in monitoring connected with numerous spheres of natural sciences. In Northern Tajikistan radiation monitoring is considered as mostly important, as due to intensive reclamation of radioactive ore deposits the pollution of biosphere with nuclides is quite possible. With the purpot we have been conducting permanent control of natural radioactivity of air, soil, water and food stuffs by portable and stationary apparatus for the last ten years.
Measurements comprise a vast territory: 11 districts, 156 populated settlements of the left bank of the Syr-Darya river, 50 kinds of food stuffs sold at the markets of Northern Tajikistan. All in all we have explored about 5000 units.
According to the results of the measurements we can say that the general radiation background of the Syr-Darya river basin in the range from Kanibadam to Bekabad dyke and up to the northern slopes of the Turkestan mountains in the boundaries of 60-120 kilometres zone constitutes 10-20 micro-Roentgens per hour and is in the limits of sanitarily admittable doze.
However, there are local places connected with the processing of uranium ore, with anomally high radiation reaching 600-800 micro-Roentgen's per hour. On evincing those heterogeneities we notify local authorities, the administration of enterprises and sanitary services for taking urgent measures aimed at the isolation of highly radioactive spots in order that radionuclides should not spread and get into the natural environment. Into the bargain we undertake arrangements of the enlightenment of people about the action of radiation through mass media.
by Dr. Kh.Murtazaev, I.Turakulov
Khujand State University, 735700, Khujand, Republic of Tajikistan
As a result of man's active interference in nature: reclamation of new lands for economic needs, intensise cattle grazing, laying-in plants for feeding domestic animals, collection of plants for pharmaceutic and aesthetic purposes, mining-geological jobs, digging roads-many species of higher plants of Northern Tajikistan have been reducing.
Some species of plants, e.g. Allochrysa Kachim, soap-root, Allochrysa gypsohiloides (Regel), Schischk, the family of cloves-Caryophyllaceae; wormwood of the Mogol-Teu variety, Artemisia cina Berg ex Poljak. var. mogoltavica Poljak; Kaufman's tulip, Tulioa Kaufmanniana Regel, the family of Liliaceae occur only on separate glades of the Mogol-Tau Hills or the Kuramin mountain-range and are included into the Red Book of the USSR, Tajikistan section. Allochrysa root (having up to 30% of saponicum) is sold in the markets of Central Asia for obtaining the sweet stuff "Nishollo" being bought by local inhabitants in all the populated settlements of the region. That's why its amount has been sharply reducing.
As a result of field explorations of the area of the Kuramin range we discovered 1940 species of higher plants, determined 84 species needing special protection; 72 out of them being endemics. We composed the list of the plants needing protection and being recommended for inclusion into the new edition of the Red Book of the Republic of Tajikistan.
There are the copies among them:
Ferula mogoltavica Lipsky ex Korov., Lithophila M. Pimen., Lathola Korov., Korshinskya bupleuroides Korov., Cousina pauciramosa Kult., Jurinea pteroclada Iljin, Chesinia pauciramosa Kult., Jurinea pteroclada Iljin, Chesneya tschimurganica Turaculov, Eremurus albertii Regel, E. hilariae M. Pop., et Vved., Gagea incrustata Vved., Tulipa Greigii Regel, T. kaufmannii Regel, T. affinis Z. Botsch., T. rosea Vved., Atragene sibirica L., Hedusarum hemitamnoides Korotk., Tragacanha dolona Rassul. et Scharip., Zygophyllum macrophyllum Regel et Schmalh., Rindera kuramensis Turakulov, being under the threat of extinction under the influence either of man, or of natural reasons; their further existence is impossible without the implementation of special measures of protectio. According to the recommendation of the scientists of our group there have been created several microreserves on the territories of the Kuramin ranre and the Mogol-Tau Hills.
The work under consideration has been performed due to the financial support of Fauna and Flora International for which we thank sincerely. Let the donator's hand not grow scarce.
We, from NGO "Ecology and Scientific Technical Progress" (Northern Tajikistan) have been studying wild, rare and disappearing medicinal plants of the Kuramin and the Mogol-Tau mountains in the course of 1998-1999, being supported financially by "Fauna and Flora International".
Alongside with many disappearing plants we discovered a unique plant from the family of the carnations - Mukhallas (Diantus) which saves from many diseases. It grows along dried spots of the rivers, stony places and in the foothills. The height of plants is in the range of 20-30cm, a smooth bole, somewhat needly, it reminds carnation. They pick up an upper part of diantus in the period of bloom, in May and dry it in shadow.
Pharmacological properties of diantus: if to drink its decoction during 4-5 days instead of tea it makes blood pressure lower, it cures bumps and aches; in intestine it drives out sticky substances - which are the reason of many diseases - from liver, kidneys, head. Drinking decoction of diantus restorse man's potency, promotes men and women in their child-bearing functions. It makes man sensitive, tolerating, his memory becomes clear and perceptive, his voice pleasant, it preserves hair in its good state, it won't become gray. If you take from 3.5 up to 7 g of minced diantus it will dry out of the body the venom of snake, tarantula, scorpion, karakurt and also that of spoiled food. Taking in 4.5 g of the grain of diantus in the course of three days in the beginning of Moslem New Year (March 21) will help to get rid of the venom of all the above mentioned animals for a year. We tried many properties of diantus on our own bodies.
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