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Victoria Churikova, Ludmila Ignatenko, Vera Koveinik, Anatoly Nikitin and Sofia Nikitina, Alexey Drouziaka and Valery Drouziaka
Alexey Drouziaka and Valery Drouziaka
Novosibirsk State University
Moscow Scientific School Society
Anatoly Nikitin and Sofia Nikitina
Chief of the National Community "Alescam"
for Discussion Roundtables 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 15, 25, 26, 28, 36, 47, 49, 51, and 55
Table of Contents|
1.0 Sustainable development of national communities in the South of Kamchatka
Sustainable development of national communities in the South of Kamchatka
by L. Ignatenko, Chief of the National Community "Aleskam"
1. "Aleskam" was official created in 1993. Be fore its official birth there were many minor communities in the South of Kamchatka. Now they are united into one Union of aboriginal communities.
2. It needs to have a modern status of our communities because the process of nature exploitation in the South of our peninsula now is dangerous for any type of undisturbed landscape. Inspite of the fact, that the members of our communities now are living in towns and settlements we plan to reanimate traditional mode of life adopted to the modern market and democratic values.
Now activities of indigenous people are concentrated inlegislation use of land. We try to make this work in constant contacts with leading Russian scientists. As a result, we had prepared a special programme "Organization of control and traditional land use of renewable nature resources"
3. The main purpose of all our efforts is to make our environment and human values, mode of life and education more understandable and available for any member of our community or their neigbours and we try to realize this valuesas a sustainable development of MAB model, in which interests of indigenous people are principle.
With maps, slides and photos.
"Aleskam: a view of contemporary life in Kamchatka" L. Ignatenko.
"Aleskam" is a Community of aboriginal peoples in Kamchatka. And what are our goals? First of all, to assure the ecological health of the region, secondly to influence legislation for the defence of indigenous peoples, and thirdly to build an infrastructure for ethno-ecotourism.
The community is situated in the Razdolny settlement, Elizovo Region, 45 km from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The mixed community includes the representatives of the main nationalities of Kamchatka: Aleuts, Inuits, Itelmen, Kamchadals, Koryaks, even Chukchees. The total number of people is 146.
What have we united for? First of all, for the revival and conservation of the traditional mode of life, traditional occupations and handicrafts (hunting, fishing, plant-gathering and others) and spiritual culture.
The Community was created in 1993. This event coincided with the building of a fish-breeding plant on the natural spawning area in our territory. Since then we began our struggle for safe environmental conditions in this plant. Thanks to our efforts, to applications to organizations for the protection of nature, and to the office of the public prosecutor, we resulted in execution of the Environmental Impact Statement document.
After this we could address wider ecological action, and began to undertake, revive traditional feasts and undertake efforts to preserve the cultural treasures of our peoples. For example, the International Assembly of Aboriginals of the World took place on our territory, gathering representatives from Alaska, Canada, Poland, the UK and other nations. But the chief purpose for us is to conserve our national identity in the contemporary world.
The South of Kamchatka is an old traditional area for aboriginals. Owing to the closing of national settlements in the North during the past years, aboriginals have migrated from the North to South. But we maintain our connections with relatives and friends who live in the North of Kamchatka, and we take an active part in the conferences, feasts, and other events organized there.
We began from the local ecological problem - the protection of spawning areas - then we addressed the urgent problem of the control of waste near settlement. And then, we came to face very important issues: the creation of natural parks, which limit the area of traditional activity of aboriginals, and gold-mining problems in Kamchatka.
Gaining our experience step by step, we included into our work all the trends of ecological work. Great help was given to us by the Russian Society of Nature Protection under the guidance of T. G. Kourinova; the non-governmental organization "Harmony" - L. Romanova; the "Kamchatka League of Independent Experts" - O. Chernyagina; and "Sarana" - S. Fazlulin. The Youth Organization "Ethno-Initiative", which is created as a branch of our Community, carried out a monitoring study on the Avacha river in the project "Biogenic elements flowing into the Avacha river and their influence on the hydrochemical regime of the Avacha Bay." This project received the sponsorship of "Global Greengrants" and the PERC (Pacific Environment and Resources Center). Our participation in influencing legislation is very important. The members of our Commun ity took part in the creation of bills "On communities", "On territories of traditional landuse in Kamchatka region", "On youth politics in Kamchatka" and "On priority territories in Kamchatka, " and others.
Gradually we arrived at another level - a struggle for the conception of sustainable development in the South of Kamchatka with regard to the opinion of aboriginals. We are planning to create an Ethno-Cultural Centre of minorities of Kamchatka on our lot of 10 hectares, which we have leased out of the total area of 64000 hectares. This land is situated near the hot medical springs. It will be the centre for physical and spiritual healing and also for the revival of national culture and traditional occupations. We are planning to create an Ecovillage in this place. It will give us an opportunity to develop an infrastructure for ethno-ecotourism.
In 1998 the Community received a grant for Internet access for the purposes of aboriginals in our region. We are open for colloboration and new ideas. Our address is:
New aspects for environmental education: a step into the 3d Millennium
by Victoria Churikova
1. Personal experience of life in wild nature with 3 little children. Life and work in the Kronotsky Bioshere Reserve. No electricity, no running water, status of the Reserve demands not to use local resources like in traditional way of life: no hunting and fishing.
2. Education and self education, using library and surrounding nature, consultations of coming specialists. An old concept of teaching children using nature itself, and their natural curiosity in new conditions.
3. An outline of existing state of nature protection and environmental education in Kamchatka. Different schools, trends and achievements.
4. Some history. The first in Kamchatka ecological schools, led by Nina Efremova, an outstanding geobotanist and educator. Her inheritance, which should be used now for the purposes of new generations.
5. Recent energy crises in Kamchatka and the necessity to teach children and ourselves.
The energy crises with total off energy in Kamchatka, other regions of Russia and even in some other places in the world gave us this task: to change our mentality of energy consumption. "Back to nature" - is old and new.
6. Sustainable development approach. We will show how this new educational approach impact people, resources, economics and environmental. Interactions between them.
Paper title: Rebirth of Itelmen Traditions on the Example of School Pimchahk, Kamchatka
Ethnoculture as the basis of harmonik interrelations between human beings and environment
1. The speach of Great Chief Seattle is basic principle of our understanding of modern problem in sustainable development.
2. We can consider traditional knowledge and its mythological interpretation as a special modus vivendi in hormony with nature.
3. Scientific understanding of human and natural life is often connected with the lost of interrelations between society and nature at first, and between the separated people and the society - secondly.
4. An urgent need to unite and identify every person or ethnos with scientific conception of the world is a key problem of humanitarian aspects of modern civilization.
5. Our practise in non-traditional medicine. It gives us possibility to apply these principles in everyday life.
6. Work in link with scientists working in biology, physics and mathematics. The problem of evident and precise estimation of the results of our practice is impossible without regular contacts with scientists.
7. The most specific point of our work is treating effect of thermal water of natural sources of Kamchatka.
8. The necessity to compare our specific experience with similar activity in other parts of the globe. The greatest interest - places with thermal waters and volcanogenic manifestations (Yellowstone, Calgary region).
9. Urgent need to harmonize our work with economic development, human beings and the environment.
Paper title: Study of Bird Population in Kamchatka and Siberia and their Interconnections with the Environment and Human Beings for 10 years
Paper: Biogeocenosis of the Kronotskoye Lake, Kamchatka
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